The phonemic chart
Consonants – their classification
A. English consonants may be classified by the manner of articulation and by the place of articulation.
By the manner of articulation as
(the lateral:… and the post alveolar approximant:… )
the place of articulation as
labials: bilabials (lips):
labiodentals (lips and teeth):
including the postalveolar r
velars (soft palate):
B. Consonants may be classified as voiced and unvoiced/voiceless.
Voiced consonants are:
Unvoiced consonants are:
Pronunciation of voiced consonants at the end of English words
lag vs lack
dog vs dock
pig vs pick
C. Aspirated [p
listen to Peter Piper tongue twister,
Which phonemes get aspirated?
D. Comparison with the Czech system of
Which ones are missing in Czech?
ones are part of the Czech
system but not part of the English one?
E. Problematic consonants for Czech
The most relevant and frequent errors of Czech learners
/d/ instead of /D/, /f/ instead of /T/
/v/ instead of /w/
/ng/ instead of /N/
Aspiration of /p/, /t/, /k/
voiced consonants at the end of a word
are pronounced as unvoiced
/r/ is strongly trilled
/h/ is voiced
practise grammatical endings
Consider pronunciation of adjectives ending in –ed in these sentences.
Put them under the proper heading according to the pronunciation of –ed.
Example: She’s interest
I’m not us
to going home late.
Look at this table and complete the rules.
1. When the –ed ending follows the phoneme [t] or [d]
at the end of the word
, it is pronounced ………….
2. When the –ed ending follows a voiceless consonant (= p, k, f, s, T, S, Í) apart from [t] at the end of the word, it is pronounced ………….
3. When the –ed ending follows either a vowel or a voiced consonant (= b, g, v, z, D, Z, Ù, m, n, r, l, j) apart from [d] at the end of the word, it is pronounced ………….
Practical implications of correct pronunciation of grammatical endings?
plural endings –s, es (e.g. dogs, buses, books)
verb endings –s, es (e.g. stops, watches, opens)
possessive case -’s (e.g. brother’s books)
When to pronounce these endings as [s], [z], or [Iz]?
2. –ed endings in verbs (e.g. wanted, stopped, judged)
ed endings in adjectives (e.g. interested, bored,
When to pronounce these endings as [t], [d], or [Id]?
You can prepare a parallel table which will be true for –s, -es endings.
Sort out these words into columns according to
the proper pronunciation of
s, -es endings.
You can formulate parallel rules which will be true for –s, -es endings.
1. When the –s, -es ending follows the phonemes [s, z, S, Z, Í, Ù] at the end of the word, it is pronounced ………….
The phonemes [s, z, S, Z, Í, Ù] are called sibilants.
2. When the –s, -es ending follows a voiceless consonant (= p, k, t, f, T) apart from [s, S, Í] at the end of the word, it is pronounced ………….
3. When the –s, -es ending follows either a vowel or a voiced consonant (= b, g, v, D, d, m, n, r, l, j) apart from [z, Z, Ù] at the end of the word, it is pronounced ………….
Check the pronunciation of the endings and meaning of these adjectives in the dictionary as the exceptions exist.
Sort out any 10 verbs in the regular past form according to the pronunciation of –ed.
Spot the Odd one out in these groups of verbs:
Odd one out tasks to practise
plural noun endings (3 lines)
verbs endings in –s, -es (3 lines)
verbs endings in -ed (3 lines)
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