Grammatical category of voice



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GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF VOICE
1) ACTIVE VOICE

The clause with transitive Vs contains:

a) 3 grammatical elements: S + V + O

b) 3 semantic units: A + P (A) + G


SUBJECT = AGENT if the V is in the active voice form

OBJECT = GOAL

In English - word order = primary part:

If the order is changed = both the gram. + semantic roles of Ns will change:


In Slovak the roles of the 2 Ns are not determined by their position:
2) PASSIVE VOICE

- indicates that the SUBJECT should not be interpreted as the AGENT

(it may be the goal, a person or thing involved in the event):

The AGENT (NP) is preceded by the preposition by.

The AGENT (unknown, obvious, unimportant) may be unexpressed:
The PASSIVE VOICE is a suitable form for ommitting the AGENT.

In Slovak = reflexive passive:

The emphasis = on the action rather than on people who perform it.

- in Slovak non-human agent x human agent:

- in Slovak non-finite V form:
Sth that the AGENT used to perform the action = preposition with:
After ditransitive Vs (give, offer, show, teach, tell)

either OBJECT = SUBJECT of a passive clause:


THE FORMS OF THE PASSIVE VOICE:

to be + -ed participle
present simple: John is helped by Mary.

present progressive:

present perfect:

simple past:

past progressive:

past perfect:

simple future:

future perfect:

present infinitive:

perfect infinitive:

- ing form:

perfect –ing form:

GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF ASPECT


  • reflects the way in which the verb action is “regarded“ or „experienced“ with respect to time; - is closely connected in meaning with tense

2 types of aspectual contrast:

1) THE PERFECTIVE ASPECT

2) THE PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS) ASPECT


1 THE PERFECTIVE ASPECT
- is associated with time orientation + various time indicators (already, since, for, so far, lately, recently, up to now, how long, ever,...)
1.1 PRESENT PERFECT (have + -ed participle):

= “past happening related to present time“

a) past events with results in the present time:
b) indefinite events in a period leading up to the present time:
c) habit in a period leading up to the present time:
d) state leading up to the present time:
1.2 PAST PERFECT (had + -ed participle)

= “past in the past“


= conjunctions: after, when to show which event took place earlier

a) describing one event following another in the past:


b) when the event in the –when clause was completed before the event in the

past simple started:

c) in reported speech after past Vs (said, told, asked, explained, thought, ...):
d) if we want to narrate events looking back from a point in the past:
e) to express an unrealized hope, wish:

1.3 FUTURE PERFECT (will + perfect infinitive (have + -ed participle)

= at a certain time in the future something will be completed or achieved

(often used with by + time reference):


  1. THE PROGRESSIVE ASPECT

(to be + -ing form)

= refers to activity in progress, and therefore suggests that:

a) the activity is temporary (i.e. of limited duration)

b) it need not be complete:




2.1 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (am/is/are + -ing)

= actions in progress at the moment of speaking (now, at the moment, just):


= temporary situation, an activity that is taking place in the present time period and will continue for a limited period:
= future reference – with a V of motion (arrive, come, go, leave, fly, drive,...):
= activities planned for the future:
= repeated actions that happen unexpectedly or annoyingly (always, constantly,

2.2 PAST PROGRESSIVE (was/were + -ing)

= an action (event, situation) was in progress at a specified time in the past:


= an action that started before the event in the past simple and was in progress when the event in the past simple occured:
= two parallel actions that were in progress at the same time (conj.: while):
= progress with adverbials beginning with all (all morning, all day, ...) :
= repeated actions:
= the background for a narrative in the past:

2.3 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (has/have been + -ing)

= an activity taking place in the recent period up to the present:


= an activity which started in the past and continues up to the present and possibly in the future (with: since, for, how long, all-phrases: all night, ...):


2.4 PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (had been + -ing)

- is the equivalent of the present perfect progressive; used to describe an activity looking back from the past:



2.5 FUTURE PROGRESSIVE (shall/will be + -ing)

= an activity (event) going on at a particular time or over a particular period in the future (we mention the future time):


= the future activity (event) is the result of a previous decision (arrangement):
= planned activities (events) in the future:
= asking (politely) about people´s plans:

2.6 FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (shall/will + have been + -ing)

= activity leading up to time in the future (we usually mention both the particular point in the future (on Saturday, next year,...) and the period of time until this point (.... for a year, ... for 20 minutes)




GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF MOOD
- indicates the factual, nonfactual, or counterfactual status of the predication.

No mood distinctions are made in non-finite VPs.

In finite VPs modal distinctions are expressed mainly by modal Vs.
THE INDICATIVE / DECLARATIVE MOOD

- is used to state facts of which the speaker is relatively confident:




THE IMPERATIVE MOOD

2nd sg. or pl. (no distinction in E.) = the base form of the V:
1st and 3rd sg. and pl. express an imperative idea periphrastically:

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

- replaced by other constructions in contemporary English;

- described in 3 separate statements:
1) The Mandative Subjunctive in that-clauses

- uninflected base form = lack of the regular concord between S + FV


a) used in a V in a subordinate that-clause after the Vs (in the main clause) like:

advise, ask, beg, decide, demand, desire, insist, intend, order, propose, urge,

b) after adjectives (anxious, determined,) with a personal S:


or (essential, important, urgent, vital,) with an impersonal it-construction:
c) after the Ns (demand, intention, order, recommendation, request, suggestion):

2) The Formulaic Subjunctive in clauses in certain set expressions:


3) The Were-Subjunctive = hypothetical in meaning;

- in conditional clauses:
- in subordinate clauses after wish:
NON-FINITE VERB FORMS
= used after Vs in VP, after Ns, after adj., in non-finite subordinate clauses.
THE INFINITIVE
- present infinitive active:

- present infinitive passive:

- present progressive infinitive active:

- perfect / past infinitive active:

- perfect / past infinitive passive:

- perfect / past progressive infinitive active:


The bare infinitive is used after:

- modals:

- let:

- make:


- had better, would rather:

- Vs of perception:


The to-infinitive is used after:

- some lexical Vs:

- the V to be + adjectives:

- some Vs followed by an O:

- indicating purpose:
THE ING-FORM
1)-ing participles used in progressive aspect or functioning as participial adj.

2) gerunds = can take place of a N or a V

- in general statements it functions as an uncount:

- sometimes as a count after determiners and after ´s genitive:


The gerund / -ing participle = forms:

- present active: - present passive:

- perfect / past active: - perfect / past passive:
-ing form is used after:

- most Vs of liking and disliking:

- some lexical Vs:

- prepositions including adj. + preposition phrases:

- phrasal Vs:
THE –ed FORM

= the past form and the –ed participle form

- to form the passive;

- to express perfective aspect (have/had + -ed);



- to begin a subordinate clause;

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