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Session A6

Paper #125


Disclaimer—This paper partially fulfills a writing requirement for first year (freshman) engineering students at the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering. This paper is a student, not a professional, paper. This paper is based on publicly available information and may not provide complete analyses of all relevant data. If this paper is used for any purpose other than these authors’ partial fulfillment of a writing requirement for first year (freshman) engineering students at the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, the user does so at his or her own risk.
THE EVOLUTION OF LEAN MANUFACTURING

Elizabeth Lee (ecl48@pitt.edu, Mena 1:00), Kaitlyn Kruger (kak314@.pitt.edu, Mena 1:00)




Abstract This paper will discuss Lean manufacturing in the automobile industry, specifically its role in the development in the second-generation Toyota Sienna, and its positive influence in other industries. In the 1930’s Taiichi Ohno, former vice president of Toyota, developed a revolutionary philosophy of manufacturing called, Lean manufacturing. Lean is defined as a method of manufacturing that works towards constant improvement with through the elimination all waste. Ohno’s efforts have propelled Toyota to be one of the most successful automobile companies. One example of Toyota’s success with Lean is the evolution of the Toyota Sienna. Yuji Yokoya, the leading developer of the Sienna, utilized a pillar of Lean, Genchi Genbutsu, to help comprehend what needed to be improved in the Sienna. Seeing the success of the Sienna, many other industries have adopted Lean manufacturing in the efforts of better their own company. The examples that we will be discussing are Lean manufacturing’s importance in companies such as Gatorade and hospitals such as Meadows Regional and Goshen Health System. In implementing the principles of Lean manufacturing, companies are able to reduce waste and therefore make their organization more sustainable. In conclusion, this paper will highlight the success of Lean manufacturing and how it can help better our world today.
Key Words— Genchi Genbutsu, Lean manufacturing, Sustainability, Taiichi Ohno, Toyota, Sustainability
WHAT IS MANUFACTURING?
Manufacturing is “the process of converting raw materials, components, or parts into finished goods that meet a customer’s expectations or satisfactions” [1].  Most often they are structured with divisions of labor in each field and task specialization within that to efficiently carry out their production lines (reference).  It is vital that the organization of the system of manufacturing is efficient and proficient because it is a key part to our nation’s economic health and national security.  According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, every dollar spent in manufacturing generates $1.48 in the economy which is higher than any other sector.  In addition, according to the Department of Defense, “In the mid-to-long term, it is imperative that we have a robust industrial base with sufficient manufacturing capability and capacity to preserve our technological edge and provide for the reset and recapitalization of our force” [2].  Because of its importance in both economic activities and in national security, manufacturing is the engine that drives the country to the next level: it is a key element to the way society functions. The majority of manufacturing occurs in factories filled with different kinds of machinery that are built to accomplish each step of the process to create the commodity. To further improve manufacturing, Taiichi Ohno, the creator of Lean and head developer of the Toyota production line, utilized the elimination of waste and efficiency to create lean manufacturing. This essay intends to discuss how Toyota has used Lean, how Lean has impacted the automobile industry, and how other industries have adopted Lean for their own benefit.
BACKGROUND OF LEAN MANUFACTURING
Predecessors of Lean, Eli Whitney
Before discussing how Toyota implemented Lean into its manufacturing, it is important to understand how Lean was developed. Lean evolved from previous manufacturing practices that were developed in the United States. It has been said that Eli Whitney’s interchangeable parts was the first predecessor of Lean. [3] His discovery of interchangeable parts (1799) resulted from the search for producing muskets more efficiently. During this time, muskets were mainly manufactured by craftsmen. [4] Although these armed weapons were crafted to a high degree of quality, they also took a long time to be produced. After receiving a contract from the government, Whitney searched for a method of manufacturing that allowed him to produce muskets in larger quantities in a shorter amount of time. [4] Whitney was able to do this through the use of machines. Machines essentially replaced craftsmen, allowing unskilled workers to produce muskets. Whitney’s interchangeable parts were so successful that he was able to produce 10,000 muskets in 2 years at the low price of $13.40 each. [5] A century later, Henry Ford used Whitney’s technology to help create his system of manufacturing for the Model T automobile. Ford’s manufacturing system is arguably Taiichi Ohno’s biggest inspiration. [3]
HENRY FORD AND THE HISTORY OF THE ASSEMBLY LINE
One of Henry Ford’s greatest accomplishments is the Model T. In addition, the production line of the Model T is an accomplishment in itself. According to Strategos, a website dedicated to explaining engineering and manufacturing techniques, Ford’s manufacturing system was the “first comprehensive manufacturing strategy”. [3] Ford created a machine with a sole purpose to assemble car components in just a few minutes; this was called the assembly line. The inspiration behind this machine was trying to increase the productivity. In producing the Model N, the Model T’s predecessor, the production time was incredibly large and inefficient. According to history.com, factory workers “arranged the parts in a row on the floor, put the under-construction auto on skids and dragged it down the line as they worked.” [6] Seeing this inefficiency, Ford created the first moving assembly line. The inspiration for the production line stemmed from the continuous flow production that was used in flour mills, breweries, canneries and industrial bakeries. [6]

In addition, Ford decided that for the production of the Model T, he would break the production down into 84 discrete steps. In doing so, Ford trained each worker in a specific step so that they would be able to execute this step perfectly. [6] In addition, Ford hired Frederick Taylor, a motion study expert, to further help make these jobs more efficient. [6]

With these two changes in the production method, Ford was able to shorten the manufacturing time of the Model T. This became the key factor that helped propel the Model T to success.


FIGURE 1 [23]

Photo of Henry Ford and the Model T
Ford’s Inspiration on Lean
After WWII, Taiichi Ohno and other executive members of Toyota decided to study American manufacturing practices, specifically Ford’s production line. They were impressed with the “massive quantities of material” behind the Allies’ win. [3] One factory that manufactured these supplies was the Willow Run bomber plant. This plant was once a Ford Model T factory, but due to the increasing intensity of the war, the plant was transformed into a bomber plant. It has been said that this plant built “a bomber an hour”. [3]

In studying Ford’s manufacturing practices, they were also able to evaluate the flaws in the Model T’s production. One of the biggest downfalls with Ford’s system was the inability to provide a customer with variety. The 1908 Model T was limited to just one model; all the cars were essentially the same. [3] This meant that there was no variety in color and size. Customers were unhappy with this limitation and wanted something more. Other car companies, such as General Motors, responded to this dissatisfaction and provided their customers with more variety. [3] Though this resolved one issue, it created another. The changing of manufacturing procedures between the different types of cars were inefficient, thus taking a long time to produce. Seeing this flaw, Ohno made sure that he would not make the same mistake. One Toyota executive, Shingo, was put in charge of solving this issue. Shingo reduced the size of the cars being produced which resulted in shortening the time it took to change the setups. [3] With this incorporation, Toyota now had the flexibility that Ford lacked with the efficiency that Ford had become famous for.  



Another flaw Ohno saw in Ford’s system was his mistreatment in his employees. Ford’s workers worked in terrible working conditions and did so without reasonable compensation. [3] When creating their production system, Toyota realized that factory workers have much more to contribute besides manual labor. In fact, Toyota encouraged their employees to be a part of the production processes. [7] One example of this is Toyota’s quality circles. A quality circle is a group of workers who meet to discuss workplace improvement. They meet with the management in regards to the quality of production. [7] This created a more conducive working environment which in effect made workers more motivated to work. To this day, Toyota still utilizes quality circles.

Piggly Wiggly
Another source of inspiration for Lean was the American supermarket, Piggly Wiggly. [8] Taiichi Ohno and his team members came to visit the United States to study manufacturing practices and commercial enterprise. When doing so, they came across the supermarket, Piggly Wiggly. What captured Taiichi Ohno’s attention was how this supermarket only recorded and restocked products and goods once those items were sold. [8] Therefore, if an item was just sitting on the shelf, the supermarket would not replenish its stock of this item. There’s no need to replace it if there is already enough available for purchase. This ensured that little to none of the food would go to waste.




Piggly Wiggly logo
Taiichi Ohno then used this lesson from Piggly Wiggly and applied it to Toyota’s car production. He decided to reduce the amount of inventory so that resources would not go to waste in production. Ohno would later call this the “Just In Time” inventory system. [8] After analyzing the American manufacturing processes, Taiichi Ohno and his team were able to come up with a brilliant method of manufacturing that incorporated Ford’s production practices and Piggly Wiggly’s inventory methods. This became, Lean manufacturing.
LEAN PHILOSPHY
Basic overview of Lean
The main purpose of Lean is to eliminate all waste. [9] In eliminating waste, a company is able to produce a profit by cutting down the cost needed to create a product. Lean recognizes that there are different types of waste. These include: overproduction, waiting (goods not being moved), transporting, inappropriate processing (use of simple tools vs expensive equipment), unnecessary inventory (excess inventory), unnecessary/excess motion (health and safety issues regarding workers), defects. [10] If used successfully, Lean will allow a company to eliminate all of these issues. In addition to removing waste, Lean also works towards continually improving a product. This can range from anything from the resources used to create the product, manufacturing methods, decrease time in delivery, etc. [11]
What differentiates Lean from other manufacturing procedures
Most companies view profit as the selling price minus the cost of production. [12] They adjust their selling price in order to make as much profit as possible. Taiichi Ohno, on the other hand, believed that the selling price is a fixed number. According to Ohno, a customer will only pay as much as they deem the product’s worth to be. Then in order to make a profit, one must minimize the cost for production. [12] When a company evaluates how they are going to remove the waste, they are also looking at what adds value to the product. In doing so, you are elevating the price point to which they can sell their product.  

Some methods of removing waste may seem obvious. For example, updating one’s production line system so that the manufacturing time would decrease by 50% would be one type of waste reduction. However, other types of waste reduction could include, using factory workers to help get insight on the manufacturing processes. Factory workers know the most about a production process, because they use it on a daily basis. Since they are familiar with the process, they may be able to take note on how to make the process more efficient and or better.  

Another separation between Lean and other manufacturing processes, is the involvement of management. In Western manufacturing practices, executives do not involve themselves in the actual production process. If a problem arises, the management solves the problem in their office or in a boardroom. However, if a problem arose in a Japanese manufacturing company, the manager would go seek the place where the problem arose. In doing so, they are able to better evaluate the situation and give a more accurate diagnostic. [13] Thus showing how Lean managers are more involved in the manufacturing processes.  

FIGURE 3 [25]

Taiichi Ohno visiting a manufacturing plant. A visual example that Lean managers are more involved.
Just in Time
           One of the biggest differences between Lean and other manufacturing practices is the idea of Just In Time. The idea of Just In Time stemmed from the Piggly Wiggly inventory method. Instead of producing an estimated amount of product, Just In Time says that one should only produce the amount of product that has been ordered for purchase. This avoids any excess product that won’t end up being purchased, thus preventing a loss of money. [3]   
TOYOTA’S USE OF LEAN AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF THE SIENNA.
Lean Philosophy in Toyota’s Company
With Taiichi Ohno as the developer of Lean philosophy and the creator of Toyota, the company reaped the benefits of the utilization of removing excess waste while revamping their vehicles to be even better products. Toyota defines their production system as one that “is steeped in the philosophy of ‘the complete elimination of all waste’ imbuing all aspects of production in pursuit of the most efficient methods” [12]. Because of this, Toyota organized their system to accomplish these goals.

To do so, Toyota established their company on two main concepts: “Jidoka” and “Just in Time.” [12] Jidoka, loosely translated as “automation with a human touch,” meaning that when there is a problem in the manufacturing system, the equipment recognizes there is an issue and immediately stops. This prevents the wasteless production of defective commodities that will only be thrown away. Thus, the company decreases the amount of money and materials they waste. [12] The second concept, “Just in Time,” ensures product improvement as each process produces only what is needed to continue the flow of production in a fluid manner, without overproducing. The system only makes “what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed” [12]. Founded on these two theories, Toyota applies the main ideas of Lean manufacturing as they produce their various models of automobiles.


Genchi Genbutsu with the Toyota Sienna
Taking Lean manufacturing a step further, Toyota conducted a research, creation, and production of the Toyota Sienna that took their manufacturing to the next level. Based on the concept of “Genchi Genbutsu,” a Japanese phrase meaning “go and see for yourself,” the leaders of Toyota designed a plan of action for their next model. [13] First they began where the production all starts, the factory floor. Whereas in the West companies usually develop their ideas in offices or boardrooms, in Japan it is gleaned where the machinery functions—the factory. [13] When a problem arises, such as with the Toyota Sienna, Toyota automakers go directly to the “gemba” or the place where action happens. [13] Then, they check the “genbutsu” or the relevant objects, to go and see what exactly the issue is. [13] In Japanese, this is similar to the phrase, “Seeing is believing;” the workers must go find the problem to know how to fix it. [13] From there, the workers build to fix whatever the issue was. With these steps of Genchi Genbutsu, the creation and production of the Toyota Sienna occurred.

Yuji Yokoya, a Toyota engineer, was given the task of re-reengineering a new generation of the Toyota Sienna minivan to be more appealing to the North American market. Toyota had done their research that the sale of minivan was going to drastically jump, and they wanted to reap the best of this increase in demand. [13] To know exactly what needed to be improved, Yuji Yokoya drove the previous generation of the Toyota Sienna more than 53,000 miles across America; he went from Anchorage to the Mexican border, from Florida to California. [13] This was the application of Genchi Gentbutsu: Yokoya went directly to the field and worked from there.


Yokoya’s Discoveries
During his trip, Yokoya took note of the issues with the Sienna and the ways in which it could be improved to take back to the Toyota development team. As he crossed the Mississippi River by bridge, he observed that “the Sienna’s crosswind stability needed improvement.” [14] During his trek across the Alaskan tundra, he detected “excessive steering drift while traversing gravel.” [14] In Santa Fe, he recognized the “need for a tighter turning radius along the crowded streets.” [14] Driving through Glacier National Park, “he decided the handling needed to be crisper” and that “an all-wheel-drive optioned [needed to be] a priority, along with more interior space and cargo flexibility.” [14] Finally, throughout the whole trip, he realized that “the new Sienna would have to be a minivan that families, and especially kids, could live in for extended periods of time.” [14] After the completion of his trip, he brought back his notes to his team and they began the process of fixing each of these components to produce the highest quality of minivan they could.
The Results of the New Sienna
When the new Toyota Sienna hit the market, sales went rapidly. Customers were very satisfied with the new upgrades that Toyota had made based on Yokoya’s experience. In the sale of minivans in January 2015, the Toyota Sienna was responsible for the most number of minivans sold. From there the sale increased 23 percent, meaning that the Toyota Sienna had almost a third of the total sales with 10,992 sold [15]. The new production of the Toyota Sienna was increasing customer satisfaction as Toyota was now meeting their needs and desires.

FIGURE 4 [26]

Picture of the 2015 Toyota Sienna


HOW LEAN TRANSFORMED THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY
Lean manufacturing allowed the United States to bounce out of their automobile industry crisis and reenter the market with a strong, continual presence that has sustained to this day.  But without the help of the principles of lean manufacturing, the United States would not have a strong automobile market.  As the United States entered the mid-1980’s, it was clear that their automobile industry was suffering tremendously: they were falling short to Japanese competitors that had a reputation for high customer satisfaction.  The Japanese automobile companies created better quality cars with fewer defects, allowing for customers to count on the excellence of these companies.  Because of their globally known reputation, United States automakers were losing more and more money, and were struggling to see what the Japanese companies were doing that the United States companies were failing to do.

        As time passed, it was clear that the main difference between the two companies was the way they went about their processes.  Japanese companies were successfully implementing the tenets of lean manufacturing which lessened their waste while dramatically improving their productivity. In order to do so, the Japanese companies, headed by Toyota, developed a management methodology in which a line of people were assembled to conduct a series of simple verification tests that would ensure there were no defects or faults in the product.  It is clear in the statistics of sales of the 1980s that the United States automakers were far behind in their profits in comparison to the Japanese companies. Sales in the domestic automobile industry were worsening quickly: in 1980, it was at a low 6.58 million cars, down twenty percent from 1979 [16]. Even worse, the sales for the next year dropped to 5.56 million [16]. This crisis continued into the late 1980s and even deteriorated more in 1989, so much so that the Big Three (General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler) were being forced to shut plants, lay off workers, and delay investments [17]. Since the last big downturn, domestic automakers have tried to cut costs and improve their quality [17]. But even so, the Japanese have the upper hand and still control the international auto market. Per James Womack, a research director of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology project investigating the future of the automobile, it “isn’t an option” to just cut costs; “the Japanese, on the other hand, have the resources to plow right through it” [17]. Because the Japanese are in a much better financial position because of their ability to cut costs while still improving their vehicles, they are taking more and more of the American market as the years pass [17]. The Big Three’s share in the national market has dropped from 84 percent to 69 percent [17]. Because of the previous automotive recession, the American auto makers looked for other ways to help their companies survive: they decided to play a political card. The automobile companies lobbied for Government protection, limiting Japanese imports to 2.3 million vehicles per year [17]. Because the Japanese were woven into and invested in the United States auto market, American companies began to implement the same ideas of lean manufacturing that Japanese companies were using that was making their product much superior. Since the 1980s, the United States’ tier one automotive suppliers have implemented the five pillars of lean manufacturing which have made productivity levels shoot up while keeping waste to a minimal level.  In 2015, United States auto sales were on pace to exceed 17 million units [16]. Now that American companies were beginning to use the five pillars of Lean manufacturing they adopted from the Japanese companies when they invested in the American auto industry, United States auto companies have sky rocketed back into the international market.


HOW OTHER INDUSTRIES HAVE USED LEAN
After seeing the success of Lean in the automobile industry, other industries have adopted Lean in order to help improve their waste management. One company that has utilized Lean is PepsiCo. [18] PepsiCo produces several different food and beverages. They manufacture everything from soda, water, sports drinks, chips, oatmeal, etc. Since PepsiCo produces such a large number of products, they cannot afford to waste any of their resources. Seeing this concern, PepsiCo has adopted Lean into their manufacturing practices. This is shown in their production of Gatorade.
Gatorade
One of advantage Lean manufacturing had over other manufacturing practices was the ability to integrate variety into manufacturing. Toyota was able to produce more than one type of car without a dramatic loss of money and resources. PepsiCo took this concept and applied it to the manufacturing of their popular sports drink, Gatorade.

One issue that has arisen from the production of Gatorade is: how to successfully transition a production line from creating 28 oz. bottles, to 20 oz. bottles. [18]. Before implementing Lean, it took a long time for the factories to change their production lines from producing 28oz bottles to 20 oz. bottles. However, after implementing Lean, PepsiCo was able to reduce the time to change bottle sizes by 20% (90 minutes to 70 minutes). This allows for more production of Gatorade. [18]




FIGURE 4 [27]

Image of the Pepsico Gatorade bottling and distribution plant
Nonmanufacturing applications of Lean
           Though Lean was created for manufacturing purposes, other industries have adopted Lean in efforts to eliminate waste. One example of this, hospitals. In the medical industry, there has been an increasing trend of Lean being implemented in hospitals. One example of this is in Meadows Regional Medical Center, in Georgia. Meadows Regional recognized that hospital ERs are incredibly inefficient. For most patients, time spent in a hospital is most heavily contributed by time spent in the waiting room. In fact, 80-90% of a patient’s time is just from waiting in an ER. [19] This is considered wasteful because the activity of waiting does not add any value to the organization’s end product.

After learning about the Lean philosophy, Meadows Regional implemented Lean management in 2005. [19] They decided to use Lean because they saw that Lean could help reduce wait time in the ER. Meadows Regional educated their staff on Lean principles and “involved them in analyzing ER processes”. [19] In addition they allowed their staff to help come up with solutions to help reduce wait times. In result, the ER staff was able to identify 44 action items that would reduce wait times. Meadows Regional then implemented these solutions over time. In incorporating the solutions, the ER staff identified, the average length of a patient’s stay dropped from 247 to 139 min in just two years. [19] This is a significant drop in time; the staff was able to reduce a patient’s time in a hospital by 108 minutes! The success of this is accredited to Lean philosophy.

Another hospital that utilized Lean is Goshen Health System in Indiana. [19] Goshen Health System noticed that many of their supplies would expire before they were even used. To avoid wasting the supplies, Goshen Health System implemented Just in Time inventory. This helped them avoid over stocking of supplies. After using Lean, Goshen Health System’s new inventory system uses scanners and barcodes to track the supply use. In addition, this technology notifies a center of inventory as to what supplies are in need of replacement each day. After incorporating Just in Time, Goshen Health System was able to save $1.3 million dollars in supply costs over the span of a year. [19]
HOW LEAN CORRELATES WITH SUSTAINABILITY
When incorporating Lean into management, companies have become inadvertently more sustainable. Seeing this result, people started to draw parallels between Lean manufacturing and green manufacturing. [20] In fact, many people believe Lean manufacturing and green manufacturing to be quite compatible. The goal of Lean manufacturing is to eliminate all excess waste that is unbeneficial to the end result of the product or service provided by the company. In comparison, green manufacturing is the method of manufacturing that works towards minimizing waste and pollution. [21] Right off the back it is clear that the two methods of manufacturing are very similar; they both work towards the reduction of waste. However, the definition of waste according to Lean philosophy is different than waste in green manufacturing. [22] According to Lean philosophy, waste is anything that forces a company to spend more than they need to spend. On the other hand, in green manufacturing, waste is defined to be anything that poses a threat to the environment. Seeing that these two definitions are different, people wondered what would happen if you combined the principles of Lean with the definition of waste form green manufacturing. If done successfully, Lean can greatly help the environment.  
Application of Lean and sustainability
    During the 90’s, many companies across the nation adopted Lean principles for their own. In result, they had developed sustainable practices. This caught the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) attention. [22] They were curious to see if there was a direct correlation between Lean manufacturing and green manufacturing. In 2000 the EPA put their curiosity to the test and decided to conduct a series of case studies with the Boeing company. [22] According to the EPA, the results of this case study show that the implementation of Lean not only results in the “elimination of non-value added activity and waste from the production processes” but also a “improved environmental performance”. [22] 

    After analyzing these results, the EPA saw Lean manufacturing as a way to entice companies to adopt more environmentally conscious practices. The EPA believed Lean would attract many companies due to the economic benefits that came with it. It has been a common misconception that in becoming a sustainable company, one result will include added costs to the company. However, with the implementation of Lean, companies are able to think in terms of sustainability without the added costs. Seeing this opportunity, the EPA partnered with the Office of Policy, Economics and Innovation (OPEI) to further their research to study the relationship between Lean and environmental performance. [22] In doing so, the EPA hoped to educate the public on lean methods that can help increase environmental performance.  


CONCLUSION
Taiichi Ohno created Lean for the intent of producing cars more efficiently. In doing so, Ohno created a revolutionary philosophy that has helped millions in their efforts to reduce waste. To this day, Lean has become a universally loved philosophy that has continually been implemented in companies throughout the globe. Ohno’s legacy has not only made a lasting impact on the manufacturing industry, but his work has helped better our world. In implementing Lean, companies become more sustainable and environmentally conscious. This greatly benefits our environment thus showing the gravity of how important Lean is. Taiichi Ohno’s work has benefited many people today and will continue to for the years to come.

SOURCES
[1] Business Dictionary. “Lean Manufacturing” businessdictionary.com Accessed 1.7.17 http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/lean-manufacturing.html.

[2] Department of Defense. "Quadrennial Defense Review Report." (n.d.): n. pag. Department of Defense. Web. 1 Mar. 2017. http://www.comw.org/qdr/fulltext/1002QDR2010.pdf.

[3] Strategos. “A History of Lean Manufacturing” strategosinc.com Accessed 2.2.17 http://www.strategosinc.com/just_in_time.htm.

[4] Eli Whitey Museum. “The Factory” eliwhitney.org Accessed 2.10.17 https://www.eliwhitney.org/7/museum/about-eli-whitney/factory.

[5] Study.com “Eli Whitney and Interchangeable Parts: Definition and History” study.com Accessed 2.13.17 http://study.com/academy/lesson/eli-whitney-and-interchangeable-parts-definition-history-quiz.html.

[6] History “Ford’s assembly line starts rolling” History.com Accessed on 2.15.17 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fords-assembly-line-starts-rolling.



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[8] Laquita Harris. 21st Century Manufacturing Capacity. “Lean Manufacturing Made Toyota The Success Story It Is Today” rcbi.org Accessed 2.2.17 http://www.rcbi.org/index.php/viewarticle/130-capacity-magazine/spring-2007/features/336-lean-manufacturing-made-toyota-the-success-story-it-is-todayinvesting-in-our-economy.

[9] eba. “Lean Manufacturing Definition”. Educational-business-articles.com Accessed 1.7.17 http://www.educational-business-articles.com/lean-manufacturing-definition/.

[10] EMS Consulting Group. “The Seven Wastes-Lean Manufacturing”. Video. Watched 2.14.17 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAYMcSUDcX0.

[11] Lean Manufacturing Tools. “What is Lean. Lean Manufacturing Definition” leanmanufacturingtools.org Accessed 1.7.17 http://leanmanufacturingtools.org/34/lean-manufacturing-definition-2/.

[12] Toyota. “Toyota Production System”. Toyota-global.com Accessed 1.7.17 http://www.toyota-global.com/company/vision_philosophy/toyota_production_system/ .

[13] The economist. “Genchi genbutsu.” economist.com Accessed 1.20.17.

[14] “Lean Principles Go and See: Genbutsu and Toyota Sienna”. Shmula.com Accessed 1.20.17 http://www.shmula.com/genchi-genbutsu-ethnography/341/ .

[15] "Minivan Sales in America - January 2016." Minivan Sales in America - January 2016. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Mar. 2017. .

[16] Salpukas, Agis. "1980 CAR SALES AT 19-YEAR LOW." The New York Times. The New York Times, 07 Jan. 1981. Web. 03 Mar. 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/1981/01/08/business/1980-car-sales-at-19-year-low.html.

[17] Levin, Doron P. "Grim Outlook of Early 1980's Is Back for U.S. Auto Makers." The New York Times. The New York Times, 06 Dec. 1989. Web. 03 Mar. 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/12/07/business/grim-outlook-of-early-1980-s-is-back-for-us-auto-makers.html?pagewanted=all.

[18] Interview with Lean Six Sigma leader at Gatorade. Accessed 2.1.17.

[19] Becker’s Hospital Review. “5 Key principles for Hospitals from Toyota’s Lean Production System”. Beckershospitalreview.com. accessed 1.30.17 http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/news-analysis/5-key-principles-for-hospitals-from-toyotas-lean-production-system.html.

[20] Lean Australia. “Lean to Green Sustainability” leanaust.com Accessed 2.22.17 http://leanaust.com/services/lean-to-green-sustainability.

[21] Rudophus Emanual Gort “Lean and Sustainability” PDF

Accessed 2.22.17.

[22] United States Environmental Protection Agency. “Lean Manufacturing and the Environment: United States Environmental Protection Agency” PDF Accessed 2.22.17.

[23] Stephen Lutz. “Henry Ford & the Cost of Not Innovating” Accessed 3.10.17 stephanlutz.net http://stephenlutz.net/2015/11/13/henry-ford-the-cost-of-not-innovating/

[24] Allaqua water. “Piggly Wiggly” Accessed 3.10.16 allquawater.com https://allquawater.com/2016/01/piggly-wiggly-picks-up-allqua-water/?v=7516fd43adaa

[25] alchetron. “Taiichi Ohno” Accessed 3.15.16 https://alchetron.com/Taiichi-Ohno-1373477-W

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ADDITIONAL SOURCES
[1] Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Industrial Engineers”. Bls.gov Accessed 1.7.17 https://www.bls.gov/ooh/architecture-and-engineering/industrial-engineers.htm

[2] TechTarget. “lean production”. Techtarget.com. Accessed 1.7.17 http://searchmanufacturingerp.techtarget.com/definition/lean-production

[3] Lean Enterprise Institute. “A BRIEF HISTORY OF LEAN”. Lean.org accessed 1.30.17 http://www.lean.org/WhatsLean/History.cfm

[4] Industrial Engineering Letters. “Implementation of Lean Manufacturing Principles in Auto Industry”. Iiste.org accessed 1.30.17



[5] EMS Consulting Group. “The Seven Wastes-Lean Manufacturing”. Video. Watched 2.14.17 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAYMcSUDcX0
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to thank Natalie Pyle for her constant, positive support throughout the process of writing this essay. In addition, we would like to thank Deb Kennedy for all her insight in PepsiCo’s use of Lean.






University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering

02.10.2017



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