Standard 1: The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century

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Standard 1: The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century.


Virginia Company of London joint stock company formed for the settlement of Jamestown

Jamestown (1607) first colonial settlement along the James River, in what is now Virginia

Joint stock company form of business organization in which many investors pool funds to raise large amounts of money for large projects

Representative governmenta system of government in which laws are made by elected representatives

Indentured servants an individual who worked for others for a specified number of years in exchange for payment for transport from another country

Mayflower Compactan agreement by several to abide by laws made for the colony as a whole

Massachusetts Bay ColonyPuritan settlement founded in 1629

Puritanssomeone who wanted to purify the Anglican church during the 1500s and 1600s

Parliament – the British legislative assembly divided into the House of Lords and House of Commons

Salem Witch Trialstrials during which a Puritan government in a small village imprisoned and killed people accused of being witches

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut(1639) early document that established a foundation for America’s democracy


  1. Which statement BEST explains the growth of representative government in Massachusetts Bay Colony?

    1. The Puritans wanted to establish order within their societies.

    2. England encouraged self-rule among the colonies.

    3. Religious tolerance depended on the growth of elected legislatures.

    4. Each newly chartered colony patterned itself on other colonies.

  2. The Mayflower Compact served to establish

    1. Religious freedom throughout the colonies.

    2. The possibility of self-government.

    3. Trade agreements with England and France.

    4. A covenant between Separatists and non-separatists.

  3. What was the House of Burgesses?

    1. The home of Puritan leaders

    2. Home of the governor of Virginia

    3. The Parliament of Virginia

    4. An elected governing body in Virginia

  1. Which phrase BEST describes the American colonies?

    1. Religious purpose

    2. Peace and stability

    3. Successful from the start

    4. Social equality

Standard 2: The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed.


Charter coloniesColonies in which the people could elect the governor and legislature

Proprietary coloniescolonies in which the individuals who granted land to the colonists had the power to appoint the governor and legislature

Royal coloniescolonies in which the British government appointed the governor and upper house of the legislature

Mercantilismthe theory that a state’s power depends on its wealth

Navigation Actsa series of restrictive laws that controlled colonial trade during the 17th c, designed for the economic advantage of England

Triangular tradea three way trade route that exchanged goods between the American colonies and two other trading partners

Middle Passagethe difficult journey slaves endures in crossing the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas

Enlightenmentmovement during the 1700s that promoted science, knowledge and reason

Natural rightsfundamental rights all people are born possessing, including life, liberty, and property


  1. Which phrase BEST describes the thirteen colonies?

    1. Socially and politically alike

    2. Relatively similar geographically

    3. Politically and economically diverse

    4. Economically independent of Britain

  2. What was the purpose of the Navigation Acts?

    1. To stop the Middle Passage

    2. To control the trans-Atlantic trade

    3. To end the Atlantic slave trade

    4. To halt the triangular trade

  3. What effect did the 1808 ban on the Atlantic slave trade have on slavery in America?

    1. It ended slavery in the South

    2. It resulted in a gradual end to slavery in America.

    3. It had little effect.

    4. It slowed the expansion of slavery.

  4. What was part of the Enlightenment?

    1. Government as a social contract

    2. Restrictions on freedom

    3. A distrust of science

    4. Religious equality

Standard 3: The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution.


French and Indian WarNorth American phase of a war between France and Britain to control colonial territory (1754 – 1763); the wars more complex European phase was the Seven Years War

Treaty of Paris, 1763agreement between France, Spain, and Great Britain ending the French and Indian War

Currency Act of 1764act passed by Parliament prohibiting colonial currency

Proclamation of 1763law which prohibited the westward expansion of the colonies beyond an imaginary line crossing the Appalachian Mountains

Sugar Act of 1764a tax imposed on the colonies by the British crown

Stamp Act(1765) a tax imposed on the colonies by the British crown- required a stamp to be placed on printed documents

Quartering Act of 1765 required colonists to provide housing and supplies needed by British soldiers stationed in the colonies

Townshend Actsset of laws that placed taxes on glass, paper, lead, paint and tea. Required that these items be purchased from Great Britain – replaced the Stamp Act

Sons of Libertycolonial group organized to protest British laws that taxed the colonies

Boston Massacre1774 killing of 5 colonists by British soldiers

Tea Actplaced a new tax on tea, gave the East India Company control of the colonial tea trade

Boston Tea Partyan act of protest against the actions of Parliament during the American Revolution

Coercive Acts of 1774(Intolerable Acts) punitive measures imposed by the British on American colonists following the Boston Tea Party

Committees of CorrespondencePatriots who informed each other of British policies and actions in the colonies

First Continental Congressassembly of colonial leaders who met in 1774 to address grievances against the British government and the Intolerable Acts

Minutemen citizen militias who first clashed with British soldiers at the Battles of Lexington and Concord


  1. What effect did the Townshend Acts have on the colonists?

    1. They willingly paid taxes because they were loyal British subjects.

    2. They sent delegates to Parliament to negotiate the tax rates.

    3. They boycotted English goods as a way to protest taxes.

    4. They allowed for the taxing of English goods but protested the tax on tea

  2. What did “no taxation without representation” mean to the colonists?

    1. The taxing power of British shopkeepers is represented in Parliament.

    2. There should be no taxation of British goods entering the colonies.

    3. Taxation in the colonies should only be for British citizens.

    4. The colonists should not be taxed without representation in Parliament

  3. What followed the Boston Tea Party?

    1. The free flow of trade between the colonies and other countries.

    2. Harsh restrictions on colonial liberties and trade.

    3. Increased self-government in New England.

    4. The removal of British troops from the colonies

  4. In response to the Coercive Acts, the First Continental Congress

    1. Agreed to an increased presence of British troops

    2. Halted trade with Britain

    3. Agreed to Parliament’s conditions

    4. Took no action

Standard 4: The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution.


Battles of Lexington and Concord(April 1775) early skirmishes between colonists and British troops, sparking the American Revolution

Second Continental Congress1775 assembly following the skirmishes at Lexington and Concord, MA, at which the Continental army, Declaration of Independence, and Articles of Confederation were created

Declaration of Independence1776 document declaring the independence of the thirteen colonies

Social contractan agreement between the people and the government, for the government to act on the behalf of the people

Articles of Confederationinitial constitution adopted by the Second Continental Congress to establish a “loose league” of individual states; replaced in 1987 by the United States Constitution

Battle of Saratoga(Oct 1777) American victory during the American Revolution that convinced the French to lend aid

Battle of Yorktown(Oct, 1781) definitive victory of the American Revolution resulting in the surrender of 8,000 British troops

Treaty of Paris, 1783agreement between the United States and Great Britain ending the American Revolution and ceding all land east of the Mississippi River to the United States.


  1. Of what significance were the Battles of Lexington and Concord?

    1. They brought the American Revolution to an end.

    2. They were the first battles in America’s fight for independence

    3. They gave the upper hand to Great Britain against the Continental Army.

    4. The indicated that the war for independence would be swift.

  2. William Franklin, the royal governor of New Jersey, was a loyalist. His father, Benjamin Franklin, signed the Declaration of Independence. What does this example indicate about colonial sentiment?

    1. The loyalists and patriots were able to find common ground.

    2. Most colonists felt that the American Revolution was a just cause.

    3. The Declaration of Independence had the support of loyalists.

    4. The cause of liberty resulted in great division among the colonists.

  3. How did the Treaty of Paris 1783 change the political map of North America?

    1. Great Britain gained land.

    2. The United States claimed land that had been under British control.

    3. France ceded Florida to Spain.

    4. The United States gained Florida from Spain.

  4. Of what importance were men such as the Marquis de Lafayette and Baron von Steuben to the American cause?

    1. They served as spies.

    2. They provided expertise.

    3. They assisted the British.

    4. They served in Congress.

Standard 5: The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.


Constitutionplan of government or the rules of a country

Congresslegislative branch of US government which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives

Constitutional Convention1787 assembly in Philadelphia, PA at which the US Constitution was written

Framersa reference to the individuals whose ideas organized the United States government and are found in the Constitution

Virginia PlanThe plan considered by the Framers of the US Constitution to establish three separate branches of the government, James Madison

New Jersey Plana proposal by the framers for a legislature consisting of one house with equal representation regardless of size

Republic a representative government where citizens vote; a form of government that is not led by a monarch

Limited governmentthe idea that government is restricted by laws or a constitution

Executive branchbranch of the US government charged with putting into effect a country’s laws and the administrating of its functions; consists of the president

Legislative branchbranch of the US government empowered to make the laws that are then enforced by the executive branch and interpreted by the judicial branch

Judicial branchbranch of US government that interprets the laws or says what the laws mean

Great Compromiseagreement among Framers of the US Constitution to establish two houses of Congress one with representation based on population and one of equal representation

House of Representativesan elected house in Congress representative of a state’s population

Senate a house of Congress popularly elected since ratification of the 17th amendment (1913) and with equal representation (2 Senators) from each state

Three-fifths compromisean agreement by the Framers to count slaves as three-fifths of a person when determining a state’s population

Federalistspolitical party of Alexander Hamilton and others who supported a strong central government, built upon representation of the people; started in the 1796 election

Bill of Rightsfirst 10 amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee individual rights such as freedom of speech freedom of assembly and freedom of the press; added in 1781

Whiskey Rebelliontax protest of PA farmers that prompted the President Washington to send troops to quell the uprising, showing the power of the federal government

Republicans(anti-federalists) originally the political party of Thomas Jefferson which supported strong state governments and the direct involvement of the people in the decision of government; began with the 1796 election


  1. James Madison commented that, “A government composed of such extensive powers should be well organized and balanced.” Which of the following helped to balance power between the large and small states?

    1. The slave trade

    2. The Great Compromise

    3. The three-fifths compromise

    4. The Bill of Rights

  2. What contributed to the demise of the Articles of Confederation?

    1. The lack of representation in Congress

    2. The inability of Congress to regulate the economy

    3. The ability to make treaties with foreign governments

    4. The restrictions on debate within Congress

  1. Why did the Framers believe freedom of the press to be an essential right?

    1. It prevents taxation without representation.

    2. It helps to balance the power of government.

    3. It establishes a system of free international trade.

    4. It underscores the importance of a trial by jury.

  2. What was added to the Constitution in order to ensure its ratification?

    1. Bill of Rights

    2. An executive branch

    3. Political parties

    4. The right of foreign intervention

Standard 6: The student will analyze the nature of territorial and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation.


Northwest ordinance(1787) legislation governing the Northwest Territory that established a method for statehood

Lewis and Clark Expedition(1803) exploration by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark through the northwest region of the Louisiana Purchase, west to the Pacific Ocean

Louisiana Purchase(1803) land west of the Mississippi River purchased from France which doubled the size of the United States

Adams –Onis Treatyor Transcontinental Treaty) treaty negotiated by John Quincy Adams and Luis de Onis, in which Spain ceded Florida and Oregon Country to the United States in exchange for sovereignty over Texas

Monroe Doctrine 1823 policy of President Monroe that the US would not tolerate any additional European colonies in North America


  1. Which legislation established the procedures for the orderly expansion of the United States?

    1. The Northwest Ordinance (1787)

    2. The Louisiana Purchase (1803)

    3. The Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)

    4. The Monroe Doctrine (1823)

  2. What was the effect of the Lewis and Clark Expedition?

    1. It called for passage of the Homestead Act.

    2. It decreased interest in land west of the Mississippi.

    3. It encouraged westward expansion.

    4. It created interest in gold mining in California.

  3. Which event led to the largest amount of land gained in the history of the United States?

    1. The Homestead Act

    2. The Northwest Ordinance

    3. The Louisiana Purchase

    4. The Adams-Onis Treaty

  4. Of what significance were railroads and canals in 1830s?

    1. They slowed city growth.

    2. They stopped expansion.

    3. They encouraged westward movement

    4. They improved Native American relations

Standard 7: Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.


Industrializationprocess of converting to a socioeconomic order in which industry is dominant

Cotton ginmachine used for cleaning seeds from cotton, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793

Indian Removal Act1830 legislation that called for the removal of Native American living east of the Mississippi River

Trail of Tears1838-1839 forced migration of the Cherokee from the Southeast to Indian Territory (OK), during which thousands of Cherokee died

Manifest Destinythe mid 19th Century belief that America as destined to expand its territory from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean

Homestead Act1862 legislation that opened up 270 million acres of land to be claimed by settlers in 160 acre parcels

Abolitionthe immediate ending of slavery

Temperance - moderation in or abstinence from the use of alcoholic beverages

Spoils systema practice of regarding public offices as rewards to be distributed to individuals who assisted elected officials

Secedeto leave a union of states

Force bill(1833) allowed the president to take military action to enforce acts of Congress

Nationalisma strong belief in the values and traditions of one’s country; loyalty to one’s country above all else


  1. What did the Homestead Act allow people to do?

    1. Own land in the western territories after five years of residence

    2. Get assistance from the government to build a house in a new state

    3. Move east of the Mississippi River

    4. Travel on the Oregon Trail

  2. The concept of Manifest Destiny meant it was providential that American settlers

    1. Build railroads to encourage trade between regions

    2. Settle the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean

    3. Establish river towns to encourage the use of steam power

    4. Ban slavery in all new states entering the Union

  3. Who led reform of America’s public school system in the 1800s?

    1. Elizabeth Cady Stanton

    2. Andrew Jackson

    3. Eli Whitney

    4. Horace Mann

  4. What characterized Jacksonian Democracy?

    1. Abolition of slavery

    2. Strengthening of states’ rights

    3. Expansion of the powers of the presidency

    4. Elimination of the spoils system

Standard 8: The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.


States’ rightsthe right of states to pass and enforce laws without federal interference

Tariffa fee paid on the importation of goods

Nullification CrisisSouth Carolina’s threat to nullify tariff legislation passed by Congress in 1828 and to secede from the Union

Fugitive Slave Law(1793) allowed owners to reclaim runaway slaves; (1850) obligated individuals to assist in the capture of runaway slaves

Missouri Compromise of 1820legislation that prohibited slavery in states carved from the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36*-30’ N parallel

Compromise of 1850federal legislation that allowed the people of a state to determine if the state would be free or slave

Mexican American War(1846-1848) war fought between the US and Mexico over Texas indpendence


  1. Southern states believed they had the right to self-govern to protect their

    1. Economic interests

    2. Voting in Congress

    3. Right to freedom of speech

    4. Trade relations within the United States

  2. The Compromise of 1850 conflicted with the Missouri Compromise because

    1. It restricted slavery to states below the Mason-Dixon Line.

    2. It assured that Congress would maintain a balance of free and slave states.

    3. It allowed states to determine their slave status

    4. It called for an end to slavery by the beginning of the 20th century

  3. Disagreement over which political party fueled the Nullification Crisis?

    1. Tariffs

    2. States’ rights

    3. Slavery

    4. Voting rights

  4. What was the result of the slave rebellion of Nat Turner?

    1. Aboltion

    2. The Wilmot Proviso

    3. The Missouri Compromise

    4. Greater restrictions on slave

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