The Right Stuff / From the Earth to the Moon / Apollo 13
To answer each question, double click on the red line (do not delete the line) and type your answer. If your answer is not displayed in red, change the font color to red. These films are historical re-enactment using actors to represent the actual people during these historical events. The director has creative control over the plot.
The Right Stuff In 1948, Chuck Yeagar, at Edwards Air Force Base, flew the ______ plane and broke the ______ barrier, which is identified as _________. To a person on the ground, how did they know that he broke this record? ________
In 1953, Scott Crossfield breaks ________ speed barrier in his plane.
On October 4, 1957 at Star City, ___________ , the first artificial satellite, named ________ , is launched.
The first U.S. astronauts were selected from a group of ________ . This first group of Mercury astronauts were John Glenn, Virgil “Gus” Grissom, Leroy “Gordo” Cooper, Donald “Deke” Slayton, Alan Shepard, Scott Carpenter, and Wally Schirra.
Chuck Yeager was quoted as describing the Mercury astronauts as “ _______ in a can.” He did not challenge their courage or commitment, but felt that they were not really pilots, but passengers going on a ride.
Many technological advancements had to be made to create a rocket that could successfully lift a spacecraft into orbit. Many of the early test un-manned flights failed to reach orbit because the rockets __________ .
On January 31, 1961, the U.S. launched its first _________ into space.
On April 12, 1961, _________________ of the country __________ was the first person in space.
On May 5, 1961, ______________ , piloting the Freedom 7 spacecraft, was the first U.S. astronaut to make a sub-orbital flight into space.
On July 21, 1961, _____________ , piloting the Liberty Bell 7 spacecraft, was the second U.S. astronaut to make a sub-orbital flight into space. After splash-down, there was a problem with the explosive bolts that open the door – it fired prematurely causing the spacecraft to _____ .
On Feb 20, 1962, _____________ , piloting the Friendship 7 spacecraft, was the first U.S. astronaut to make full orbital flight around the earth in space – his trip lasted 3 orbits. During the flight an indicator light came on that suggested that the heat shield may be loose. It did not come off, but what would have happened if the heat shield would have come off? ___________________________________
Launching on May 15, 1963, ___________________ , piloting the Faith 7 spacecraft, made 22 orbits around the Earth in space. His flight was the last ______ American astronaut to fly into space. He was the first American astronaut to sleep not only in orbit but on the ____________ during a countdown.
The Mercury flights were followed by a series of Gemini flights to test our ability to stay in space for longer periods of time, to join two spacecrafts in space, to walk in space, etc. All in preparation to go to the moon.
Being an astronaut can be hazardous. Many have died. The rocket could explode. Life threatening events occurred on several of the early Mercury flights. Why do you think they were described as having the right stuff? _________________________________________
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 1: Can we do this? What happened on April 12, 1961? __________________________________________________________
On May 5, 1961, Alan B. Shepard Jr. on Freedom ___ (the first Mercury flight) was the first ____________
During the re-entry of this flight, the astronaut experienced _____ g’s of deceleration. On the Earth the absolute value of 1 g of gravity is equal to 9.8 m/s2. In m/s2, what is the deceleration of the space capsule during re-entry? _____
To be able to get to the moon, there are 5 general areas in which NASA had to develop new technologies and become proficient at accomplishing these tasks before any trip to the moon can be attempted.
________ : Can they get a spacecraft in __________ and keep it?
______ : Can they build a __________________ that can protect the astronaut and allow him to walk on the moon or maneuver outside the spacecraft? The astronaut must be protected against solar radiation, heat, and the vacuum of space. The astronaut needs oxygen and water.
______________ : Can they maneuver two spacecrafts with sufficient precision to get them to meet?
______________ : Can they develop the technology to join the two spacecrafts together with an air tight seal? Do the astronauts have the skill to accomplish this task?
_______ _____________________________ : Can the human body withstand an environment with no gravity for an extended period for the flight to the moon and back?
On Nov 25, 1963, President Kennedy was assassinated. Station #1 of the Atlantic Missile Range and the NASA Launch Center is renamed to the ____________ .
On March 18, 1965, ________________________, a ___________ cosmonaut, is the first to “walk in space.”
On June 3, 1965, _________________________, an ______________ astronaut walks in space. This occurs on the Gemini ___ flight.
On March 16, 1966, David Scott and Neil Armstrong on the Gemini ___ flight are able to __________ with an unmanned spacecraft in space.
On Nov 11, 1966, Jim Lovell and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin on the Gemini ___ flight (the last Gemini flight) accomplished three major goals, successful _____________ with another spacecraft, the longest space ______ and the longest _______ in space.
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 2: Apollo 1 During a plugs out test of the Apollo 1 spacecraft, Ed White, Roger Chaffee, and Gus Grissom died during a _________. The fire was the result of:
Using _______ oxygen instead of our normal atmosphere (about 21% oxygen), pressurizing the cabin to ____ psi to simulate conditions of space (inside pressure being higher than the outside pressure. In outer space which has no atmospheric pressure, the inside pressure would have been about 5 psi, but on Earth the atmospheric pressure is 14 psi, and therefore the inside pressure must be higher).
Having a large quantity of Velcro in the spacecraft (in normal atmosphere Velcro does not burn, but can explode into flames in a pure oxygen atmosphere).
Most likely, a spark from a frayed _________ that caused some nylon netting to catch fire.
What prevented the astronauts from escaping from the spacecraft after the fire started? __________________
Frank Borman at the Senate hearings stated when asked what caused the fire, “Failure of _______________. The worry was about a fire in space – away from help – not on the ground. No one thought a fire in the test was possible.”
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 3: We have cleared the tower. The first flight after the Apollo 1 fire was Apollo ___. The three astronauts on this flight are Wally Schirra, Gene Cernan, and Don Eisele. Was this a flight to the moon or an Earth orbit? ____________
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 4: 1968 1968 was a hard year for both the country and for the U.S. space program.
The United States was involved in the _____________ War. Because of this war, President Johnson decided not to run for a second term.
In April, _______________________ was shot and killed.
In June, ________________________ was shot and killed. He was a major candidate for President in the Democrat Party.
In Aug, the ______________ bring out a new large ___________ , which is capable of lifting a spacecraft capable of going to the moon.
In October, the ______________ send and return an _____________ flight to the _________ . This flight provides pictures of the back side of the moon, which we are unable to see from the Earth.
In December Apollo ___ (Frank Borman, Bill Anders, and Jim Lovell) fly to the ________ , make ____ orbits, and then return to the __________ . A major concern was whether the ___________ will fire each time it is needed to decelerate to obtain orbit and to accelerate to leave orbit. If not, they would be trapped.
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 5: Spider __________ were some of the first people to give much thought about going to the moon. That changed in October 1957 when the Russians launched ____________ .
In January 1963 ______________ Engineering was given the contract to build the Lunar Module (LEM or Lunar Excursion Module) for NASA.
The design of the Lunar Module or LEM:
The astronauts ___________ . There are no _________ .
__________ film is used as the thermal shield.
Because every piece is ___________ -made, each piece had to be tested and retested.
How would the LEM react to intense ____________ or hit by dust?
How would the landing gear perform if it came down on a slope?
The first LEM had the call sign of ___________ . In February/March of 1969, it flew on Apollo ___ (James McDivitt, David Scott, and Russell "Rusty" Schweickart) to test the system in ____________ orbit. It did not land on the Moon.
In May 1969, the second LEM flew on Apollo ___ . Tom Stafford and Gene Cernan flew this LEM within 50,000 feet of the _________ surface. John Young was the command pilot. It did not land on the Moon.
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 6: Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Transquility) Apollo ___ (Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin Jr with Michael Collins in the command module) launched on July 16, 1969. The LEM landed on the Moon on July 20, 1969. _____________________ and ____________________ were the first two astronauts to walk on the surface of the Moon.
The landing of the LEM is the most difficult task. Simulators allow the astronauts to practice any and all types of problems that the designers could imagine happening on an actual landing to see how the crew reacts. On the actual landing, they nearly ran out of fuel – there were about ____ seconds of fuel remaining before the landing had to be aborted. The phrase “The _________ has landed” told Huston that the LEM had successfully landed.
When Neil Armstrong first stepped on the surface of the Moon, he stated, “That’s one small step for _______ . One giant leap for ____________ .”
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 7: That’s all there is. On November 21, 1969, Apollo ___ (Al Bean and Pete Conrad in the LEM with Dick Conrad in the command module) landed on the moon in the Ocean of Storms. During launch from Earth, the spacecraft & rocket was hit by ______________ , which caused some instrument problems.
Major Objectives of the flight
Demonstrate the ability to land at a ___________________________ on the moon.
In 1967, the unmanned Surveyor broadcast the first __________________________ from the surface of the moon. Retrieve the _____________ so that it can be studied to determine the long term effects of man-made machines. If the harsh environment of space does too much long-term damage to shields and instruments, what would be effect on possible space travel? ___________________________________
Survey the lunar terrain for possible landing sites of Apollo 13 and 14.
What is the significance of the program title, “That’s all there is?” ___________________________________
What were Pete Conrad’s first words when he stepped on the surface of the Moon? ______________________
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 8: We interrupt this program In April 1970, Apollo __ (Jim Lovell, Jack Swigart, and Fred Haise) traveled to the Moon. On the trip to the Moon, Jim Lovell is recorded to say “Huston, I believe we have a ______________ here.”
Why was the general public loosing interest in the Apollo program? ______________________________
In addition to the problems identified in the movie, Apollo 13, there was one additional problem. The spacecraft contained 8 pounds of _______________ , which is used in a ______________________ battery.
Apollo 13 When is control of Apollo 13 transferred from the Kennedy Space Center to Houston? _____________________
Name of the Apollo 13 command module: ______________ Name of theApollo 13 lunar lander: ___________
Jim Lovell says “ _____________ we have a _____________ ” In reality, there were many problems that had to be overcome if they were going to return to the Earth safely.
Problem 1: The accident caused a rupture in the _____ fuel cell, which caused a loss of power. The astronauts observed the ____________ of gas outside the command module. They had ____ minutes of ____ left in the command module.
********** Apollo 13 questions continue on the next page **********
Problem 2: The space module was heading toward the moon at a high velocity. To turn the space module around and head back for earth, the space module used the _________ ’s _____________ to sling around the __________ .
When the astronauts turn off all of the electronics, Jim Lovell says something about Mr. Newton is now in the driver’s seat. Which of Sir Isaac Newton’s laws was Jim Lovell referring to? _____________________ Explain: _________________________________________________________________________
The astronauts were told to stop dumping their Urine and bag it. Why? ____________________________________ This is an application of which of Sir Isaac Newton’s Laws? ____________________________________
When talking to the scientists and engineers who were selected to address the various issues related to this accident, Gene Krantz, the flight director at Huston, stated (as part of his motivation speech) “ ___________ is not an option.”
When the space module is going around the moon, ____________ contact with Houston is lost.
Problem 3: Aquarius normally pulls ____A of electricity. They had to reduce the current down to ____A if the batteries were going to last the entire trip back.
Problem 4: On the trip back, a PC+2 burn was needed. If the approach path to the earth’s atmosphere was too shallow, the space module would ______ off the atmosphere and fly off into space. If the path was too steep, the module would _____________ in the atmosphere.
Problem 5: The _______ scrubbers on Aquarius are designed for 2 people for 3 days - not for a return trip from the moon with 3 people. Why couldn’t they plug the scrubbers from Odyssey into Aquarius? ___________________________ High concentrations of _______ will _____________ the astronauts.
An engineer is given the title, “ ___________ eye ______________ -man” when he solves this CO2 problem.
For most of the trip back, the relative temperature in Aquarius was (hot / cold / comfortable). ______
Problem 6: The astronauts had to ______________ water. Dehydration causes damage to the human body. What are two symptoms of a lack of water? ____________________ and _______________________
Problem 7: When powering up Odyssey, they were limited to _____A of current from the damaged batteries; they needed 24A. Where did they get the additional current? ____________________________________
Problem 8: If the heat shields were cracked, the reentry module would _________ open in the atmosphere and would kill the astronauts.
Problem 9: If the parachutes did not open, the module would not have landed at a gentle ___ mph, but at a suicidal ____ mph.
When reentering the atmosphere, there is a period of time when Houston loses ____________ contact with the astronauts. On earlier flights, __ minutes was the longest period on any previous flight. On Apollo 13, the period lasted over __ minutes.
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 9: For Miles and Miles In January/February of 1971, Apollo ___ (Alan B. Shepard and Ed Mitchell in the LEM with Stu Roosa in the Command Module) landed in the Fra Mauro Highlands on the Moon.
There was a problem with the ___________ light. If it came on during the landing, the LEM would automatically abort the landing. How was the problem fixed? _________________________________
When Shepard says “miles and miles and miles,” what is he referring to? ___________________________
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 10: Galileo was right.
In June/July of 1971, Apollo ___ (Dave Scott and James Irwin in the LEM with Al Worden in the Command Module.) landed in the Appenine Moutains.
Each Apollo mission was more concerned about studying the composition and age of the moon. Those astronauts in the LEM had to develop skills in _______________ while the one remaining in the Command Module needed to develop skills in ___________________ .
The cost of sending a robot to the Moon to study the rocks and soil would be less expensive compared to sending a human. What is the major advantage of a human collector of rocks over a robot? ___________________________
Two different sites were discussed as possible landing sites? What were they? ________________________
What were the advantages and disadvantages of both sites
Which was selected? ______________________ Why? _____________________________
What did they mean by “How about that. That proves that Mr. Galileo was correct?” ________________
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 11: First Wives Club In April 1972, Apollo ___ (Charles Duke and John Young in the LEM with Ken Mattingly in the Command Module) traveled to and landed in the DesCartes Plains in the south Highlands on the Moon.
From the Earth to the Moon, Part 12: le Voyage Dans La Lune In December 1972, Apollo ___ (Gene Cernan and Harrison “Jack” Schmidt in the LEM with Ron Evans in the Command Module) traveled to and landed in Taurus-Littrow in the Sea of Serenity on the Moon.
“Jack” Schmidt was the only astronaut that was not a pilot by trade. He was a _________________ .