The research on electronic computer games as a recreational activity in turkey



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19th International Conference on Game and Entertainment Technologies (GET 2016), 2-4 July, 2016, Funchal, Medeira, Portugal.


THE RESEARCH ON ELECTRONIC COMPUTER GAMES AS A RECREATIONAL ACTIVITY IN TURKEY

ABSTRACT

Entertainment games provide engaging activities and it would appear that far from waning, interest in games for leisure is still growing. The availability of new consoles, platforms and technologies for the delivery of games is an important factor in this continued growth. The aim of this study is to determine characteristic and habits of computer game players in Turkey. In line with this purpose following processes were followed and reported. Study group of the research is chosen by random sampling method through online questionary techniques from 69 women and 252 men, 321 people in total. Two different data collection tools were used in gathering research data. As a result of the study, most of the computer game players choses target shooting games and sportive, action, and fantasy games follow to target shooting games as popularity and more than half of players (%56) prefer to play multiplayer games than single player games. It is reported that players spend approximately 10,1 hours playing computer game per week.

KEYWORDS: Computer games, electronic leisure habits, electronic games.

INTRODUCTION

Over the last 40 years computer games have increasingly replaced more traditional games as leisure activities and have had a trans- formational impact on how we spend our leisure time. Entertainment games provide engaging activities and it would appear that far from waning, interest in games for leisure is still growing. The availability of new consoles, platforms and technologies for the delivery of games is an important factor in this continued growth (Connolly, 2012). Playing digital games on a personal computer, a game console, a handheld device, or on the Internet is a relatively new, but massively popular form of mediated entertainment. In the public eye, games are generally constructed as the province of children, but one may wonder if this image is accurate (Williams, 2006).

Gardner (1991) claimed that the use of videogames provided excellent behavioral observation opportunities such as increasing repertoire of problem-solving strategies, eye–hand coordination, the satisfaction of cognitive activity in the involvement, release of aggression and control. Videogames can also influence the child’s social integration. In a number of studies, it has been established that children behave more socially after playing videogames (van Schie & Wiegman, 1997).

Games and their outcomes and impacts have been analyzed along a number of dimensions and it is proposed that these classifications should help in developing a more organized framework for understanding games. In categorizing games it is useful to consider the primary function of the game, that is whether the game was developed initially as a game for entertainment, a game for learning or as a serious game. Digital commercial games (such as Mario Brothers and Grand Theft Auto) were developed primarily for fun, entertainment and recreation, while the main aims of games-based learning and serious games are learning and behaviour change. The terms serious games and games-based learning are sometimes used synonymously (Corti, 2006), although serious games have been developed for the broader purposes of training and behaviour change in business, industry, marketing, healthcare and government NGOs as well as in education (Sawyer & Smith, 2008). Sweetser & Wyeth (2005) claimed that understanding game usability has had priority over understanding game enjoyment, while Vorderer, Klimmt & Ritterfield (2004) have suggested that research has neglected to consider the nature of media enjoyment generally.

A differentiation in genres is a convenient way to bring some order into the diversity of games. Game genre can be splited by the intention of the game as; action, adventure, animated tutorial, board game, fighting, generic games, generic online games, mobile device, N/A, platform, puzzle, racing game, role-playing, simulation, sports, strategy, virtual reality (Tan & Jansz, 2008; Holtz & Appel, 2011; Lucas & Sherry, 2004). The aim of this study is to determine characteristic and habits of computer game players in Turkey. In line with this purpose following processes were followed and reported.

METHOD

Study Group

Study group of the research is chosen by random sampling method through online questionary techniques from 69 women and 252 men, 321 people in total. In order to prepare the data set collected from 321 participants for statistical analyses, missing data and extreme values are excluded from data set and then the research continued with 300 participants.



Data Collection Tools

Two different data collection tools which was personal information form created so as to determine participants’ demographic information and electronic game experience scale which was developed by researchers based on literature were used in gathering research data.



FINDINGS

Findings on computer game experiences of participants showed that most of participants plays serious computer games more than 5 years. This finding is followed by %10 less than 1 year, %3 between 1 and 2 years, %5 between 2 and 3 years, %8 between 2 and 3 years (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Computer game experiences of participants

Findings on computer game time spending of participants showed that, %30 of participants less 1 hour, %18 of participants 1-2 hours, %17 of participants 2-3 hours, % 17 of participants 4-5 hours, %15 of participants more than 5 hours play computer games in a day (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Amount of playing computer game of participants

It has been seen that, %56 of participants play multiplayer, %44 of participants play single player games as serious computer game (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Single or multi player choices of participants

Game broadcasting and watching game broadcastings habits of participants were investigated. It is reported that %51 of participants play video games only, %39 of participants watching broadcasts of others, %1,8 of participants broadcasting their own game videos, %8 of participants not only watching broadcasts but also broadcasting their own videos in addition to playing computer games (Figure 4).

Figure 4. Attitudes of serious computer game players

Game genre choices of participants were investigated. The most preferred game genre is shooting target games as %27,4 and the least preferred game genre is arcade games as %2,3. Other game genres are sorted by popularity in computer game players as; %16,1 fantasy games, %14,4 action and adventure games, %10,4 sport games, %7,4 strategy games, %6,7 Facebook games, %5 racing games, %3,7 role-playing games, %3,3 simulation games.

Figure 5. Game genre choices of participants

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

As a result of the study, most of the computer game players choses target shooting games and sportive, action, and fantasy games follow to target shooting games as popularity. Lucas & Sherry (2004) reported that female players like the non-mental rotation games such as puzzle, arcade, quiz, board games etc., but conversely male players like mental rotation games such as fighting, shooting target, sports, racing etc. As an other result of the study, more than half of players (%56) prefer to play multiplayer games than single player games. Pena & Hancock (2006) stated that multiplayer games are getting be more popular for serious players because of including more cognitive effects such as aggression, social interaction, exposure etc., than single player games. Results of the study showed us that computer game players have an experiences more than 5 years mostly. Hsu & Lu (2004) reported that players game experiences as approximately 3 years. And computer games are played by females as 5.30 hours, by males as 14.8 hours per week. Approximately 10,1 hours playing computer game average per week is higher than results of some studies (Lucas & Sherry, 2004; Chou and Tsai, 2007; Eastin, 2006) in international literature. Results show that computer game players not only playing computer games but also broadcasting video games and watching broadcasts of other players.



REFERENCES

Connolly, T. M., Boyle, E.A., MacArthur, E., Hainey, T., Boyle, T.M. (2012). A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games. Computers & Education 59 (2012) 661–686.

Chou, C., & Tsai, M.-J. (2007). Gender differences in Taiwan high school students’ computer game playing. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 812–824.


Corti, K. (2006). Games-based learning: a serious business application. PIXELearning Limited. Retrieved 29 November 2009 from. http://www.pixelearning.com/docs/games_based learning-pixelearning.pdf.


Eastin, M. S. (2006). Video game violence and the female game player- self- and opponent gender effects on presence and aggressive thoughts. Communication Research, 33(6), 448–466.


Gardner, J.E. (1991). Can the Mario Bros. help? Nintendo games as an adjunct in psychotherapy with children. Psychotherapy, 28, 667–670.

Holtz, P., & Appel, M. (2011). Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 49–58.

Lucas, K., & Sherry, J. L. (2004). Sex differences in video game play: a communication-based explanation. Communication Research, 31(5), 499–523.


Pena, J., & Hancock, J. (2006). An analysis of socioemotional and task communication in

online mutiplayer video games. Communication Research, 33(1), 92–109.

Pena, J., & Hancock, J. (2006). An analysis of socioemotional and task communication in

online mutiplayer video games. Communication Research, 33(1), 92–109.

Pena, J., & Hancock, J. T. (2006). An analysis of socioemotional and task communication in ˜ online multiplayer video games. Communication Research, 33(1), 92–109.

Sawyer, B., & Smith. (October 2008). Keynote address. In The second European conference on games-based learning (pp. 16–17). Barcelona Spain: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.

Sweetser, P., & Wyeth, P. (2005). GameFlow: a model for evaluating player enjoyment. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 3(3), 1–24.

Tan, E. S., & Jansz, J. (2008). The game experience. In H. N. Schifferstein & P. P. Hekkert (Eds.), Product experience (pp. 531–556). San Diego: Elsevier.

Van Schie, E. G. M., & Wiegman, O. (1997). Children and videogames: Leisure activities, aggression, social integration, and school performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1175–1194.

Vorderer, P., Klimmt, C., & Ritterfield, U. (2004). Enjoyment: at the heart of media entertainment. Communication Theory, 14(4), 388–408.




Williams, D. (2006). A brief social history of game play. In: P. Vorderer and J. Bryant (Eds.) Playing videogames, pp. 197–212. Mahwah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum.
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