Routing protocols is a combination of rules and procedures for combining information which also received from other routers. Routing protocols are of interdomain and intradomain types. Protocols are the instructions, rules which used to route data .Routing classified as traditional routing, wired method of routing and wireless routing. Wireless routing handles multihop communication for symmetric as well as asymmetric links. MANET is a wireless Ad-hoc network. MANET extended as (mobile Ad-hoc network).MANET easily handles changing topology. Due to high level of topological changes (dynamic characteristic), reliable and fast routing of data packets from the source to the destination MANET is an important area of study for researchers. MANET is part of Ad-hoc network means MANET is wireless Ad-hoc network. MANET routes data on n number of paths. In Ad-hoc network various protocols used for routing data. This survey based on study of protocols which essential for MANET. In MANET study of DSDV, TORA, DSR, AODV is essential because it easily handle changing topology.
Routing is the process of transaction between data packets in a network. Routing classified in various groups like traditional routing, wireline routing, wireless routing.etc. Traditional routing not efficient due to slow convergence time, it is not able to deal with asymmetric link. Wired routing mostly comfortable with symmetric link not work on asymmetric link. To overcome this problem there is ad-hoc wireless network which can easily operate on mobile nodes (MANET) .In recent year MANET (mobile Ad-hoc network) mainly used for multihop communication. As word Ad-hoc included in MANET, it differs from word wired, which mean MANET is wireless network. Temporary, having not fixed base station, infrastructureless these various terminologies used for Ad-hoc network.
Wireless ad-hoc network along with sub types of MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc network) is shown in fig1. and fig.2 shows diagrammatic representation of MANET. From fig. 2 it is clear that MANET is having
no fixed base station, it works on mobile nodes ,it shows Ad-hoc configuration which is not having prior infrastructure means it is infrastructureless.Still it is hot research area because it works better on mobile nodes.
Wireless Ad-hoc Network
Wireless Mesh Network WMN
Mobile Ad-hoc Network MANET
Wireless Sensor NetworkWSN)
Intelligent vehicle Ad-hoc Network (InVANET)
Vehicle Ad-hoc Network (VANET)
Fig 1: Wireless Ad-hoc Network
Fig 2: Mobile Ad-hoc Network ( MANET )
As shown in fig.1 Wireless Ad-hoc network again classified as wireless mesh network, Mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET), Wireless sensor network. MANET also categorized into Vehicle Ad-hoc network (VANET) and Intelligent vehicle Ad-hoc Network (InVANET).This paper based on study related to wireless Ad-hoc network MANET.
MANET(MobileAd-hoc network) is infrastructureless network. The network in which base stations are not fixed, operates on asymmetric links, random nodes is called as infrastructureless network. With this network various protocols works for routing data, Routing is the process of data transfer in between source and destination. In the process of routing protocols are essential. Routing protocols mainly of two types:
1. Unicast routing protocols and
2. Multicast routing protocols.
Unicast protocols are AODV, DSR, ZRP, DSDV, TORA, CBRP, and CEDAR
Multicast protocols are MAODV, AMROUTE, ODMRP, and AMRIS
This study of MANET extended with unicast routing protocols because main purpose of MANET is to handle random mobile nodes, works on dynamic links and changing topology, which is possible with unicast routing protocols. Classification of unicast routing protocols along with dig. given in fig.1.3
Fig 1: Ad-hoc Routing Protocol.
Table driven also refer as proactive protocols. Table driven protocols each time maintains fresh list of destinations and their routes by periodically distributing routing table throughout the network.
Ondemand protocols also refer as Reactive protocol. This types of protocols find a route on demand by flooding the network with route request packets.
For MANET in next section discussed overview of unicast routing protocols those works better on rapidly changing network topology.
Desirable properties of MANET are:-
1. It works better for distributed operation which is difficult in wired network.
2. Its have loop freedom.
3. Provide demand based operation.
4. It can easily operate on unplanned, dynamic links.
5. No need of expensive infrastructure.
6. Fast distribution of messages between sender and receiver.
Applications of MANET ( Mobile Ad-hoc Network )
MANET used mostly every sector like military applications for location detection, machinery simulation
Scientific and Research Application,
Educational purpose such as online teaching learning process, data searching also for
Work efficiently on mobile nodes, changing topology is main aspect of MANET In this section discussion on such protocols is given.
DSDV (Destination Sequence Distance Vector) [3,4, 8]
Destination sequence distance vector routing protocol is a table driven routing protocol.DSDV mainly supports unicast routing. In this each node contains sequence number for each hop in a routing table. It also contains metric of that node. It reacts rapidly on hop as it keeps record of sequence number of each hop. So, it is again called as reactive routing protocol. With proper use of sequence number DSDV can avoid loops. In DSDV the route having lowest sequence number is more favourable route. In DSDV each node knows state and topology of entire network. With this benefit of DSDV is it also guaranteed loop freedom.
Limitations of DSDV
DSDV performs periodically not good when mobility increases.
Perform slow reaction on restricting and failure of packets.
TORA (Temporary Ordered Routing Algorithm) [1,2,3]
TORA is on-demand source initiated routing protocol, it discovers route on demand. It uses IMEP(Internet MANET encapsulation protocol) as transport for reliable guaranteed in order delivery for routing messages.TORA discovers multiple routes to destination and goes from upstream and downstream like flowing water .
Limitations of TORA
TORA specially designed to minimized overhead but still contain high routing overhead, because when many sources transmitting simultaneously TORA can’t find path.
TORA never try to find shortest path.
If TORA tried to find shortest path more congestion created.
DSR (Dynamic Source Routing) [3,4,5]
DSR is source initiated routing protocol which comes under category of on-demand routing protocol.DSR is source based so, it uses source routing rather than hop by hop routing. Like,DSDV it also mainly supports unicast routing . In DSR no need to keep up to date routing information because DSR basically works on route discovery and route maintenance. With route discovery it floods the route request message and gives reply to given request with route reply.
Benefit of DSR is it always delivers 95% of packets in all cases.
AODV (Adaptive On-Demand Distance Vector) Routing Protocol. [3,5,6,7]
AODV is on-demand routing protocol. AODV is combination of DSR and DSDV. AODV has uniform packet size. It supports to both unicast and multicast routing in better revision. It takes basic on-demand mechanism of route discovery and route maintenance from DSR, and hop-by-hop routing from DSDV.In AODV each node only keeps next hop information. All nodes along route reply create forward route to the destination.
In AODV routing overhead increases as mobility increases but benefit is it controls the overhead when the number of nodes increases.
AODV supports multicasting and unicasting within a uniform framework.
AODV offers quick alteration to dynamic link conditions, low processing and memory overhead, low memory utilization, and determines unicast routes to destinations within adhoc network.
Benefit of DSR is it always delivers 95% of packets in all cases which is also characteristic of AODV.
After the study of unicast routing protocol DSDV, TORA, DSR, AODV for MANET conclusion comes that DSDV is table driven routing protocol which performs periodically not good when mobility increases. If TORA tried to find shortest path more congestion created so, TORA never try to find shortest path it increased large amount of overhead. Also in TORA increased in number of nodes can affect performance of network. DSR performs good.AODV is on demand routing protocol which is combination of DSDV and DSR.AODV works better in route maintenance and route discovery. DSR and AODV always deliver at least 95% of packets sent in all cases. Conclusion of this survey is DSR and AODV can perform better for MANET.
AODV also offers quick alteration to dynamic link conditions, low processing and memory overhead, low memory utilization, and determines unicast routes to destinations within adhoc network.
In future scope this study will get extended on MANET to reduced overhead of data and to provide efficient routing by minimizing delay which occurs while packet transmission with AODV (ADAPTIVE ON-DEMAND ROUTING PROTOCOL).
Appendix A Acronyms
AODV Adaptive On-demand distance vector DSDV Destination sequence distance vector
DSR Dynamic Source routing
IMEP Internet MANET encapsulation protocol
MANET Mobile Ad-hoc network
TORA Temporary Ordered Routing Algorithm
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