The University Of Sheffield

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The University Of Sheffield

EU Trade Systems and West African Ruling Elites’ Survival.

Michael Ehis Odijie

A thesis submitted to the Department of Politics at the University of Sheffield for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


I certify that the thesis I have presented for examination is wholly my own work.

I declare that my thesis consists of 98,276 words.

To the memory of my friend Ebere Nwonkedi (1986-2005)

Come back! Even as a shadow,

even as a dream.


First, I am very thankful to my supervisor John M. Hobson for his unfailing support, counsel, and advice. His constructive criticism throughout the process, discharged during office hours, by email, and in hours of telephone conversation, made the PhD highly engaging and enjoyable. In the same spirit, I thank my second supervisor Graham Harrison for his direction and feedback and for patiently reading and commenting on every chapter of my thesis. Within the Department of Politics, I thank Sarah Cooke for her inestimable support. I am also thankful to all of my PhD colleagues and friends. I thank Shazelina for her support and friendship, and Aburezua, Darlington, Majeed, Mohammed and Victoria for our many moments of joy in the graduate research centre. Finally, my family deserve a capitalised THANK YOU for their support: especially my parents, but also my brothers (Eromosele, Charles, Fred and Abosele) and sisters (Grace and Helen).


The University Of Sheffield 1

EU Trade Systems and West African Ruling Elites’ Survival. 1

Michael Ehis Odijie 1

List of Tabl 7

List of Figure 8

Abstract 9

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

Gaps in the existing literature on EU-Africa Trade System 1

Research Problem: The Puzzle of Limited Economic Transformation 7


Methodology and Limitation 9

Research Design and Case Selection 10

Method: Information Elicitation and Analysis 11

Data Sources and Types 12

Analytical Procedure 13

Limitation 14

Thesis Outline 14

Chapter 2: Political Survival of Ruling Elites 21

Introduction 21

Assumptions of LAO Framework (for the African State Type) 22

Political Survival of Ruling Elites and Political Origins of Economic Change 28

Trade Extraversion in LAO 32

Conclusion 36

Chapter 3: The Imperative of Economic Change 39

Development Imperative 40

Anti-poverty Imperative 43

Conclusion 49

Chapter 4. Historical Background of West Africa- EU Trade System 50

Introduction 50

Part 1 The Pattern 52

Development Theory of History: Culture 52

Civilising Mission: Africa’s Role in Organising European Peace in 1884 55

Role of Colonialism in Determining Specialisation 57

Part 2. The Replication 61

Development Theory of History: Economic Development 61

Negotiating Imperial Partnerships: Africa’s role in reorganising a Peaceful Europe 64

Conclusion: Rome Treaty 69

Chapter 5: Yaoundé Convention. 1960-1975 71

Introduction 71

Background: Similarities between Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire 75

1961: Point of Divergence between Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire 79

First Case Study: Ghana, 1961-1975; Threats and Diversification Attempts 82

Post-1961 Development Efforts 85

1966-1970: Price Stability and Effects on Policy 93

Price Instability and Second Development Effort 96

Second Case Study: Côte d’Ivoire, 1961-1975; EEC and Extraversion 103

EEC Trade System: Yaoundé Convention 107

Economic Impact of Yaoundé Association 110

Divergence in West Africa 126

Conclusion 130

Chapter 6: The Lomé Convention and Extraversion 133

Introduction 133

The Context of the Lomé Convention 135

Features of the Lomé Convention 137

Effects of the Lomé Convention 139

Resource Misallocation—The Case of Sugar Sector 140

Case Study of Diminishing Returns in Cocoa 145

Convergence in Sub-Optimal production 163

Conclusion 174

Chapter 7: The Cotonou Agreement 177

Introduction 177

Part 1. EPA process—EU Policy preferences and exploitation of domestic survival strategies 180

EPA: WTO compatibility or EU policy preference? 180

Division Among West Africa Ruling Elites 184

Some Arguments against the EPA 190

Part 2: Outcome of EPA 196

EPA and Access to EU Market 199

Shrinking EU Preferences 202

EPA and Diversification 211

Regional Obstruction: The Chicken Experiment in Côte d’Ivoire 214

Conclusion 222

Chapter 8: Conclusion 225

Introduction 225

Theoretical Restatement 226

Summary of Findings 229

Implications and Contributions 236

Implications beyond EU Trade System 239

Bibliography 243

List of Tabl

Table 1 Timeline and Summary of EU trade systems 1

Table 5. 1 Indicators of external economic dependence for Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire, 1956-1958 76

Table 5. 2 Profit and loss records for selected state enterprises, 1964-5 (¢ thousands) and 1969-70 92

Table 5. 3 Government and cocoa industry: selected indicators 94

Table 5. 4 Ghanaian cocoa production: volume, export value and world price per ton, 1954-1970 101

Table 5. 5 Producer prices in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire 111

Table 5. 6. Direction of trade, 1960-1975. Export distribution per products 114

Table 5. 7. Distribution of total exports, 1960-1975 115

Table 5. 8 Sources and value of imports in billion CFAF, 1960-74 116

Table 6 1: Comparison of world-market and Lomé prices (in UA per 100 kg raw sugar) 141

Table 7. 1. Showing the difference in tariff between Lomé and GSP in selected exports. 184

Table 7. 2. The gap between aid promised and disbursed by the EU to ACP countries between 1975 and 2007 193

Table 7. 3 Ghana’s overall trade with EU, 2004 -2014 197

Table 7. 4. Côte d’Ivoire’s trade with EU, 2004-2014 199

Table 7. 5. Côte d'Ivoire’s banana exports to the EU (EU 28) 205

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