The Presidents Packet – Post World War II to Present Truman Administration (1945 – 1953)



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The Presidents Packet – Post World War II to Present
Truman Administration (1945 – 1953)

1) The changes shown on the chart most clearly reflect the

(1) effects of the Cold War

(2) influence of the business cycle

(3) failure of United States military policy

(4) reverses in political party control of Congress

2) The goal of President Harry Truman’s Fair Deal was to

(1) continue reforms begun during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency

(2) decrease government spending on social welfare programs

(3) reduce taxes on large corporations and wealthy individuals

(4) restore domestic policies that existed in the 1920s

Answers for the Truman Administration:

1) 1 2) 1



Eisenhower Administration (1953 – 1961)

1) In the 1950s, the domino theory was used by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to justify

(1) sending federal troops into Little Rock, Arkansas

(2) United States involvement in Vietnam

(3) joining the United Nations

(4) opposing Britain and France in the Suez Canal crisis

2) The domino theory was used to justify United States involvement in the

(1) War on Poverty

(2) Berlin airlift

(3) Bosnian crisis

(4) Vietnam War

Answers to Eisenhower Administration:

1) 2 2) 4



Kennedy Administration (1961 – 1963):

1. The immediate impact of the 1957 launch of Sputnik I was that it

(1) forced the United States to find new sources of fuel

(2) focused attention on the need to regulate the uses of outer space

(3) heightened the space race as a form of Cold War competition

(4) ended the period of peaceful coexistence between the United States and the Soviet

Union

2. Which event of the 1950s most likely led to the publication of this cartoon?

(1) Russia put cosmonauts on the Moon.

(2) The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite.

(3) The United States was defeated in the Vietnam War.

(4) American students scored low on tests in math and science.

3. “. . . We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and

the others, too. . . .”

— President John F. Kennedy, speech at Rice University, September 12, 1962

The main purpose of this speech was to win public support for

(1) establishing a missile defense system on the Moon

(2) cooperating with communist countries in exploring space

(3) surpassing the Soviet Union in the space race

(4) controlling the spread of nuclear weapons

4. The Peace Corps was established by President John F. Kennedy in an effort to provide

(1) support to developing nations of the world

(2) job training for the unemployed

(3) markets for consumer goods

(4) teachers for inner-city areas

5. One reason for the creation of the Peace Corps by President John F. Kennedy was to

(1) stop the spread of AIDS in Africa and Asia

(2) gain control of territory in Latin America

(3) provide workers for industrial nations

(4) give support to developing nations

6. “. . . My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man. . . .”

— John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, 1961

To implement the idea expressed in this statement, President Kennedy supported the

(1) creation of the Marshall Plan

(2) formation of the Peace Corps

(3) removal of United States troops from Korea

(4) establishment of the South East Asia Treaty Organization

7. “. . . Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the

success of liberty. . . .”

— President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, 1961

This statement by President Kennedy suggests a continued commitment to the foreign policy of

(1) isolationism

(2) appeasement

(3) containment

(4) imperialism

8. President John F. Kennedy supported the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba as an effort to

(1) remove a communist dictator from power

(2) stop the flow of illegal drugs to the United States

(3) support Fidel Castro’s efforts for reform

(4) rescue hostages held by Cuban freedom fighters

9. The 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion and the 1962 missile crisis are conflicts directly related to

United States relations with which two nations?

(1) the Dominican Republic and Haiti

(2) Cuba and the Soviet Union

(3) China and Japan

(4) North Korea and South Korea



10. President John F. Kennedy attempted to deal with the situation shown on the map by

(1) bombing all the missile sites simultaneously

(2) imposing a naval blockade to isolate Cuba from the Soviet Union

(3) allowing the Soviet Union to keep some missiles in Cuba if the remainder were removed

(4) landing an invasion force on the Cuban mainland

11. What was the main reason for President Kennedy’s action toward Cuba?

(1) Cuba is located close to the United States.

(2) The United States needed to protect business investments in Cuba.

(3) The cost of building missile defense bases in Florida was high.

(4) Cuba threatened to seize United States merchant ships in the Caribbean.

12. What was one outcome of the Cuban missile crisis in 1962?

(1) Cuba became a communist nation.

(2) The United States seized military control of Cuba.

(3) The Soviet Union withdrew its nuclear missiles from Cuba.

(4) Fidel Castro met with President John F. Kennedy.

13. The Cuban missile crisis (1962) influenced President John F. Kennedy’s decision to

(1) negotiate the limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with the Soviet Union

(2) reduce the nation’s commitment to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

(3) forbid Americans to trade with and travel to Latin America

(4) send Peace Corps volunteers to aid developing countries

14. The United States began a trade embargo against Cuba in the 1960s to

(1) encourage political change in Cuba

(2) promote domestic industries in Cuba

(3) motivate Cubans to immigrate to the United States

(4) end the domination of the banana industry by Cuba



15. The main idea expressed in the cartoon involves the

(1) relationship between consumer needs and military needs

(2) problems created by the development of nuclear weapons

(3) need for all people to be informed about world affairs

(4) problems associated with the shift from a wartime economy to a peace time economy

16. Population increases that resulted from the baby boom of the 1950s and 1960s contributed to a

(1) housing surplus

(2) drop in immigration

(3) reduction in government services

(4) rise in demand for consumer goods

Answers to Kennedy Administration:

1) 3 2) 2 3) 3 4) 1 5) 4 6) 2 7) 3 8) 1 9) 2 10) 2 11) 1 12) 3 13) 1 14) 1 15) 2 16) 4



Johnson Administration (1963 – 1969):

Vietnam and its effect upon US Foreign & Domestic policy:

1. In the 1950s, the domino theory was used by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to justify

(1) sending federal troops into Little Rock, Arkansas

(2) United States involvement in Vietnam

(3) joining the United Nations

(4) opposing Britain and France in the Suez Canal crisis

2. The domino theory was used to justify United States involvement in the

(1) War on Poverty

(2) Berlin airlift

(3) Bosnian crisis

(4) Vietnam War

3. Which conclusion can best be drawn from the United States involvement in the Korean War

and the Vietnam War?

(1) The Cold War extended beyond direct conflict with the Soviet Union.

(2) Popular wars have assured the reelection of incumbent presidents.

(3) War is the best way to support developing nations.

(4) The threat of nuclear war is necessary to settle a military conflict.

4. One reason the United States became involved in the Vietnam War was to

(1) prevent the spread of communism in Indochina

(2) reduce French influence in Vietnam

(3) stop China from seizing Vietnam

(4) support the government of North Vietnam

5. United States involvement in the Vietnam War was based in part on a desire to

(1) prevent renewed Japanese expansionism in the Pacific

(2) assure access to an adequate supply of oil from the Middle East

(3) contain communism in Southeast Asia

(4) protect American business interests in China

6. One way in which the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Persian Gulf War are similar is that in all three wars

(1) the goal was to defeat the Soviet Union

(2) the United States was primarily interested in protecting oil supplies

(3) the United States was fighting without allies

(4) no formal declaration of war was made by Congress

7. The United States experience in the Vietnam War supports the idea that the outcome of a war

(1) is determined mainly by technological superiority

(2) is dependent on using the greatest number of soldiers

(3) is assured to countries dedicated to democratic ideals

(4) can be strongly affected by public opinion

8. Which situation was a result of the Vietnam War?

(1) South Vietnam was able to maintain its noncommunist status.

(2) The United States questioned its role as a police officer of the world.

(3) Richard Nixon was forced to resign the presidency.

(4) The War Powers Act was repealed by Congress.

9. The ratification of the 26th amendment, which lowered the voting age to 18, was a result of

the


(1) participation of the United States in the Vietnam War

(2) fear of McCarthyism

(3) reaction to the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union

(4) reporting of the Watergate scandal

10. “I believe that our young people [18–20 years old] possess a great social conscience, are perplexed by the injustices which exist in the world and are anxious to rectify [correct] these ills.”

— Senator Jennings Randolph, 1971, The New York Times


Those who favor this point of view would likely have supported

(1) a constitutional amendment extending voting rights

(2) a presidential decision to raise speed limits

(3) a Supreme Court ruling to reverse desegregation

(4) a law passed by Congress to increase Social Security benefits
The Great Society – LBJ’s Domestic Social programs

11. One goal of President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society was to

(1) improve the quality of life for the poor

(2) privatize many government programs

(3) send additional troops to Vietnam

(4) reduce the number of nuclear weapons

12. A major goal of President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society was to

(1) provide government aid to business

(2) end poverty in the United States

(3) conserve natural resources

(4) stop emigration from Latin America

13. A major goal of President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program was to

(1) control economic inflation

(2) end poverty in the United States

(3) repeal several New Deal social programs

(4) return responsibility for welfare programs to the states

14. One similarity in the presidential administrations of Abraham Lincoln, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Lyndon Johnson is that each

(1) maintained a foreign policy of neutrality

(2) expanded the power of the presidency

(3) removed Supreme Court Justices from office

(4) decreased the size of the military

15. Which action was a common objective of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal and President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society?

(1) eliminating nuclear weapons

(2) helping those living in poverty

(3) lowering barriers to immigration

(4) breaking up business monopolies


16. Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson supported domestic policies that

(1) favored only one region of the nation

(2) attempted to increase the wealth of the rich

(3) led to tax cuts for all Americans

(4) provided direct help to those in need

17. President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society is similar to President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s

New Deal in that both programs

(1) sought ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment to guarantee equality for women

(2) advocated passage of civil rights laws to help African Americans

(3) supported federal funding of programs for the poor

(4) approved efforts by states to reduce taxes for the middle class

18. President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs were similar to Progressive Era programs in that both

(1) strictly enforced antitrust laws

(2) focused on expanding civil rights for African Americans

(3) used federal government power to improve social conditions

(4) made urban renewal their primary concern

19. Which initiative was part of President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program?

(1) providing medical care to the poor and elderly

(2) reducing federal aid to education

(3) increasing foreign aid to the Soviet Union

(4) opposing civil rights legislation

20. In 1965, Congress established Medicare to

(1) provide health care to the elderly

(2) assist foreign nations with their health problems

(3) grant scholarships to medical students

(4) establish universal health care




21. Which federal government program was designed to solve the problem illustrated in this cartoon?

(1) Great Society

(2) Peace Corps

(3) New Federalism

(4) Dollar Diplomacy




Answers to Johnson Administration:

1) 2 2) 4 3) 1 4) 1 5) 3 6) 4 7) 4 8) 2 9) 1 10) 1 11) 1 12) 2 13) 2

14) 2 15) 2 16) 4 17) 3 18) 3 19) 1 20) 1 21) 1

Nixon Administration (1969 – 1974):

Détente:

1. The easing of Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union during the

1970s was called

(1) containment

(2) détente

(3) neutrality

(4) isolationism

2. Which presidential action best represents the policy of détente?

(1) John F. Kennedy’s order for the Bay of Pigs invasion against Cuba

(2) Lyndon B. Johnson’s escalation of the Vietnam War

(3) Richard Nixon’s Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) with the Soviet Union

(4) George Bush’s military action to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait

3. President Richard Nixon supported the policy of détente as a way to

(1) reduce tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union

(2) introduce democratic elections to communist nations

(3) encourage satellite nations to break their ties with the Soviet Union

(4) undermine Soviet influence among nonaligned countries in Africa and Asia

4. The policy of détente was used by President Richard Nixon in an effort to

(1) decrease tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States

(2) improve relations with Latin America

(3) promote democratic government in China

(4) create stronger ties with Western Europe

5. The main goal of President Richard Nixon’s foreign policy of détente was to

(1) assure American victory in Vietnam

(2) resolve conflicts in the Middle East

(3) abolish the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

(4) improve relations with the Soviet Union

6. President Richard Nixon’s policy of détente is best characterized by his

(1) decision to dismantle the nuclear weapons arsenal of the United States

(2) attempt to reduce tensions with the Soviet Union

(3) order to bomb Cambodia

(4) support for membership in the United Nations for communist countries

7. President Richard Nixon’s visit to the People’s Republic of China in 1972 was significant

because it

(1) convinced the Chinese to abandon communism

(2) brought about the unification of Taiwan and Communist China

(3) reduced tensions between the United States and Communist China

(4) decreased United States dependence on Chinese exports


8. “I think it will be a safer world and a better world if we have a strong, healthy United States,



Europe, Soviet Union, China, Japan, each balancing the other, not playing one against the

other, an even balance.” — Richard Nixon, 1972

President Nixon put this idea into practice by

(1) expanding economic relations with communist nations

(2) abandoning his policy of détente

(3) declaring an end to the Korean War

(4) ending collective security agreements


The 1973 War Powers Act:

9. The main purpose of the War Powers Act of 1973 was to

(1) expand the power of Congress to declare war

(2) limit the president’s ability to send troops into combat abroad

(3) allow people to vote on the issue of United States commitments overseas

(4) end the Vietnam War on favorable terms

10. The War Powers Act was passed at the end of the Vietnam War to limit the president’s power to

(1) draft citizens in peacetime

(2) send troops into military combat

(3) negotiate peace treaties

(4) ask Congress to declare war

11. An effect of the War Powers Act of 1973 was that

(1) the authority of the president as commander in chief was limited

(2) the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) became more involved in world conflicts

(3) congressional approval was not needed when appropriating funds for the military

(4) women were prevented from serving in combat roles during wartime

12. The War Powers Act of 1973 was passed by Congress as a response to the

(1) spread of nuclear weapons during the Cold War

(2) invasion of Kuwait by Iraq

(3) threat of communism in the Middle East

(4) United States involvement in the Vietnam War

13. The war in Vietnam led Congress to pass the War Powers Act of 1973 in order to

(1) affirm United States support for the United Nations

(2) strengthen the policy of détente

(3) increase United States participation in international peacekeeping operations

(4) assert the role of Congress in the commitment of troops overseas



Watergate:


15. What is the main idea of this cartoon from the Watergate era?

(1) The Supreme Court presides over a presidential impeachment trial.

(2) Congress has to obey the Constitution.

(3) The president has the final word involving constitutional issues.

(4) No person or group is above the law.

16. Which statement best describes an impact of the Watergate scandal on American society?

(1) The modern environmental movement began.

(2) Public trust in government declined.

(3) Voter turnout in elections increased.

(4) An economic recession ended.

17. What was a lasting effect of the Watergate scandal under President Richard Nixon?

(1) The system of checks and balances was weakened.

(2) The scope of executive privilege was broadened.

(3) Trust in elected officials was undermined.

(4) Presidential responsiveness to public opinion was lessened.

18. One way in which the Teapot Dome scandal, the Watergate affair, and the Iran-Contra affair are similar is that each of these political scandals resulted in

(1) a loss of faith in elected government leaders

(2) an attempt to abolish the electoral college

(3) a movement to impeach the president

(4) an effort to regulate the banking industry

19. What was a major result of the Watergate controversy?

(1) Presidential veto power was expanded.

(2) The president resigned from office.

(3) Congressional power was reduced.

(4) The Supreme Court was weakened.

Answers to Nixon Administration:

1) 2 2) 3 3) 1 4) 1 5) 4 6) 1 7) 3 8) 1 9) 2 10) 2 11) 1 12) 4 13) 4

14) 2 15) 4 16) 2 17) 3 18) 1 19) 2

Carter Administration (1977 - 1981)

1. Which foreign policy agreement had the most direct influence on the Middle East?

(1) Kellogg-Briand Pact

(2) Yalta Conference declaration

(3) SALT I Treaty

(4) Camp David Accords

2. The Camp David Accords and the Persian Gulf War both show the desire of the United States to

(1) create stability in the Middle East

(2) expand trade with Asian nations

(3) maintain friendly relations with Europe

(4) provide economic stability in Latin America

3. Which factor contributed most to inflation in the United States during the 1970s?

(1) high tariffs

(2) oil embargoes

(3) tax increases

(4) high unemployment


4. “. . . Our decision about energy will test the character of the American people and the ability

of the President and the Congress to govern. This difficult effort will be the ‘moral equivalent of

war’— except that we will be uniting our efforts to build and not destroy. . . .”

— President Jimmy Carter

Address to the Nation, April 18, 1977

President Carter put these ideas into practice by

(1) halting construction of nuclear power plants

(2) increasing imports of foreign oil

(3) urging the development of alternative fuel sources

(4) imposing a price freeze on all petroleum products



Answers to Carter Administration:

1) 4 2) 1 3) 2 4) 3



Reagan Administration (1981 – 1989)

1. A major goal of the Republican Party since the 1980s has been to

(1) increase welfare benefits

(2) increase the size of the federal workforce

(3) reduce defense spending

(4) cut federal taxes

2. During the 1980s, President Ronald Reagan used the ideas of supply-side economics to justify

(1) increases in social welfare spending

(2) expansion of the Social Security program

(3) tax cuts for businesses

(4) reductions in military spending

3. A major policy of President Ronald Reagan’s administration was to

(1) reduce defense spending

(2) lower federal income tax rates

(3) end desegregation of public facilities

(4) promote regulation of small businesses

4. The economic policies of President Ronald Reagan (1981–1989) and President George W.

Bush (2001–present) are similar in that both

(1) balanced the federal budget

(2) expanded welfare programs to end poverty

(3) used tax cuts to encourage economic growth

(4) decreased military spending

5. Since 1980, most new jobs in the United States have been in

(1) education

(2) heavy industry

(3) service industries

(4) civil service

Answers to Reagan Administration:

1) 4 2) 3 3) 2 4) 3 5) 3



George H. W. Bush Administration (1989 – 1993):

1. Which event led directly to the end of the cold war?

(1) reunification of Germany

(2) formation of the European Union

(3) breakup of the Soviet Union

(4) creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

2. During the Cold War era, the United States and the Soviet Union were hesitant to become

involved in direct military conflict mainly because of

(1) the threat of China to both nations

(2) pressure from nonaligned nations

(3) the potential for global nuclear destruction

(4) mutual dependence on Middle East petroleum

3. “Gorbachev Proposes Nuclear Arms Reductions”

Berliners Travel Freely Between East and West”

Russia Seeks To Join NATO”

These headlines are most closely associated with the

(1) military arms race

(2) decline of Cold War hostilities

(3) failures of the containment policy

(4) successes of communism in the Soviet Union

4. The beginning of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe is most closely associated with the

(1) fall of the Berlin Wall

(2) admission of Warsaw Pact nations to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

(3) intervention of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Yugoslavia

(4) formation of the European Union

5. • Announcement of Eisenhower Doctrine (1957)

Operation Desert Storm (1991)

Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003 – present)

These events involve attempts by the United States to;

(1) protect human rights in Europe

(2) protect its interests in the Middle East

(3) deliver humanitarian aid to Africa

(4) contain the spread of communism in Asia

6. The Camp David Accords and the Persian Gulf War both show the desire of the United States to

(1) create stability in the Middle East

(2) expand trade with Asian nations

(3) maintain friendly relations with Europe

(4) provide economic stability in Latin America


7. This 1991 cartoon is criticizing President George Bush for

(1) refusing to support the United Nations

(2) involving the United States in foreign wars

(3) using foreign affairs to hide domestic failures

(4) ignoring the economic needs of developing nations



8. Information provided by the graph shows that between 1988 and 1993, there was an increased

need for candidates of major political parties to win the support of

(1) ethnic minorities

(2) senior citizens

(3) independent voters

(4) the labor vote
Answers for George H. W. Bush Administration (1989 – 1993):

1) 3 2) 3 3) 2 4) 1 5) 2 6) 1 7) 3 8) 3


Clinton Administration 1993 – 2001)

1. Which situation faced by President Bill Clinton is expressed in the cartoon?

(1) Impeachment hampered his ability to carry out programs.

(2) International problems interfered with domestic policy goals.

(3) Health care costs took away funds needed for peacekeeping commitments.

(4) Budget deficits prevented military action in world trouble spots.

2. Since the 1990s, the primary issue concerning the health care system in the United States has been the

(1) increasing cost of medical care

(2) shortage of prescription drugs

(3) safety of medical procedures

(4) reorganization of hospitals

3. One similarity shared by President Andrew Johnson and President Bill Clinton is that both

(1) served only one term as president

(2) were impeached but not convicted

(3) had no vice president

(4) came to office after the death of a president

4. Which statement about the impeachment trials of both President Andrew Johnson and President Bill Clinton is most accurate?

(1) The House of Representatives failed to vote for articles of impeachment.

(2) Only President Johnson was convicted and removed from office.

(3) Only President Clinton was convicted and removed from office.

(4) The Senate failed to convict either president.

5. According to the cartoon, how was the United States in the 1990s similar to the United States in the 1890s?

(1) Little need existed for government regulation.

(2) Investment in the stock market decreased.

(3) The price of petroleum products decreased.

(4) Business consolidation was accepted practice.



6. What is the main idea of this cartoon about President Bill Clinton?

(1) Positive economic conditions helped maintain his high approval ratings.

(2) Voter approval of the president declined due to flaws in his character.

(3) He did not deserve credit for the economic prosperity of the nation.

(4) The American public considered personal character the most important trait of a president in the 1990s.



7. What is the main idea of this 1997 cartoon?

(1) Investors believe the stock market may crash in the near future.

(2) Illegal aliens are trying to come to the United States in record numbers.

(3) Workers still suffer from dangerous conditions on the job.

(4) Workers are being laid off to keep corporate profits high.

8. In 1991, one of the reasons President George H. W. Bush committed United States troops to the Persian Gulf War was to

(1) maintain the flow of trade through the Suez Canal

(2) fulfill military obligations as a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement

(NAFTA)


(3) contain the spread of communism in the Middle East

(4) assure the flow of Middle East oil to the United States and its allies

9. President Bill Clinton’s decision to send troops to Bosnia in 1995 and to participate in the bombing of Kosovo in 1999 were both in response to international concern over

(1) trade agreement violations

(2) access to world oil reserves

(3) human rights violations

(4) monetary policies

10. The United States intervened in Haiti and Bosnia during the 1990s to

(1) gain access to new markets

(2) acquire colonies for an economic empire

(3) stop conflicts within those nations

(4) disrupt international drug trafficking


11. “Clinton Offers Economic Aid to Russia”

U.S. Sends Peacekeeping Troops to Bosnia”

U.S. Airlifts Food and Medicine to Somalia”

These headlines illustrate that United States foreign policy during the 1990s stressed

(1) containment

(2) collective security

(3) global involvement

(4) neutrality

12. Support for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) reflected the United States

commitment to

(1) globalization

(2) Manifest Destiny

(3) collective security

(4) isolationism

12. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the General Agreement on Trade

and Tariffs (GATT) have encouraged countries to

(1) participate in the global economy

(2) create a uniform international currency

(3) accept similar wage and price controls

(4) regulate multinational corporations

13. President Bill Clinton supported the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

primarily as a way to

(1) normalize trade relations with Cuba

(2) stimulate economic growth in the United States

(3) restrict the flow of drugs into the United States

(4) increase the United States trade deficit

14. In the United States, support for the passage and expansion of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been strongest among

(1) labor unions

(2) environmentalists

(3) big business

(4) farmers

Use the cartoon below and your knowledge of American History to answer questions 15 & 16.



15. The cartoonist is expressing the opinion that

(1) the United States should place tariffs on goods from communist nations

(2) most Americans favor trading with both China and Cuba

(3) American foreign trade policies are sometimes inconsistent

(4) democratic nations should receive preferential trade agreements

16. What is the explanation for the situation shown in the cartoon?

(1) Strong anti-Castro sentiment existed in Congress.

(2) China had met all United States human rights demands.

(3) Castro refused to allow Cuba to trade with the United States.

(4) The United States was dependent on food imports from China

17. During the 1990s, an increase in Mexican immigration to the United States was caused by

the immigrants’ desire for

(1) greater political freedom

(2) bilingual education

(3) better economic opportunities

(4) religious freedom

Answers for the Clinton Administration:

1) 2 2) 1 3) 3 4) 4 5) 4 6) 1 7) 4 8) 4 9) 3 10) 3 11) 3 12) 1 13) 1

14) 3 15) 3 16) 1 17) 3

George W. Bush Administration (2001 – present)

1. Which issue is the central focus of this cartoon drawn after September 11, 2001?

(1) Is there a need to give up some civil liberties to protect the nation?

(2) Should the United States reduce oil imports from the Middle East?

(3) Does the United States need fewer limits on immigration?

(4) Should the United States abandon the Constitution?

2. How were the presidential elections of 1876 and 2000 similar?

(1) The winner of the popular vote lost the electoral vote.

(2) Third-party candidates did not affect the outcome.

(3) The outcome of the election was decided by Congress.

(4) The winner was decided by the Supreme Court.

3. This cartoon from the disputed presidential election of 2000 suggests that the winner might

(1) lack strong popular support for his programs

(2) easily win reelection in 2004

(3) succeed in fulfilling his campaign promises

(4) be unable to claim victory in the electoral college

4. In the 2000 presidential election, which aspect of the electoral college system caused the most

controversy?

(1) A state can divide its electoral votes among different candidates.

(2) States with few electoral votes have no influence on election outcomes.

(3) The selection of electors varies among states.

(4) The winner of the popular vote might not get the majority of the electoral vote.

5. The dispute over counting Florida voter ballots in the presidential election of 2000 was settled by

(1) an order of the governor of Florida

(2) an agreement between the candidates

(3) a vote of the United States Senate

(4) a United States Supreme Court decision

6. Which criticism of the electoral college system is illustrated by the information in the table?

(1) Presidential electors frequently do not vote for the person they were pledged to support.

(2) A person can win the presidency without winning the most popular votes.

(3) The vote of the people in each state has little relationship to the election outcome.

(4) Minor-party candidates often receive too many electoral votes.

7. Which change is most often proposed to correct the problem shown by the table?

(1) adopt a constitutional amendment to elect the president by popular vote

(2) pass a law requiring state electors to vote for the candidate with the most popular votes

(3) place limits on the number of political parties allowed in presidential elections

(4) allow the elected members of Congress to select the president

8. A major goal of the Republican Party since the 1980s has been to

(1) increase welfare benefits

(2) increase the size of the federal workforce

(3) reduce defense spending

(4) cut federal taxes

9. What was a direct result of the census of 2000?

(1) Personal income tax rates were changed.

(2) New United States District Courts were created.

(3) Seats in the House of Representatives were reapportioned.

(4) The number of United States Senators was increased.

10. Population data from the census of 2000 was used to determine the number of

(1) states in the Union

(2) senators from each state

(3) electoral college votes from each state

(4) Supreme Court justices



Answers for George W. Bush:

1) 3 2) 1 3) 1 4) 4 5) 4 6) 2 7) 1 8) 4 9) 3 10) 3




Modern Day Questions

Economics

1. Statistics such as the gross domestic product, consumer price index, and unemployment rate are used to measure the

(1) condition of the economy

(2) amount of the federal budget deficit

(3) balance of international trade

(4) productivity of industry



2. The cartoonist is trying to encourage American consumers to consider that

(1) the United States buys more from Japan than Japan buys from the United States

(2) cars produced in the United States are often inferior to foreign-made automobiles

(3) single purchases of automobiles do not have an impact on calculating foreign trade

balances


(4) automobile dealerships in the United States should offer more incentives for

purchasing American-made cars

3. What is the most likely result of the United States raising tariff rates on imported steel?

(1) The price of consumer goods made with American steel is lowered.

(2) American steel companies are protected from foreign competition.

(3) The quality of consumer goods made with steel is improved.

(4) Foreign steel companies are encouraged to buy American steel companies.

4. The loss of jobs in manufacturing industries has been caused by the introduction of

(1) radio and television

(2) automobiles and airplanes

(3) automation and computers

(4) improved medicine and space travel



5. What is the main idea of this cartoon?

(1) The global economy is on the verge of collapse.

(2) Rich nations should help poor nations improve their economic conditions.

(3) One nation’s economic problems affect many other nations.

(4) Each nation controls its own economic destiny.



6. What is the main idea of the cartoon?

(1) Airline technology has resulted in more efficient service.

(2) Reduced competition in the airline industry has hurt the consumer.

(3) A growing economy has led to the start-up of new airlines.

(4) An increase in the number of airlines has led to computer malfunctions

7. Why are fewer farms needed in the United States economy today than were needed in 1900?

(1) Most foods are now imported.

(2) Most farmland has been turned into suburbs.

(3) The use of technology has raised agricultural productivity.

(4) The total population is declining.

8. Which situation is associated with the trends in agriculture shown in these tables?

(1) Farm foreclosures decreased.

(2) Farm size was substantially reduced.

(3) Farm output declined.

(4) Farmers became a smaller percentage of the labor force.

9. Cesar Chavez created the United Farm Workers Organization Committee (UFWOC) in 1966 primarily to

(1) secure voting rights for Mexican Americans

(2) improve working conditions for migrant laborers

(3) provide legal assistance to illegal aliens

(4) increase farm income

10. One similarity between the actions of Samuel Gompers and Cesar Chavez is that both leaders

(1) organized workers to strive for better conditions

(2) relied on the use of force to gain minority rights

(3) advocated federal regulation of railroad rates

(4) worked to improve consumer product safety

11. A primary reason for the increase in federal debt between 1980 and 1996 was

(1) the cost of sending United States troops to Bosnia

(2) instability of the stock market

(3) lower sales tax revenues collected by state governments

(4) high levels of spending by the federal government

12. Which practice of the federal government has contributed most to the situation shown in the table?

(1) taking steps to reduce growth of the gross domestic product

(2) raising taxes to try to reduce inflation

(3) spending more money than is received in revenues

(4) lowering taxes during election years



13. The cartoonist is expressing the opinion that

(1) the United States should place tariffs on goods from communist nations

(2) most Americans favor trading with both China and Cuba

(3) American foreign trade policies are sometimes inconsistent

(4) democratic nations should receive preferential trade agreements

14. What is the explanation for the situation shown in the cartoon?

(1) Strong anti-Castro sentiment existed in Congress.

(2) China had met all United States human rights demands.

(3) Castro refused to allow Cuba to trade with the United States.

(4) The United States was dependent on food imports from China.

15. During the 20th century, federal prosecutions of corporations such as Standard Oil, AT&T, and Microsoft were based on alleged violations of

(1) stock market practices

(2) environmental regulations

(3) labor union protections

(4) antitrust laws

16. The federal government enforced the antitrust laws in court cases against Northern Securities

Company, AT&T, and Microsoft in an effort to

(1) increase business competition

(2) nationalize important industries

(3) improve public trust in corporate leaders

(4) generate more investment capital

17. The Jungle by Upton Sinclair and Unsafe at Any Speed by Ralph Nader were both intended to

(1) publicize the growing violence in American society

(2) suggest that a poor person could get rich with hard work

(3) encourage immigration reform

(4) make the public aware of the poor quality of certain products

18. Rachel Carson and Ralph Nader are similar to the muckrakers of the Progressive Era because

they have

(1) advocated a total change in the structure of government

(2) attempted to expose societal problems

(3) failed to influence public opinion

(4) supported anti-American activities

19. Data from the graphs support the conclusion that between 1960 and 1990

(1) the government failed in its efforts at recycling

(2) the amount of waste that was recycled increased

(3) most people favor mandatory recycling efforts

(4) efforts to recycle waste decreased steadily



Answers for Economy

1) 1 2) 1 3) 2 4) 3 5) 3 6) 2 7) 3 8) 4 9) 2 10) 1 11) 4 12) 3 13) 3

14) 1 15) 4 16) 1 17) 4 18) 2 19) 2

Technology

1. The cartoonist is critical of computers mainly because

(1) important personal records are frequently lost

(2) personal information may no longer be private

(3) computers are becoming more difficult to use

(4) computer technology becomes obsolete too quickly





2. In this cartoon, what is the main concern of the cartoonist?

(1) The technology needed to run the federal government is too expensive.

(2) Consumers should be protected from false advertising in the media.

(3) Technology makes it easier to influence legislator

(4) The government is unable to safeguard the privacy of Internet users.

Answers for Technology

1) 2 2) 3



Political

Domestic

1. What is the main idea of this cartoon?

(1) Americans fail to adequately support the expenses of political candidates.

(2) Campaign advertising has no influence on voter turnout.

(3) Campaign costs are a major cause of the national debt.

(4) High campaign costs negatively affect the political process.



2. What is the main idea of this cartoon?

(1) Senators spend too much time talking and not enough time passing new laws.

(2) Additional limits on campaign spending are needed.

(3) The salaries of United States senators are too high.

(4) Only a wealthy individual can campaign for a seat in Congress.

3. “Influence of Political Action Committees Continues to Rise”

Republicans and Democrats Spend over $100 Million in 2000 Presidential Election”

Senate Passes Campaign Finance Reform Act”

What is the central issue of these headlines?

(1) Republicans and Democrats spend equal amounts of money.

(2) American citizens pay high taxes to support presidential campaigns.

(3) Money has a strong impact on the American political process.

(4) Candidates spend much of their own money on political campaigns.


Foreign

4. The development of nuclear weapons by India and Pakistan has been criticized by the United

States government because

(1) India and Pakistan are allies of Russia

(2) India and Pakistan have threatened to use these weapons against the United States

(3) the United States insists on maintaining its nuclear capability

(4) the spread of nuclear weapons threatens all humankind

5. Which heading best completes the partial outline below?

I.____________________________________

A. Berlin

B. Germany

C. Korea


D. Vietnam

(1) Areas Divided as the Result of Wars

(2) Major Allies of the United States

(3) Original Signers of the League of Nations Charter

(4) Neutral Nations During World War II


Answers for Political – Domestic & Foreign Policy:

1) 3 2) 1 3) 4 4) 4 5) 1



Immigration

1. What Native American Indian viewpoint does the cartoonist support?

(1) Illegal immigrants should not be allowed to settle on Native American Indian

reservations.

(2) European settlers took Native American Indian land.

(3) Government efforts to restrict immigration should be supported.

(4) Native American Indians support government efforts to stop illegal immigration.

2. Over the past twenty years, an objective of United States immigration policy has been to

(1) reduce the number of illegal immigrants

(2) keep out immigrants from former communist nations

(3) return to an open immigration policy

(4) encourage emigration from Western Europe



Answers for Immigration

1) 2 2) 2


Social Policies

Population Patterns, Baby Boom & Effect of Aging Population

1 According to the 1990 census, which two areas of the United States include the most densely populated parts of the nation?

(1) the Great Plains and Texas

(2) the Northeast and southern California

(3) the South and the Rocky Mountain states

(4) the Appalachian states and the Midwest



2. Which development following World War II caused the urban-suburban pattern shown in the

diagram?

(1) increase in the number of farms

(2) expansion of highways and automobile ownership

(3) movement of most factories to rural areas

(4) decline in the number of middle-income families

3. The aging of the baby boom generation will most likely result in

(1) an increase in Social Security spending

(2) a decrease in health care costs

(3) a decrease in infant mortality in the United States

(4) a balanced federal budget

4. The baby boom primarily resulted from the

(1) economic prosperity of the 1920s

(2) Great Depression of the 1930s

(3) delay in marriages during World War II

(4) counterculture movement of the 1960s

5. During the next 30 years, what will be the most likely impact of the baby boom that followed

World War II?

(1) More money will be spent on national defense.

(2) The cost of health care will decrease.

(3) Social Security will have to provide for increasing numbers of retired people.

(4) The elderly will be the smallest segment of the population.

6. Which change in the demographic pattern of the United States is currently contributing most

to the problems facing the Social Security system?

(1) aging of the baby boomers

(2) shorter life span of the elderly

(3) migration to the Sunbelt

(4) decline in the rate of immigration

7. Social scientists use the expression “the graying of America” to describe the

(1) aging of the nation’s population

(2) declining political power of older Americans

(3) possible failure of the Social Security System

(4) increasing number of babies born to older couples



8. What did the federal government propose to address the problem suggested by the

graph?

(1) creation of a national one-child policy



(2) expansion of the Medicare program

(3) development of a national child-care program for working parents

(4) elimination of Social Security benefits for Americans over the age of 85

9. Which situation can be inferred from the population trend shown on the graph?

(1) In the 1980s, more new schools were needed than in the early 1960s.

(2) In the 1970s, there was increased migration to the northeast.

(3) In the 1980s, the number of baby boomers was recognized as a threat to the future of

Social Security benefits.

(4) In the 1990s, death rates increased.

10. Information on the graph shows that the birthrate peaked in

(1) 1940

(2) 1947

(3) 1957

(4) 1970


11. In 1965, Congress established Medicare to

(1) provide health care to the elderly

(2) assist foreign nations with their health problems

(3) grant scholarships to medical students

(4) establish universal health care

12. As the average age of the nation’s population increases, there will be a need to

(1) create more child care facilities

(2) address the financing of Medicare

(3) increase the number of public schools

(4) reform immigration laws



13. The changes shown in the graph support the recent concerns of Americans about the

(1) future of Social Security and Medicare

(2) return to an agrarian society

(3) surplus of health care workers

(4) shortage of schools and colleges



Answers for Social Policies - Population Patterns, Baby Boom & Effect of Aging Population

1) 2 2) 2 3) 1 4) 3 5) 3 6) 1 7) 1 8) 2 9) 3 10) 2 11) 1 12) 2 13) 1




Modern effects upon Women

1. The Equal Pay Act, the Title IX education amendment, and the proposed Equal Rights

amendment (ERA) were primarily efforts to improve the status of

(1) African Americans

(2) Native American Indians

(3) migrant workers

(4) women

2. The data in this chart support the conclusion that between 1960 and 1990

(1) government failed to pass laws that granted women equal access to jobs

(2) the earnings gap between men and women was only slightly improved

(3) women’s earnings consistently increased faster than those of men

(4) most higher paying jobs were still not legally open to women



3. Which statement is most clearly supported by the information in the graph?

(1) More children were under age 6 in 1990 than in 1950.

(2) Since 1990, women have made up more than half of the workforce.

(3) The gap between male and female incomes has declined.

(4) Fewer women are staying home to raise their young children.

4. A candidate for public office would likely conclude from a study of this graph that the

public would favor increased government support for

(1) additional foreign aid

(2) health care facilities

(3) child day-care centers

(4) colleges and universities

5. A major goal of the women’s movement over the past twenty years has been to gain

(1) full property rights

(2) the right to vote

(3) equal economic opportunity

(4) better access to Social Security

6. Books such as Uncle Tom’s Cabin, How the Other Half Lives, and The Feminine Mystique all show that literature can sometimes

(1) expose government corruption

(2) cause violent revolution

(3) begin military conflict

(4) encourage social reform

7. The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan was an influential book in the 1960s because it

(1) helped strengthen family values

(2) led directly to the defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment

(3) energized a new women’s rights movement

(4) reinforced the importance of women’s traditional roles

8. The data included in the table suggest that since 1971

(1) boys are losing interest in participating in sports

(2) participation in sports by boys and girls is nearly equal

(3) girls’ participation in sports equals that of boys

(4) girls’ participation in sports is increasing at a faster rate than that of boys

9. Which development contributed most to the changes shown in the table?

(1) passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

(2) inclusion of Title IX in the Education Amendments of 1972

(3) the beginning of Head Start programs in the 1960s



(4) increase in the number of nonpublic schools since the 1970s
Answers for Modern effects upon Women:

1) 4 2) 2 3) 3 4) 3 5) 3 6) 4 7) 3 8) 4 9) 2

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