Coercive Acts of 1774 – (Intolerable Acts) punitive measures imposed by the British on American colonists following the Boston Tea Party
Committees of Correspondence – Patriots who informed each other of British policies and actions in the colonies
First Continental Congress – assembly of colonial leaders who met in 1774 to address grievances against the British government and the Intolerable Acts
Minutemen – citizen militias who first clashed with British soldiers at the Battles of Lexington and Concord
What effect did the Townshend Acts have on the colonists?
They willingly paid taxes because they were loyal British subjects.
They sent delegates to Parliament to negotiate the tax rates.
They boycotted English goods as a way to protest taxes.
They allowed for the taxing of English goods but protested the tax on tea
What did “no taxation without representation” mean to the colonists?
The taxing power of British shopkeepers is represented in Parliament.
There should be no taxation of British goods entering the colonies.
Taxation in the colonies should only be for British citizens.
The colonists should not be taxed without representation in Parliament
What followed the Boston Tea Party?
The free flow of trade between the colonies and other countries.
Harsh restrictions on colonial liberties and trade.
Increased self-government in New England.
The removal of British troops from the colonies
In response to the Coercive Acts, the First Continental Congress
Agreed to an increased presence of British troops
Halted trade with Britain
Agreed to Parliament’s conditions
Took no action
Standard 4: The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution.
Battles of Lexington and Concord – (April 1775) early skirmishes between colonists and British troops, sparking the American Revolution
Second Continental Congress – 1775 assembly following the skirmishes at Lexington and Concord, MA, at which the Continental army, Declaration of Independence, and Articles of Confederation were created
Declaration of Independence – 1776 document declaring the independence of the thirteen colonies
Social contract – an agreement between the people and the government, for the government to act on the behalf of the people
Articles of Confederation – initial constitution adopted by the Second Continental Congress to establish a “loose league” of individual states; replaced in 1987 by the United States Constitution
Battle of Saratoga – (Oct 1777) American victory during the American Revolution that convinced the French to lend aid
Battle of Yorktown – (Oct, 1781) definitive victory of the American Revolution resulting in the surrender of 8,000 British troops
Treaty of Paris, 1783 – agreement between the United States and Great Britain ending the American Revolution and ceding all land east of the Mississippi River to the United States.
Of what significance were the Battles of Lexington and Concord?
They brought the American Revolution to an end.
They were the first battles in America’s fight for independence
They gave the upper hand to Great Britain against the Continental Army.
The indicated that the war for independence would be swift.
William Franklin, the royal governor of New Jersey, was a loyalist. His father, Benjamin Franklin, signed the Declaration of Independence. What does this example indicate about colonial sentiment?
The loyalists and patriots were able to find common ground.
Most colonists felt that the American Revolution was a just cause.
The Declaration of Independence had the support of loyalists.
The cause of liberty resulted in great division among the colonists.
How did the Treaty of Paris 1783 change the political map of North America?
Great Britain gained land.
The United States claimed land that had been under British control.
France ceded Florida to Spain.
The United States gained Florida from Spain.
Of what importance were men such as the Marquis de Lafayette and Baron von Steuben to the American cause?
They served as spies.
They provided expertise.
They assisted the British.
They served in Congress.
Standard 5: The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.
Constitution – plan of government or the rules of a country
Congress – legislative branch of US government which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives
Framers – a reference to the individuals whose ideas organized the United States government and are found in the Constitution
Virginia Plan – The plan considered by the Framers of the US Constitution to establish three separate branches of the government, James Madison
New Jersey Plan – a proposal by the framers for a legislature consisting of one house with equal representation regardless of size
Republic – a representative government where citizens vote; a form of government that is not led by a monarch
Limited government – the idea that government is restricted by laws or a constitution
Executive branch – branch of the US government charged with putting into effect a country’s laws and the administrating of its functions; consists of the president
Legislative branch – branch of the US government empowered to make the laws that are then enforced by the executive branch and interpreted by the judicial branch
Judicial branch – branch of US government that interprets the laws or says what the laws mean
Great Compromise – agreement among Framers of the US Constitution to establish two houses of Congress one with representation based on population and one of equal representation
House of Representatives – an elected house in Congress representative of a state’s population
Senate – a house of Congress popularly elected since ratification of the 17th amendment (1913) and with equal representation (2 Senators) from each state
Three-fifths compromise – an agreement by the Framers to count slaves as three-fifths of a person when determining a state’s population
Federalists – political party of Alexander Hamilton and others who supported a strong central government, built upon representation of the people; started in the 1796 election
Bill of Rights – first 10 amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee individual rights such as freedom of speech freedom of assembly and freedom of the press; added in 1781
Whiskey Rebellion – tax protest of PA farmers that prompted the President Washington to send troops to quell the uprising, showing the power of the federal government
Republicans – (anti-federalists) originally the political party of Thomas Jefferson which supported strong state governments and the direct involvement of the people in the decision of government; began with the 1796 election
James Madison commented that, “A government composed of such extensive powers should be well organized and balanced.” Which of the following helped to balance power between the large and small states?
The slave trade
The Great Compromise
The three-fifths compromise
The Bill of Rights
What contributed to the demise of the Articles of Confederation?
The lack of representation in Congress
The inability of Congress to regulate the economy
The ability to make treaties with foreign governments
The restrictions on debate within Congress
Why did the Framers believe freedom of the press to be an essential right?
It prevents taxation without representation.
It helps to balance the power of government.
It establishes a system of free international trade.
It underscores the importance of a trial by jury.
What was added to the Constitution in order to ensure its ratification?
Bill of Rights
An executive branch
The right of foreign intervention
Standard 6: The student will analyze the nature of territorial and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation.
Northwest ordinance – (1787) legislation governing the Northwest Territory that established a method for statehood
Lewis and Clark Expedition – (1803) exploration by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark through the northwest region of the Louisiana Purchase, west to the Pacific Ocean
Louisiana Purchase – (1803) land west of the Mississippi River purchased from France which doubled the size of the United States
Adams –Onis Treaty – or Transcontinental Treaty) treaty negotiated by John Quincy Adams and Luis de Onis, in which Spain ceded Florida and Oregon Country to the United States in exchange for sovereignty over Texas
Monroe Doctrine – 1823 policy of President Monroe that the US would not tolerate any additional European colonies in North America
Which legislation established the procedures for the orderly expansion of the United States?
The Northwest Ordinance (1787)
The Louisiana Purchase (1803)
The Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
The Monroe Doctrine (1823)
What was the effect of the Lewis and Clark Expedition?
It called for passage of the Homestead Act.
It decreased interest in land west of the Mississippi.
It encouraged westward expansion.
It created interest in gold mining in California.
Which event led to the largest amount of land gained in the history of the United States?
The Homestead Act
The Northwest Ordinance
The Louisiana Purchase
The Adams-Onis Treaty
Of what significance were railroads and canals in 1830s?
They slowed city growth.
They stopped expansion.
They encouraged westward movement
They improved Native American relations
Standard 7: Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.
Industrialization – process of converting to a socioeconomic order in which industry is dominant
Cotton gin – machine used for cleaning seeds from cotton, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
Indian Removal Act – 1830 legislation that called for the removal of Native American living east of the Mississippi River
Trail of Tears – 1838-1839 forced migration of the Cherokee from the Southeast to Indian Territory (OK), during which thousands of Cherokee died
Manifest Destiny – the mid 19th Century belief that America as destined to expand its territory from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean
Homestead Act – 1862 legislation that opened up 270 million acres of land to be claimed by settlers in 160 acre parcels