Sco(R) OpenServer(TM) Virtual Disk Manager Supplement Release 1 (c) 1983-1996 The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. All rights reserved. (c) 1992-1994 at&t global Information Solutions Company; All rights reserved



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SCO(R) OpenServer(TM) Virtual Disk Manager Supplement Release 1.1 (c) 1983-1996 The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. All rights reserved. (c) 1992-1994 AT&T Global Information Solutions Company; All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, stored in a retrieval system, nor translated into any human or computer language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner, The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc., 400 Encinal Street, Santa Cruz, California, 95060, USA. Copyright infringement is a serious matter under the United States and foreign Copyright Laws. Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. SCO, the SCO logo, The Santa Cruz Operation, Open Desktop, ODT, and SCO OpenServer, are trademarks or registered trademarks of The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. in the USA and other countries. UNIX is a registered trademark in the USA and other countries, licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Limited. All other brand and product names are or may be trademarks of, and are used to identify products or services of, their respective owners. Document Version: 1.1.0 2 January 1996 The SCO software that accompanies this publication is commercial computer software and, together with any related documentation, is subject to the restrictions on US Government use as set forth below. If this procurement is for a DOD agency, the following DFAR Restricted Rights Legend applies: RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software Clause at DFARS 252.227-7013. Contractor/Manufacturer is The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc., 400 Encinal Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060. If this procurement is for a civilian government agency, this FAR Restricted Rights Legend applies: RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND: This computer software is submitted with restricted rights under Government Contract No. _________ (and Subcontract No. ________, if appropriate). It may not be used, reproduced, or disclosed by the Government except as provided in paragraph (g)(3)(i) of FAR Clause 52.227-14 alt III or as otherwise expressly stated in the contract. Contractor/Manufacturer is The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc., 400 Encinal Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060. The copyrighted software that accompanies this publication is licensed to the End User only for use in strict accordance with the End User License Agreement, which should be read carefully before commencing use of the software. This SCO software includes software that is protected by these copyrights: (c) 1983-1996 The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.; (c) 1989-1994 Acer Incorporated; (c) 1989-1994 Acer America Corporation; (c) 1990-1994 Adaptec, Inc.; (c) 1993 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.; (c) 1990 Altos Computer Systems; (c) 1992-1994 American Power Conversion, Inc.; (c) 1988 Archive Corporation; (c) 1990 ATI Technologies, Inc.; (c) 1976-1992 AT&T; (c) 1992-1994 AT&T Global Information Solutions Company; (c) 1993 Berkeley Network Software Consortium; (c) 1985-1986 Bigelow & Holmes; (c) 1988-1991 Carnegie Mellon University; (c) 1989-1990 Cipher Data Products, Inc.; (c) 1985-1992 Compaq Computer Corporation; (c) 1986-1987 Convergent Technologies, Inc.; (c) 1990-1993 Cornell University; (c) 1985-1994 Corollary, Inc.; (c) 1988-1993 Digital Equipment Corporation; (c) 1990-1994 Distributed Processing Technology; (c) 1991 D.L.S. Associates; (c) 1990 Free Software Foundation, Inc.; (c) 1989-1991 Future Domain Corporation; (c) 1994 Gradient Technologies, Inc.; (c) 1991 Hewlett-Packard Company; (c) 1994 IBM Corporation; (c) 1990-1993 Intel Corporation; (c) 1989 Irwin Magnetic Systems, Inc.; (c) 1988-1994 IXI Limited; (c) 1988-1991 JSB Computer Systems Ltd.; (c) 1989-1994 Dirk Koeppen EDV-Beratungs-GmbH; (c) 1987-1994 Legent Corporation; (c) 1988-1994 Locus Computing Corporation; (c) 1989-1991 Massachusetts Institute of Technology; (c) 1985-1992 Metagraphics Software Corporation; (c) 1980-1994 Microsoft Corporation; (c) 1984-1989 Mouse Systems Corporation; (c) 1989 Multi-Tech Systems, Inc.; (c) 1991 National Semiconductor Corporation; (c) 1990 NEC Technologies, Inc.; (c) 1989-1992 Novell, Inc.; (c) 1989 Ing. C. Olivetti & C. SpA; (c) 1989-1992 Open Software Foundation, Inc.; (c) 1993-1994 Programmed Logic Corporation; (c) 1989 Racal InterLan, Inc.; (c) 1990-1992 RSA Data Security, Inc.; (c) 1987-1994 Secureware, Inc.; (c) 1990 Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG; (c) 1991-1992 Silicon Graphics, Inc.; (c) 1987-1991 SMNP Research, Inc.; (c) 1987-1994 Standard Microsystems Corporation; (c) 1984-1994 Sun Microsystems, Inc.; (c) 1987 Tandy Corporation; (c) 1992-1994 3COM Corporation; (c) 1987 United States Army; (c) 1979-1993 Regents of the University of California; (c) 1993 Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois; (c) 1989-1991 University of Maryland; (c) 1986 University of Toronto; (c) 1976-1990 UNIX System Laboratories, Inc.; (c) 1988 Wyse Technology; (c) 1992-1993 Xware; (c) 1983-1992 Eric P. Allman; (c) 1987-1989 Jeffery D. Case and Kenneth W. Key; (c) 1985 Andrew Cherenson; (c) 1989 Mark H. Colburn; (c) 1993 Michael A. Cooper; (c) 1982 Pavel Curtis; (c) 1987 Owen DeLong; (c) 1989-1993 Frank Kardel; (c) 1993 Carlos Leandro and Rui Salgueiro; (c) 1986-1988 Larry McVoy; (c) 1992 David L. Mills; (c) 1992 Ranier Pruy; (c) 1986-1988 Larry Wall; (c) 1992 Q. Frank Xia. All rights reserved. SCO NFS was developed by Legent Corporation based on Lachman System V NFS. SCO TCP/IP was developed by Legent Corporation and is derived from Lachman System V STREAMS TCP, a joint development of Lachman Associates, Inc. (predecessor of Legent Corporation) and Convergent Technologies, Inc. Contents About this book 1 Typographical conventions ........................................... 1 How can we improve this book? ....................................... 2 Virtual Disk Manager Supplement Release 1.1 Installation 3 Packages modified by the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement ............ 4 Loading the patch onto an installation server ....................... 4 Applying the patch to an installation server ........................ 5 Enabling patches on a client after network installation ............. 6 Rolling back a patch ................................................ 6 Virtual Disk Manager Supplement Release 1.1 Features and limitations 7 Features ............................................................ 7 Mirroring boot, swap, and root onto virtual disks ................ 8 Moving vdisk3 to an alternative device .......................... 12 Creating a mirror of the root disk on upgraded systems .......... 13 Software limitations corrected in this supplement .................. 13 Software limitations present in this supplement .................... 14 Software limitations not noted previously .......................... 16 Documentation errata ............................................... 17 About this book This document describes the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement Release 1.1 for SCO OpenServer(TM) Release 5. This supplement contains support for mirroring the boot filesystem in addition to the swap division and the root filesystem. This allows a system to be booted from the parity disk if the root disk fails. Refer to ``Installation'' and ``Features and limitations'' for detailed information about this supplement. Typographical conventions This publication presents commands, filenames, keystrokes, and other special elements in these typefaces: Example: Used for: lp or lp(C) commands, device drivers, programs, and utilities (names, icons, or windows); the letter in parentheses indicates the reference manual section in which the command, driver, program, or utility is documented /new/client.list files, directories, and desktops (names, icons, or windows) root system, network, or user names filename placeholders (replace with appropriate name or value) keyboard keys Exit program? system output such as prompts and messages yes or yes user input ``Description'' field names or column headings (on screen or in database) Cancel button names Edit menu names Copy menu items File != Find != Text sequences of menus and menu items open or open(S) library routines, system calls, kernel functions, C keywords; the letter in parentheses indicates the reference manual section in which the file is documented $HOME environment or shell variables SIGHUP named constants or signals buf C program structures b_b.errno C program structure members and variables How can we improve this book? What did you find particularly helpful in this book? Are there mistakes in this book? Could it be organized more usefully? Did we leave out information you need or include unnecessary material? If so, please tell us. To help us implement your suggestions, include relevant details, such as book title, section name, page number, and system component. We would appreciate information on how to contact you in case we need additional explanation. To contact us, use the card at the back of the SCO OpenServer Handbook or write to us at: Technical Publications Attn: CFT The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. PO Box 1900 Santa Cruz, California 95061-9969 USA or e-mail us at: techpubs@sco.com or ... uunet!sco!techpubs Thank you. Virtual Disk Manager Supplement Release 1.1 Installation To install the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement, you must have 8MB free in the root filesystem. The installation process checks that this space is available and warns you if it is not. This supplement does not require any patches for other supplements to be removed or applied. If you have previously applied the patch for the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement Release 1.0, it is not necessary to roll back this patch unless you wish to save disk space. If you choose to do this, you must roll back the previous supplement before installing this one. _________________________________________________________________________ WARNING We recommend that you back up your system's root filesystem before applying or rolling back a patch. If the system crashes (for example, due to a power failure) while you are applying or rolling back a patch, this can leave the root filesystem in an inconsistent state. _________________________________________________________________________ To apply the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement: 1. Log in as root and run the Software Manager. (See ``The Software Manager interface'' in the SCO OpenServer Handbook for instructions.) 2. Select Software -> Patch Management -> Apply Patch 3. Select the installation host system and device from which you wish to install the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement. The supplement can be applied either from floppy disk or from an installation server onto which you have previously loaded it (see ``Loading the patch onto an installation server''). Click on Continue. 4. If you are installing from floppy disk, insert Virtual Disk Manager Supplement Disk 1 into your primary floppy disk drive when you are prompted to select your installation media. Press , and follow the instructions on the screen. 5. When the kernel has been relinked, exit the Software Manager. 6. Shut down and reboot the system. _________________________________________________________________________ WARNING If you are installing an SCO OpenServer system for the first time and wish to add the Virtual Disk Manager, ensure that you obtain all parts of the software from the same source. A client may report software verification errors if you load some components from media images and others from an installation server across a network, or if you patch an installation server before installing additional packages (such as the Virtual Disk Manager) from it. You should either install everything from media images, or install all the required software from a single installation server at the same time. _________________________________________________________________________ Packages modified by the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement The Virtual Disk Manager Supplement contains modifications to the following packages: SCO OpenServer system: + Base Operating System: - UNIX Run Time System - Policy Manager + System V Link Kit files + Online Documentation Framework Disk Array Support: + Virtual Disk Management + vdiskGUI package Loading the patch onto an installation server To load (but not apply) the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement onto an installation server: 1. Log in as root on the server and run the Software Manager. (See ``The Software Manager interface'' in the SCO OpenServer Handbook for instructions.) 2. Select Software -> Patch Management -> Load Patch 3. Select the host system and device from which you wish to install the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement. Click on Continue. 4. When you are prompted to select your installation media, insert Virtual Disk Manager Supplement Disk 1 into your primary floppy disk drive. Press , and follow the instructions on the screen. 5. When the patch has been loaded, exit the Software Manager. The patch is now available for remote clients to apply. Applying the patch to an installation server To apply the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement to an installation server: 1. Log in as root on the server and run the Software Manager. (See ``The Software Manager interface'' in the SCO OpenServer Handbook for instructions.) 2. Select Software -> Patch Management -> Apply Patch 3. Select the server as the installation host system from which you wish to apply the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement. The supplement can be applied from floppy disk or from the media image of the patch after previously loading it. Click on Continue. 4. If you are installing from floppy disk, insert Virtual Disk Manager Supplement Disk 1 into your primary floppy disk drive. Press , and follow the instructions on the screen. 5. When the kernel has been relinked, exit the Software Manager. 6. Shut down and reboot the system into multiuser mode. 7. If you intend to perform a new installation of the operating system on one or more clients, run the following commands on the server: netisl server off netisl server on 8. Use the command netisl client add to define the new clients to the network installation software, and, if necessary, to create BOOTP boot floppies for the clients. See Chapter 17, ``Installing and managing software over the network'' in the Networking Guide for full details. Enabling patches on a client after network installation If you perform the initial system installation from a network installation server to which patches have previously been applied, the installation will also copy the patches to the client. To enable the patches, run this command on the client immediately after installation: /usr/lib/patch/enablepatch Rolling back a patch To remove a patch after it has been applied to a system: 1. Log in as root and run the Software Manager. (See ``The Software Manager interface'' in the SCO OpenServer Handbook for instructions.) 2. Select Software -> Patch Management -> Rollback Patch 3. Select the software package and then the patch that you wish to remove from it. Click on Rollback to confirm your choice. You must repeat this for each software package that the patch has changed. 4. When the rollback procedure has completed, exit the Software Manager. 5. If the kernel was relinked during removal of the patch, shut down and reboot the system. Virtual Disk Manager Supplement Release 1.1 Features and limitations This chapter describes features and limitations of the Virtual Disk Manager Supplement. Features The Virtual Disk Manager Supplement contains the following features: + Support for mirroring your system's boot division (/stand) onto a virtual disk. + Support for booting your system from a complete mirror of the boot, swap, and root divisions. The following section, ``Mirroring boot, swap, and root onto virtual disks'', is intended to replace ``Mirroring root and swap onto virtual disks'' in the System Administration Guide. It describes how to use the new software features to: + create a mirror of your system's root disk + reboot your system from the parity disk in the mirror + unmirror the root disk + replace a disk in the mirror _________________________________________________________________________ NOTE The Virtual Disk Manager software now reserves the virtual disk device vdisk3 to create a mirror of the boot filesystem. If you want to mirror the boot filesystem on a system where vdisk3 is already in use, you must change the definition of any virtual disk that uses vdisk3 to use an alternative vdisk device. You must also change the configuration files for any software that refers to vdisk3 to use the new device. Follow the instructions given in ``Moving vdisk3 to an alternative device'' to redefine an existing vdisk3 device. _________________________________________________________________________ If your system does not have a separate boot filesystem mounted on /stand (because it was upgraded from an earlier release of the operating system such as SCO(r) Open Desktop(r) Release 3.0), follow the instructions given in ``Creating a mirror of the root disk on upgraded systems'' to create a mirror of the root disk. Mirroring boot, swap, and root onto virtual disks You may want to mirror your system's boot, swap, and root divisions onto a virtual disk, to provide backup for them. You cannot install the operating system itself onto a disk array, but mirroring provides protection against intermittent disk problems. There are two possible configurations: Mirroring the boot, swap, and root divisions on a secondary hard disk This configuration protects against disk I/O errors and it also allows you to reboot your system from the parity disk should the root disk fail. If you use SCSI disks, the extended SCSI BIOS on most systems can detect the first two disks in the system, and you can sometimes configure this to boot the system from either disk. We recommend that you set up the parity disk as the second SCSI disk in the system. It may also be possible to attach the data and parity disks to separate SCSI buses provided that the host adapters are of the same type. The storage capacity of the secondary disk must be at least as large as the root disk because the divisions must have the same start and end blocks. _________________________________________________________________________ NOTE We recommend that the root and parity disks have identical capacity, performance, and type (IDE, EIDE, or SCSI). Ideally, use the same model from the same manufacturer for each disk. The parity disk must have the same size root partition as the root disk. The root partition must not contain any divisions or valid timestamps. _________________________________________________________________________ 1. If the parity disk does not contain a valid root partition, use the fdisk(ADM) command to define the partition. For example, enter fdisk -f /dev/rdsk/0s0 to discover the size of the root partition on the root disk. If the replacement disk is the second hard disk defined in the system, enter fdisk -f /dev/rdsk/1s0 to define a root partition on it. 2. In the Virtual Disk Manager, select Mirror from the Boot menu. 3. On the Select Divisions screen, select Yes for each of the root, swap, and boot divisions. Click on OK to accept this. 4. On the Piece Allocation screen, select Yes to choose automatic piece allocation. Click on OK to accept this. 5. On the Vdisk parameters screen, click on OK to accept the default cluster size of 32. Change the value if you want to use a different cluster size for the mirrored divisions. 6. Click on Allocate pieces to view the parity piece that will be used to mirror the three divisions. Click on OK to accept this. 7. Click on Create to make the parity piece, division tables, and masterboot block on the parity disk. 8. After the kernel has been relinked, exit from the Virtual Disk Manager. 9. Shut down and reboot the system. Mirror any combination of the boot, swap, and root divisions individually onto parity disk pieces The pieces do not have to exist on the same physical disk as each other, and they can be defined in any order on the same physical disk. Mirroring the divisions in this way only protects against disk I/O errors. You cannot boot your system from these disk pieces. If your root disk fails, you must reinstall the operating system and restore the boot and root filesystems from a backup. 1. In the Virtual Disk Manager, select Mirror from the Boot menu. 2. On the Select Divisions screen, select which of the root, swap, and boot divisions you want to mirror. Click on OK to accept this. If you choose to mirror all three divisions, select No on the Piece Allocation screen to reject automatic piece allocation. 3. Define the individual disk pieces that will be used to mirror each division. See ``Allocating or modifying disk pieces'' in the System Administration Guide. 4. Allocate a disk piece to each division, and click on Create to write the configuration changes to disk. 5. After the kernel has been relinked and you have defined parity disks for all the divisions, exit from the Virtual Disk Manager. 6. Shut down and reboot the system. _________________________________________________________________________ NOTE Although the boot and root parity disks are updated when the system is rebooted, the swap parity disk is not updated because it does not contain any useful information. _________________________________________________________________________ Booting your system from a parity disk If you choose to create a mirror of the root disk, it is possible to reboot a system from the parity disk if the root disk fails. To do this, you may have to reconfigure the system's hardware so that it recognizes the parity disk as the root disk: IDE or EIDE disks Remove the failed disk drive and configure the disk containing the mirror of the root disk as the ``Master'' device on the ``Primary'' controller. SCSI disks Remove the failed disk drive and configure the disk containing the mirror of the root disk with the same SCSI ID number as the root disk. Note that on most systems, the SCSI ID of the root disk is 0; on some IBM systems, the SCSI ID of the root disk is 6. Alternatively, the extended SCSI BIOS on most systems can detect both root and parity disks when the machine is first turned on or reset, provided that both disks are attached to the same SCSI bus. If the root disk has failed and has been physically removed, it is usually possible to boot from the parity disk without reconfiguring its SCSI ID. If the root disk has failed and has not been removed, and the BIOS can still detect its presence, the system will not be able to boot if the masterboot program on the root disk has become corrupted. In this case, use an emergency boot floppy to boot the system and specify an appropriate bootstring at the Boot prompt. The following example bootstring defines that the executable kernel is located on the second hard disk defined in the system, that this disk is controlled by the SCSI disk driver, and that the root and swap divisions are accessible using the vdisk driver: hd(72)unix hd=Sdsk root=vdisk(1) swap=vdisk(2) dump=none For more information, see bootstring(HW). Unmirroring boot, swap, or root To remove a mirror from one or more of the root, swap, or boot divisions: 1. In the Virtual Disk Manager, select Unmirror from the Boot menu. 2. On the Select Mirrors screen, select which of the root, swap, and boot divisions you want to remove mirroring from. Click on OK to accept this. 3. After the kernel has been relinked, exit from the Virtual Disk Manager. 4. Shut down and reboot the system. Replacing a mirrored root or parity disk To replace a defective root or parity disk when a mirror disk is available: 1. Shut down the system and remove the failed disk drive. 2. If the root disk has failed, reconfigure the parity disk to have the same IDE or SCSI configuration as the root disk. Alternatively, for SCSI disks, you can use a boot floppy to reboot the system in steps 4 and 5. In this case, you must specify an appropriate bootstring at the Boot prompt to define where to find the bootable kernel, for example: hd(72)unix hd=Sdsk root=vdisk(1) swap=vdisk(2) dump=none 3. Install the replacement disk with the same IDE or SCSI configuration as the disk being replaced. If you reconfigured the parity disk as the root disk, configure the replacement disk as the new parity disk. _____________________________________________________________________ NOTE The root partition on the replacement disk must be the same size and have the same partition number as the root partition on the original disk. The root partition must not contain any divisions or valid timestamps. If the disk has been used on another system, clear its partition, division, and timestamp tables before using it as a replacement disk. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. If the replacement disk does not contain a valid root partition, reboot the system, place it in system maintenance mode, and use the fdisk(ADM) command to define the partition. 5. Reboot the system and place it in multiuser mode. The system should recognize the replaced disk and start to recreate the data on the mirror. 6. In the Virtual Disk Manager, select Recreate from the Boot menu. 7. On the Select Mirrors screen, select the divisions whose division table entries you want to recreate. You will normally want to select Yes for all three divisions. Click on OK to make a new division table and masterboot block on the parity disk. This will allow you to boot from this disk if the root disk fails. See also: + ``Planning your system layout with virtual disks'' in the System Administration Guide + ``Adding virtual disks'' in the System Administration Guide Moving vdisk3 to an alternative device If your system already uses the vdisk3 virtual disk device, you will not be able to mirror the boot filesystem until you configure your system to use an alternative device. The procedure for doing this is as follows: 1. Log in as root. 2. Stop any applications from accessing vdisk3 either as a virtual disk array itself or as part of a larger nested virtual disk. For example, if a filesystem uses vdisk3, use the Filesystem Manager or umount(ADM) to unmount it. If a database management system uses vdisk3, shut down the database manager. 3. Run the Virtual Disk Manager, highlight vdisk3 or, if vdisk3 is a component of a nested virtual disk, highlight the device that corresponds to the entire nested virtual disk, and select Disable from the Disk menu. 4. Exit from the Virtual Disk Manager. 5. Edit /etc/dktab and change all occurrences of vdisk3 to the next unused virtual disk device node that does not appear in the file. For example, if the virtual disk device vdisk11 is not used, change all occurrences of vdisk3 to read vdisk11. If all virtual disk devices are in use, edit /etc/conf/node.d/vdisk to define extra block and character device files. For example, to define vdisk17, add the following lines to the vdisk node file: vdisk dsk/vdisk17 b 17 sysinfo sysinfo 600 vdisk rdsk/vdisk17 c 17 sysinfo sysinfo 600 Use the command idmknod -s to create the new device nodes. 6. Run the Virtual Disk Manager, highlight the new virtual disk device or, if it is a component of a nested virtual disk, highlight the device that corresponds to the entire nested virtual disk, and select Enable from the Disk menu. 7. Exit from the Virtual Disk Manager. 8. Reconfigure any applications that used to access vdisk3 so that they refer to the new virtual disk device instead. For example, if the old vdisk3 contained a filesystem, use the Filesystem Manager to redefine the filesystem as using the new virtual disk device and mount it. Alternatively, edit /etc/default/filesys, substitute the name of the new virtual disk device for vdisk3, and mount the filesystem. Third-party applications such as database management systems may have their own administration tools to change references in their configuration files from vdisk3 to the new virtual disk. Consult the administration documentation that was provided with the database management software for more information. Creating a mirror of the root disk on upgraded systems If your system does not have a separate boot filesystem because it was upgraded from an operating system released prior to SCO OpenServer, you can create a mirror of the root disk as follows: 1. If the parity disk does not contain a valid root partition, use the fdisk(ADM) command to define the partition. 2. In the Virtual Disk Manager, select Mirror from the Boot menu. 3. On the Select Divisions screen, select Yes for the root and swap divisions. Click on OK to accept this. 4. Define the individual disk pieces on the parity disk that will be used to mirror each division. See ``Allocating or modifying disk pieces'' in the System Administration Guide. _____________________________________________________________________ NOTE The pieces must have the same sizes and positions on the parity disk as the corresponding divisions on the root disk. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. For each division, allocate a disk piece to it, and click on Create to write the configuration changes to disk. 6. After the kernel has been relinked and you have defined parity disks for all the divisions, exit from the Virtual Disk Manager. 7. Shut down and reboot the system. 8. In the Virtual Disk Manager, select Recreate from the Boot menu. 9. On the Select Mirrors screen, select Yes for the root and swap divisions to recreate their division table entries. Click on OK to make a new division table and masterboot block on the parity disk. This will allow you to boot from this disk if the root disk fails. Software limitations corrected in this supplement This supplement corrects the following limitations in the Virtual Disk Manager software: Emergency root and boot floppies An emergency root floppy did not contain the utilities or files required to administer virtual disks. In addition, the kernel on an emergency boot floppy did not contain a license to run the virtual disk driver. The script for creating an emergency boot and root floppy disk, mkdev fd, has been modified to correct these problems. It now installs the dkconfig utility, the /etc/dktab file, and creates the virtual disk device nodes when it is used to create an emergency root floppy disk. Licensing If licensing of the Virtual Disk Manager was not performed when the software is installed, you must run the License Manager to add the license data. It is no longer necessary to reboot the system after the License Manager has been run, for the license to take effect. Mirror performance Performance of mirrored arrays has been improved in this release. It is no longer necessary to mark one piece of a mirror as the read piece. Piece menu problems Incorrect dimming (stippling) of the Piece menu options for RAID 4/5 arrays and mirrors in the Virtual Disk Manager has been corrected. Progress reporting Under some circumstances, the slider bar showing the progress of a reconfiguration would remain at 0% for the duration of the reconfiguration. This has been corrected. Using dd on a mirrored root filesystem This supplement allows you to use dd(C) to back up a mirrored root filesystem. In the previous release this could panic or hang the system. Software limitations present in this supplement The following limitations in the Virtual Disk Manager software were noted in previous supplements: Adding new pieces to a virtual disk When the Virtual Disk Manager is used to add a new piece to an array with out-of-date parity or that is out-of-service, then a parity restore will be started automatically after the reconfiguration has completed. This occurs in the background and is not shown by the progress slider bar. The list of virtual disks is refreshed when the progress slider bar reaches 100% and the reconfigured virtual disk will be marked as having bad parity. When the restore has completed and the display refresh interval has elapsed, the reconfigured virtual disk will be shown with up-to-date parity (or no pieces out-of-service). The Virtual Disk Manager software does not allow disk pieces to be added to an existing RAID 10 or RAID 53 configuration. If you need to add another piece, create the extra mirror or array piece with the Virtual Disk Manager, then exit and edit /etc/dktab manually to add the extra piece. The format of this file is described in dktab(F). You will need to move the definition of the new virtual disk piece so that it occurs before the definition of the virtual disk that uses it. Cached partition and division nodes The Virtual Disk Manager caches the partition and division nodes by reading them at startup and holding them in memory. If changes are made to these nodes while the Virtual Disk Manager is running, you need to restart the Virtual Disk Manager so it can read the nodes again. Checking the length of a piece When a new virtual disk is forced online with dkconfig -cf, the length of the pieces is checked to see if the pieces overrun the length of the device on which they reside. This checking is only performed when the -f flag is used; other operations (such as reconfiguring a virtual disk to change a piece or add a new piece) do not perform this check. Creating disks with an even number of blocks If you create a virtual disk with an odd number of blocks, the last 512- byte block will be inaccessible through the block device node. When creating a filesystem on an odd-length virtual disk, mkfs(ADM) automatically rounds down the size accordingly. Creating nested virtual disks Virtual disks can be nested inside one another provided that a virtual disk which has redundancy (mirrors and RAID 4/5) is not nested inside another virtual disk with redundancy (this may cause the virtual disk driver to hang, suspending access to all configured virtual disks). Three-way mirrors (created by nesting a mirror within a mirror) are an exception, and can be configured provided the master piece of the top level mirror is the second mirror. The following example shows how to configure vdisk4 as a 3-way mirror in the /etc/dktab file: /dev/dsk/vdisk3 mirror 2 32 /dev/dsk/1s1 2016 3200 /dev/dsk/2s1 2016 3200 /dev/dsk/vdisk4 mirror 2 32 /dev/dsk/vdisk3 0 3200 /dev/dsk/3s1 2016 3200 When creating a nested virtual disk, the Virtual Disk Manager nests the disk definitions in /etc/dktab correctly. If you edit /etc/dktab manually, ensure that definitions of virtual disks used as pieces occur before the definition of the virtual disk that references them. Maximum virtual disk size You cannot create a virtual disk larger than 50GB (50 gigabytes) using the Virtual Disk Manager. You can create a virtual disk up to 1TB (1 terabyte) in size if you edit /etc/dktab to create the definition and then configure this by running dkconfig(ADM) from the command line. Parity restores When a mirror or RAID 4/5 array is first created, the Virtual Disk Manager states that parity must be restored before the virtual disk can be used, which is incorrect. Restoring the parity can be delayed until it is convenient and the virtual disk can be used as normal. However, with out-of-date parity, the virtual disk will go off-line if a disk error is encountered. Software limitations not noted previously The following limitations in the Virtual Disk Manager software were not noted in the previous supplement: Support for AIO to raw virtual disk devices The Virtual Disk Manager software supports the use of ioctl-based asynch- ronous I/O to raw virtual disk devices (described on the aio(HW) manual page). It does not support the POSIX.1b AIO programming interface provided by the libsuds library. Support for hot spare disks and hot swapping of disks The Virtual Disk Manager software supports the use of hot spare disks which are defined as pieces of an array. If one of the disks in the array fails, the spare will be brought online so that it can be reconstructed from the data and parity on the working disks. The Virtual Disk software does not support hot swapping of disks. Hot swapping allows a physical disk to be removed from an array, and another disk to be inserted to replace it. The root mirror is not a mountable device The scoadmin(ADM) Filesystem Manager shows the root division mirror (/dev/dsk/vdisk1) as a mountable device. You should not attempt to mount this device. Using the Virtual Disk Manager in system maintenance mode The scoadmin(ADM) Virtual Disk Manager will not run in system maintenance mode unless the HOME variable is set in the environment. Before using the Virtual Disk Manager in system maintenance mode, set and export the shell variable HOME. For example, in the Korn and Bourne shells, you can enter: HOME=/ scoadmin virtual disk manager Documentation errata The following errors exist in the documentation for the Virtual Disk Manager: Converting physical disk divisions to virtual disks The steps listed in ``Converting physical disk divisions to virtual disks'' in the System Administration Guide should read: 1. Unmount the filesystems that you want to convert. 2. For each division, select New from the Disk menu, add a simple one- piece virtual disk as described in ``Adding virtual disks'' in the System Administration Guide, and allocate the division to the virtual disk. This overlays each division with a simple virtual disk. 3. For each division, select Modify from the Disk menu, and migrate the simple virtual disk to the desired RAID type. For example, if you want to create a mirrored filesystem, select Mirror and allocate a spare disk piece to the parity piece. If migrating to a disk array, you must have spare disk space for temporary storage. 4. Use the Filesystem Manager to update the information about mounted filesystems. Replace the filesystems' divvy device nodes with their virtual disk ones. For example, if you have replaced the /u filesystem with a mirror vdisk3, mount /dev/dsk/vdisk3 instead of /dev/u on the /u mount point. Creating a RAID 10 virtual disk array The following procedure creates a RAID 10 (striped, mirrored array) virtual disk configuration using previously configured mirrored virtual disks for its pieces. See ``Striped, mirrored array (RAID 10)'' in the System Administration Guide for more information about this type of array. 1. Configure two or more mirrored virtual disks using the Virtual Disk Manager. 2. Restore parity on each mirror. _____________________________________________________________________ WARNING Do not create any filesystems at this stage. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Select New from the Disk menu, and choose to add a RAID 10 array. 4. Select the mirrored virtual disks that you created in step 1 for the pieces of the RAID 10 array. 5. The Virtual Disk Manager prompts you to create a filesystem on the new array. 6. Exit from the Virtual Disk Manager. 7. Use the Filesystem Manager to configure the filesystem's mount point and mount options. Your RAID 10 array is now online and ready for use. Creating a RAID 53 virtual disk array The following procedure creates a RAID 53 (striped array of arrays) virtual disk configuration using previously configured RAID 5 virtual disk arrays for its pieces. See ``Striped array of arrays (RAID 53)'' in the System Administration Guide for more information about this type of array. 1. Configure two or more RAID 5 virtual disk arrays using the Virtual Disk Manager. 2. Restore parity on each RAID 5 array. _____________________________________________________________________ WARNING Do not create any filesystems at this stage. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Select New from the Disk menu, and choose to add a RAID 53 array. 4. Select the RAID 5 arrays that you created in step 1 for the pieces of the RAID 53 array. 5. The Virtual Disk Manager prompts you to create a filesystem on the new array. 6. Exit from the Virtual Disk Manager. 7. Use the Filesystem Manager to configure the filesystem's mount point and mount options. Your RAID 53 array is now online and ready for use. Incorrect example on the dktab(F) manual page The example /etc/dktab file entry for a concatenated virtual disk on the dktab(F) manual page is incorrect. The concatenated virtual disk provides 1.92GB of storage, not 1.92MB as stated. The example should read as follows: A concatenated virtual disk composed of four hard disks using 1.92GB of disk space and providing 1.92GB of usable storage: /dev/dsk/vdisk4 concat 4 /dev/dsk/2s1 100 977363 /dev/dsk/3s1 100 977200 /dev/dsk/4s1 100 977365 /dev/dsk/5s1 100 977360 Maximum size of an HTFS filesystem The vdisk(HW) manual page is inaccurate. The maximum size of an HTFS filesystem is 512GB, not 512MB as stated.

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