Those who do not treasure the memory of their ancestors do not deserve to be remembered by posterity



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DESCENDANTS OF ALEXANDER AND ELIZABETH (CANDLISH) BOLS (BOWLES)OF WEST CORNWALLIS, KINGS COUNTY
"Those who do not treasure the memory of their ancestors do not deserve to be remembered by posterity." -Edmund Burke
My interest in the Bowles family stems from the fact that my maternal grandmother Laura Burgess (Bowles) Bishop was the daughter of George Bowles and his second wife, Susan Shaw, d/o Isaiah and Sarah (Lyons) Shaw. George and Susan Bowles resided in Grafton, Kings County, Nova Scotia, and they are buried in the churchyard of Saint Andrew's United (previously Presbyterian) Church, Waterville, Kings County, Nova Scotia, as is his father, Graham Bowles.

George's grandparents were Alexander Bols and Elizabeth Candlish, both of whom died 1820 and are buried in the Chipman Corner cemetery, which was where a French cemetery had been, (and where subsequently the Presbyterian church which was torn down in 1874, had been). Next to them is their son William Bowles, who also died in 1820 (Note: 1829 is date of death as given by Philip Thorpe, which is probably correct). Alexander Bols was aged 71 at his death 20 Jan 1820, (CTR says 18 Jan 1820), placing his birth date ca. 1749. Under his name is the following epitaph:

"He lived respected

He died lamented"


The wife of Alexander Bols, Elizabeth Candlish, was 76 when she died 17 Jan. 1820, (in one place I wrote it as 1829) placing her birthdate ca. 1744 (or 1753), and like her husband, probably in Scotland.

CTR lists the death of Alexander Boles as 18 Jan. 1820.

The stones of Alexander and Elizabeth Bowles were in poor repair when I visited the Chipman Corner cemetery in March 1985. They seemed to be made of sandstone, with a facing that was crumbling. They are located about half way up the cemetery grounds next to Church Street, in front of the stone of Stephen Chase and the Gesners, and behind Newcombs.

Many variations of the name have been found in print, but it seems "Bols" was the original way, or at least this was how Alexander had signed his own name in an early document in Cornwallis Township. The other ways I have seen it spelled are: Boles, Bolls, and Bowls. My grandmother and her parents spelled it "Bowles", and the gravestone of Alexander's son, William , who is buried next to Alexander in the old Chipman Corner cemetary, is spelled "Bowles". Jefferson said "Everyone should have education enough to to know how to spell his name in more than one way". Using this criteria, I guess I have more than enough education!


Alexander Bols' will of 1814 can be found in the municipal building of Kings County, Kentville. (Probate B-18). It was particularly valuable in that it gives the names of both his children, and the spouses of the female children:

Alexander Bols, yeoman -


1st - to my beloved wife, Elizabeth -25 pounds annually, and use of West parlour, West bedroom, and such privileges in the cellar and garret as she may want.
2nd - unto my beloved daughter, Mary, the wife of William Nesbit - 60 pounds.
3rd.- ....daughter, Margaret, the wife of John Woodworth, - 60 pounds.
4th - ...daughter, Sarah, the wife of Eliakim Tupper - 60 pounds.
5th - ...daughter, Elizabeth, the widow of the late Elias Tupper Junr. - 38 pounds.
6th - ...grandson, Elias Tupper - 7 pounds
and ....beloved sons William, John, and Graham Bols, the latter appointed as Executors 1814 June 11.

In presence of C.T.Campbell, John I. Campbell, and William C. Campbell.


Codicil:

Rev William Forsyth, the present minister of the Presbyterian Church in Cornwallis - 1 pound 10 shillings annually.

1819- Additional 15 pounds each to daughters.

Feb 7, 1820 - statement by Wm Campbell, C.T.Campbell, Thomas Campbell, Dan Cogswell, James Newcomb -that will was made when A. Bols was in sensible mind.

The fact that Alexander Bols willed money to the Presbyterian minister, Rev. Forsyth, tells us that Alexander Bols stayed with the Presbyterian faith even though some of his children went towards other persuasions.

At one point I toyed with the idea of calling my document "The Lebanon Connection", as the spouses of the children of Alexander and Elizabeth Bols/Bowles married into early New England Planter families who had moved to Nova Scotia about 1760, from Lebanon Connecticut. (refer to another document entitled "The Lebanon Connection". (Many Kings County families could say the same). This was probably in response to the advertisements placed in the New England newspapers by the Govenor of Nova Scotia, offering free land grants to English speaking people who they considered would be more loyal to the British crown than the French Acadians, whom they had just (1755) deported from their lands. (considering what was to transpire but 16 years later in Massachusetts, one would have to question their judgement!). Eaton's "History of Kings County" which was first published in 1910 in Salem, MA., says "Of the planters who came to Cornwallis and Horton, by far the larger number were members of representative families in the eastern counties of Connecticut. A few were from Massachusetts and Rhode Island, but the original homes of most were those beautiful old towns comprised within the boundaries of the four Connecticut counties, New London and Windham, Middlesex and Tolland, - the towns of New London, Lebanon, Colchester, Lyme, Norwich, Killingworth, Hebron, Saybrook, Stonington, Tolland, Windham, and Windsor, the last, however, lying a little farther west in the county of Hartford. If any one will take the trouble to examine the histories of New London and Norwich,... or the now rapidly increasing later towns and family histories of eastern Connecticut, he will see how important the families were from whom are descended the people who have inhabited, and still largely inhabit the county whose annals this volume is written to preserve". (ie. Kings County, Nova Scotia).

"In the North Parish of New London,, now called Montville, in the noted old town of Lebanon, in Norwich, the beautiful "Rose of New England", the most influential families in the 18th century were families, branches of which the later genealogical sketches in this book will be found to enshrine. From Lebanon, a larger number migrated than from any other town. Of this interesting locality, the author of the Strong Genealogy says with pardonable enthusiasm: "Lebanon, Connecticut, has a remarkable history. No town in the whole country has compared with it in the number of leading professional men it has furnished to the nation. The first settlers who went there from 1695 onwards were of superior stock, the very best intellectual and religious material for `a new plantation' that Northhampton, Norwich etc. could furnish. Another fact is that the land of Lebanon was and is of a very superior quality, but most of all must be taken into account the grand school privileges of Lebanon in its early history. In 1700, the town appropriated 200 acres of land for a school, and many of the proprietors gave of their own lands also for the same purpose, Rev Joseph Parsons giving 5 acres of his land. In 1740 a grammar school was established by a vote of the town and it became a school of great celebrity, having pupils from 9 of the 13 colonies which afterwards became the first states of the union, and sending large numbers of them in successive years to Harvard and Yale".

Eaton goes on to say: "In a certain rate list in Lebanon for levying the minister's salary drawn up in 1741, we find the familiar names, not only of "Deacon John Newcomb", and "Deacon Eliakim Tupper", but of Robert Avery, Moses Dewey, John English, Amos and Noah Fuller, Eddy Newcomb, John and Samuel Porter, and Benjamin Woodworth."... "Through all these southern New England counties, enthusiastic interest in the proclamation concerning Nova Scotia seems to have spread"... " Many of the families that settled in Horton and Cornwallis had intermarried in Connecticut, and to untangle the relationships that existed among them when they came to the county (Kings) would be a difficult, though very interesting task.

The names of families who came from Lebanon who married into the Bowles family or descendants include: Woodworth, Tupper, Newcomb, Webster, Pineo, Barnaby, Porter and Cogswell. The Rockwells came, from East Windsor, Connecticut. It seems to me unlikely, but not impossible, that the Bowles family came from Connecticut, as there is no record of Alexander buying land until 1787, and oral tradition that they were Scottish, is verified by the 1871 census.

The Bowles Family by Thomas M. Farquhar, Philadelphia, 1907, which I saw at the New England Historic Genealogical Society, which I visited in May 1995, says this of the New England Branch of the Bowles Family:

"The first recorded bearer of the Bowles name in New England was William Bowles, who was Clerk of the Council of New England in 1622... the most distinguished line of the name in New England, both for the clarity of it's descent and the eminence of the men it has contributed to the nation's greatness is called the "Roxbury Bowleses". The founder of the Roxbury line was John Bowles who came from England in the ship "Hopewell" in 1636...The Bowles name is doubtless of both Saxon and Norman origin".

In a book I found at the Kingston Town public library, Rhode Island, entitled New England Families, compiled by William R. Cutter (an historian with the above society), published by Lewis Historical Co., New York, 1915, I found reference to a Bolles family on page 1420:

"Joseph Bolles, the immigrant, came from Osberton, Nottinghamshire, England, to Winter Harbour, near the mouth of the Saco river, in Maine, about 1640, and afterwards settled in Wells, Maine. He belonged to one of the few armorial families represented in New England, of whom it is estimated there are less than fifty. In 1665, John Bolles of Clerkenwell, Middlesex, England, making his will, bequeathed to 'my brother, Joseph Bolles, living in New England'. The family arms are: Azure out of three cups or as many boars' heads couped argent. Joseph married Mary Howells and had children:

Mary m. Charles Frost

Thomas settled in New London, Connecticutt

Samuel b. 1646 settled in Rochester, MA.

Hannah

Elizabeth m. Locke



Joseph m. Mary Call

Sarah


Mercy

Another book I found in the New England H.G.S. was of a Virginia branch of the Bowles family. I was in such a rush that I did not take time to carefully document the source but it may have been Thomas Bowles Hanover County, Virginia, by Inez Bowles 1947. In any case, I will quote from some of the reference:

"In 1609 the London Company sent 500 men to the Colony of Virginia. In May 1610 John Bowles arrived with Lord Delaware. He returned to England in the ship "George" in 1612 and came out again in 1621 with Sir Francis Wyatt, who arrived in Jamestown with 1200 planters...Sir George Bowles, the Lord Mayor of London, was a member of the Virginia Company in 1620". The book says of the origin of the name of Bowles: " The Bowles name is doubtless of both Saxon and Norman origin, probably making its first appearance in England by Vikings, one of whose chiefs was called "Bolla" in 820 A.D. which is Saxon for the word "Bowl". He is mentioned as "Bolla" during the reign of Edward the Confessor in 1041. The steward who passed the bowl at the table of Anglo Saxon feasts was called the "Bollman" which name became "Bolle" and afterwards "Bowles". A knight who charged with William the Conqueror at Hastings in 1066, is mentioned in th eRoll of Battle Abbey as "Bole" sometimes spelt "boel", making the origin Norman. This name does not appear on Doomsday Book, as one who received Saxon lands and he was probably killed at Hastings in 1066 or fell into disfavor with William the Conqueror for a time."

If these accounts of the origin of the name Bowles is accurate, then our family's being "Scottish Presbyterians" is curious. Perhaps some of them moved to Scotland, and/or Northern Ireland??

Another reference at the New England H.G.S. was Boles - Linton Ancestors, by Harold W. and David B. Boles, listed the name of one William Boles b. 1752, s/o James Bole (Boyle), a Presbyterian immigrant from Ireland, who m. Mary Painter, died 1836 at Buffalo tp, Armstrong, PA. Irish Scots from Northern Ireland?

The early land grants of Cornwallis Township, as listed by Eaton (pg. 74 & 75) list the following names whose children or grandchildren married into the Bowles family:

First effective grant, given 21 July 1761, committee of and for the grantees: Eliakim Tupper, Stephen West, Jonathan Newcomb, each full share consisted of 666 2/3 acres:

Newcomb, Benjamin

Newcomb, Eddy

Newcomb, John Jr.

Rockwell, Jonathan

Tupper, Eliakim (heirs of)

Tupper, Elias

Strong, Stephen

Webster, Abraham

Woodworth, Silas

Second grant given 31 Dec 1764:

Barnaby, Timothy

Burgess, Seth

Newcomb, Benjamin

Pineo, Peter

Porter, Simeon

Ratchford, Thomas

Strong, Stephen

Tupper, Eliakim
THE HISTORY OF KINGS COUNTY, by Arthur Eaton, pub. Mika Studio, Belleville, Ont., 1972 (originally published 1910 by the Salem Publishing Co., Salem, Mass.), Page 583, gives some information on "The Bowles Family":

"Alexander Bowles, who died 18 Jan 1820, and his wife Elizabeth had children: Mary, b. 4 Mar 1774; Margaret, b. 22 Aug 1777, m. 14th Nov. 1809 to John Woodworth Jr. (Silas); Sarah, b. 22 Oct 1778; William, b. 28th Feb 1780, m. 3 Jan 1806 Prudence, d/o Joseph and Lydia Rockwell; Alexander (Twin with William), d. 25th Nov. 1780; John, b. 5 Nov 1782, m. 31 Jan 1804 Margaret, d/o Abraham Webster; Elizabeth, b. 25 Nov 1784; Graham, b. 1st Nov 1788, m. 24th Jan 1814 or 15, Alice, d/o John and Thankful Newcomb, and had 10 children.

As previously mentioned, Graham (see VIII) is my direct line.
William and Prudence (Rockwell) Bowles had children born:

Mary b. 20 Nov 1806; Jerusha b. 7 July 1808; Elizabeth b. 22 Apr 1810; Joseph b. 4 July 1812; Pamela & Paulina b. 31 Jan 1815; William Campbell b. 26 Feb 1818; Alice Jean b. 8 Dec 1820.
John and Margaret Bowles had children born in Cornwallis:
Mary b. 17 Jan 1805; Alexander b. 28 Jan 1807; Graham b. 20 May 1809; George William b. 22 July 1811; Sarah Ann b. 2 Dec 1819
The children of Graham and Alice (Newcomb) Bowles were:
Mary Alice b. 29 Nov 1815, d. 29 Aug 1821; John Newcomb b. 18 Dec 1816, died young; Thankful Margaret b. 10 Aug 1819; William b. 9 Mar 1821; Mary A. b. 15 Nov 1823; Leonard b. 18 Sept 1824; Elizabeth b. 18 Aug 1826; John Newcomb b. 29 May 1829; George b. 11 Feb 1831; Elizabeth b. 11 Jan 1832, m. Isaiah Shaw Pineo, son of William Pineo."

George (see VIII.I) is my direct line.

In this document, I will refer to various branches of the family of Alexander Bols by Roman numerals. Hugh Graham Bowles being one of the last children born to Alexander, has the number "VIII". Thus, my direct line to Alexander Bols/Bowles (and only claim to Scottish heritage) is as follows:
Alexander Bols/Bowles (1749-1820)
VIII. Hugh Graham Bowles (1785-1864)
VIII.I. George Bowles (1831-1917)
VIII.I.6. Laura Burgess Bowles Bishop (1877-1958)
VIII.I.6.c. Minnie Bishop Gates (1909-1989)
VIII.I.6.c.v. Doris Gates Thorpe (1946- )

Alexander and Elizabeth (Candlish) Bols were said by my mother to have been a "strict" Scottish Presbyterian family. I found this a curious description, as my father was about as strict a Baptist as they come! The 1871 census lists their grandson's (George Bowles) country of origin as "Scotch".


WHERE DID THEY COME FROM AND WHY?

As yet, I have not discovered the circumstances of emigration of the Bowles family. They may have emigrated directly from Scotland, or they may have first been in Northern Ireland (Ulster Scots), or in one of the American Colonies. Dotty Thomas told me that her mother (Nellie Bowles Parker) had told her that her grandfather (Hugh Graham Bowles) had come to N.S. from Scotland, when he was age four. If this is so, then it would be easy to pinpoint the date of the family's emigration. Eaton's History of Kings county says that he was born in 1788, and his obituary in the Presbyterian Witness confirms this date. This would mean that he came over in 1792, yet his father bought land in Cornwallis township in 1787. If Hugh Graham Bowles did not come to N.S. until 1792, then Alexander could not have been his father. Also, the name of “Hugh Graham” came from the first Presbyterian minister who came to Chipman Corner church in 1785, so it would seem likely that when Hugh Graham Bowles was born (1788), that the family was living in Cornwallis Township. If the story of his emigration at age four is correct, then all the children would have been born in Scotland. I suppose that Alexander may have come before his family in order to establish a home for them, prior to their emigration. Yet, why are the births of all the children recorded in Cornwallis Township, starting with the eldest Mary, who was born in 1774. If they had been all born there, this suggests that they came before the Loyalists, perhaps with the Planters. Is it possible that Alexander simply registered the dates of birth of all his children at the same time? If so, I would think that their place(s) of birth would have been registered.

Gilbert Forsyth who married Mary Bishop (probably a sister to John Bishop - see VIII.I.6) at New London in 1741 was said to have come from Scotland to Boston, MA., where he stayed for a short time before settling at Groton, Connecticut. His parents were married at Cromarty in 1720 and his Great Grandfather was Rev. James Forsyth. One wonders if the Rev. William Forsyth who had been a Presbyterian minister at Chipman's Corner, and whom Alexander Bols bequeathed an annual sum, could have been related. Perhaps Alexander and Elizabeth Bols came to Boston (and possibly Connecticut??) before coming to Cornwallis, Kings County. Perhaps the New England Genealogical Society in Boston would be a good place to look.

It is a matter of record that Alexander Bols bought land in Cornwallis Township in February 1787, but how long before this they actually emigrated, is as yet to be confirmed. Given the time of the sale, it would make sense to me that they would have been here by at least 1786. Loyalist settlement in Nova Scotia would have been at least 4 years before the 1787 land sale. I suppose it is possible that the family had planned to emigrate to the U.S.A. but were delayed because of the hostilities and instead, came to Nova Scotia. My mother used to tell me "Not all Loyalists came from the United States". There was a Lemuel Bowles living in New Edinburgh, Digby County in 1797 (unknown if related).

Alexander McNutt was bringing colonists from Northern Ireland to settle Nova Scotia around the time Alexander Bols came to N.S. I understand that these settlers insisted that they were "Scotch", not Irish. Interesting that Arthur Patterson's middle name was "MacNutt", and that he lived in Aylesford. It suggests that the Pattersons came out with McNutt, if not related to him.

Perhaps Alexander Bowles came over with MacNutt to Londonderry, thence to Cornwallis. I must check land grants for Londonderry and Truro Townships.* In any census records I've looked at, the country of origin for the Bowles was always listed as "Scotch". If they had said Ireland, it would be a stronger indication of an Ulster Scot connection.

The book " The Londonderry Heirs, by J.M. Murphy (1976) gives insight into the Ulster Scots who emigrated to the Cobequid and Londonderry areas of what was then (1761) Halifax County, but is now Colchester County. In telling some of the history of how the Scots came to be living in Northern Ireland (basically because James I wanted to get some of the Presbyterians who objected to a state-controlled church, out of Scotland, and passed in 1609 the Articles of Plantation, which allowed land in Northern Ireland to be granted these Scots), Murphy mentions that in 1622, there was a "George Caminge (Cumming) in the Londonderry Plantation and "Francis Barnaby and John Woodroofe" in the Coleraine Plantation. These were names of other members of the Congregational - Presbyterian church at Chipman Corner, but of course, does not necessarily mean that Alexander Bols came from the same place."

The Book of Records for Cornwallis Township (1795-1862) says that on 5 Nov 1804, Alexander Boles and George Cummings were both chosen as assessors to raise money for support of the poor. In these days, the unfortunate people who were "throwed upon the Town", were cared for by the lowest bidder. That is, at a Town meeting, bids were accepted for the care of the needy for the next year. The person who bid the lowest, was the one who, for the said price bid, would have the responsibility of providing for that person during the next year. Once the Town knew what the cost of supporting their poor would be, they appointed assessors to go around to collect the money from the other residents of the Township.

Some knowledge of the Cummings' Scottish origins, have led me to wonder if the Alexander Bols family may have come over at the same time as the Cummings (1784). With this thought in mind, I am now going to include some information obtained from a letter written in 1818 to George Cummings of Cornwallis Township, by his brother, Hugh Cummings. Hugh Cummings, returned to the Old country, from whence he wrote George, from Burton upon Trent, Staffordshire (just North of Birmingham, England). Russ McLean, a descendant of the Cummings, who in 1999 was a teacher with the Halifax Regional Municipality, found this letter at the museum in St John, N.B, and he gave me a copy.

George Cummings married (1795) Rebecca Dickie, d/o Matthew and Jane Dickie. George and Hugh were the sons of James Cummings and Margaret Ross. (A James Cummings in the index of Probate records for Kings County. Perhaps it would list family members?) It seems that the purpose of the rather lengthy letter was to console George on the death of his wife. He also admonishes him to take care in any decision to remarry, citing their own experience as an example of how this did not work well. It seems their father, James Cummings, had remarried (circa 1788) widow Abigail Burgess after the death (1786) of his first wife, Margaret Ross. According to Eaton, Abigail Howe married 1757 Seth Burgess (I). He died in 1795, she in 1801. So perhaps it was the widow of Seth Burgess Jr., who's name was Abigail Hovey, who married James Cumming as his second wife.

Seth and Abigail (Howe) Burgess had 4 children. A daughter of Seth (I) and Abigail Burgess was Thankful Burgess Newcomb. Her daughter, Alice Newcomb, married our Hugh Graham Bowles, s/o Alexander. Another son of Seth Burgess(I) was Benjamin Burgess (1762-1853), who married 1788 Abigail Hovey. Benjamin Burgess' sons, Seth and Benjamin, married respectively, Rebecca Ann and Hannah Cummings. (see Eaton Pg 593), The letter to George Cumming also mentions the names of two other sisters: Margaret, w/o Jonathan Newcomb, and Mary McLean of New Brunswick, as well as a brother, John Cummings, and an older sister, Catherine, wife of William Campbell, who did not migrate with her parents, and sibs to Nova Scotia in 1784.

The year 1784 seems to be and odd time for anyone to be emigrating to North America, as the American Revolution had just ended and the British Government were discouraging emigration there. On the other hand, I expect the British would think that emigration to British North America might consolidate their power there. In 1785, one Allen MacLean (Ancestor of Russ MacLean), sold land in Cornwallis Township to Charles Brown, and subsequently moved to Quaco (near St Martin's) New Brunswick.

Did the Bols family emigrate directly from Scotland in 1784 with the Cummings? Or did they come earlier to Massachusetts and thence to Cornwallis as a Planter. Or did they come in 1786 or early 1787, when Alexander bought land? I have a particular interest in this question in that one of my husband's maternal ancestors from Sunny Brae, Pictou County, was a William Cumming (and his wife, Catherine Fraser), who emigrated in about 1802 from Kiltarlity (near Inverness) Scotland. Four of their children married into the family of Donald Ross and wife Ann Dunn who emigrated about 1815 from Durness, on the very Northern tip of Scotland. I know that there was a Grant who had lived in the Annapolis valley, who moved to Pictou County to be near his Gaelic speaking countrymen. Also, some of the Sunny Brae folk eventually moved along the Blanchard Road to the Lochaber area of Antigonish County, and one of the earliest settlers of that area was a John Cummings.

Despite living in Ireland for over 100 years, the Scots had retained their Scottish culture and were offended by being called Irish. Winthrope Sargent wrote of the Scotch - Irish :


"...were a hardy, brave, hot-headed raw, excitable in temper, unrestrained in passion, invincible in prejudice. Their hand opened as impetuously to a friend as it clenched against an enemy. They loathed the Pope as sincerely as they venerated Calvin or Knox."

Undoubtedly the following Irish Blessing would have only been given to those perceived as "friends".

"May the road rise up to meet you,

May the wind be always at your back,

May the sun shine warm upon your face

And the rains fall soft upon your fields,

And, until we meet again,

May God hold you in the hollow of His hand."


From 1714 to the late 18th century, one-third of the population of Ulster had settled in New England, Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Most landed on the Delaware shore, but most were bound for the Quaker Settlement of Pennsylvania. (note the prevalence of Quaker names in this family...Thankful, Mercy, Submit etc.) Therefore, Pennsylvania became the centre of the Presbyterian settlements in the New World. The emigrants suffered severely on the voyages on the over-crowded, ill-provisioned ships. Epidemics of smallpox etc. took many lives...the ships were called "coffin ships". Two-thirds of the ships reached America. The Boston area was a stronghold of Puritans (Congregationalists), who were not happy to receive the Presbyterians. One group went to Worcester, where prejudices of the Congregationalists were so strong they were compelled to leave. Another group went to the Casco Bay area of Maine, and eventually settled in Haverhill Mass.

Settlers included those with names that are also found in Nova Scotia: John Archibald, James McKeen, Samuel Allison, William Campbell, John Goffe, Abram Holmes, Lieu Gov. Wentworth.


Marion Waddell has searched the Morman records for Alexander Bols and Elizabeth Candlish, and the only place the names appeared together, was in Liverpool, England in the year * . I suppose it is possible that Alexander and Elizabeth Bowles had moved to Liverpool prior to deciding to emigrate to North America. Liverpool was a popular destination for many of the Ulster Scots.

The Morman I.G.I. for Ireland did list a number of Bowles/Bolds/Bole/Boles/Bowls/Boals/Boll/Boul etc., including three Alexander Bowles as follows:


1. Alexander Bowles, b. Dec. 1858 in Fermanagh, Aghavea, Skeagh; son of Henry Boles and Margaret Irvine

2. Alexander Bowles b. Nov. 1859 son of Elizabeth, Fermanagh, Aghavea, Lisnaban.

3. Alexander Bowles, Christened Aug. 1797 at Limerick, Limerick, St John; son of Henry and Sarah.
It is interesting that all of these christian names, Alexander, Henry, Margaret, Elizabeth, and Sarah, are prevalent in our Bowles family. Fermanagh, Ireland is in the western part of Northern Ireland, not far from Lough Erne and Enniskillen. Limerick is some distance away in South Western Ireland, on the River Shannon. I don't know that a Presbyterian "Irish Scot" would find himself in this area of Ireland, but who knows?

"Tangled Roots" tells us that Peter Bishop married in 1786, an Amy Bowles (1771-1851) of New London, Conn., dau. of Amos and Abigail (Smith) Bowles. He apparently brought back his bride from Connecticut. Could she have been related to our Alexander Bols? Unlikely, but I suppose possible, as Alexander would have come to N.S. around the same time.

My Aunt Lorna (Bishop) Huston of Greenwich, N.S., sent me a copy of an article from the Teleguide Homestead (March 23, 1983) which was entitled " `Charming Molly' played large role in Western Valley's settlement". This was a schooner chartered by Henry Evans of Massachusetts on 5 May 1760 to transport settlers to Nova Scotia. It's Captain was a man named Grow. I will quote:

"The vessel was ready for departure May 15, needing only a fair wind to get underway. It set sail for Annapolis Royal, May 23 but on the night of the 26th encountered a bad storm which it weathered out. "Charming Molly" however, had to return to Boston, possibly for some repairs.

On June 19, Captain Grow sailed from Boston and six days later dropped anchor at Annapolis Royal where new settlers and their effects were discharged. The vessel left June 28 to return to Boston."

The new settlers names did not include our Alexander Bols, however, it goes on to say that "a number of other settlers arrived later on in the same summer but the name of the carrier is not known. It could have been the "Charming Molly" which would have had time to return to Boston, reload, and get back.

These other settlers included Captain Phineas Lovett...and William Bowles." One could theorize that this William Bowles was the father of Alexander Bols, but I certainly have no data to substantiate this theory, only a couple of indicators:

1. One of Alexander's first sons (a twin) was named William, and given the Scots way of naming, it is not unreasonable to think that Alexander Bols' father was named William. The second twin was called Alexander.

2. Several of our Bowles family married into Annapolis County families, including Sarah Boles who married Eliakim Tupper, grandson of Elias and Jerusha Tupper of Tupperville (near Round Hill), and Elizabeth Bowls who married Elias Tupper, another grandson to Elias and Jersuha Tupper of Tupperville. Of course, the Tuppers would have had relatives in the Aylesford area, so one cannot make assumptions as to how they met.
My mother suggested the Bowles may have been Loyalists, and said "Not all Loyalists came from the United States", but it is unknown if she was referring to this family. Certainly the British were blockading New York and diverting ships to Boston, where the men were "encouraged" to join the cause against the "Rebels" and in exchange were to receive land grants in Nova Scotia. However, Alexander appears to have bought land (vs. having received a land grant), so I expect he was not actually involved in the fighting, at least in this war.

I copied the following names from muster lists found in "Loyalists From the Southern Campaign Volume II," by M. Clark:


Bowles, John pg 205 - Promoted (Corporal) 25 Oct 1781 at Charlestown. Capt Richard Hovenden's Troop of Light Dragoons, commanded by Lieu. Col. Tarleton from 25 Oct to 24 Dec 1781.
Bowles, William - (1) Ensign - muster of Capt James Frisby's Company of ye First Batt Maryland Loyalists commanded by Lieu Col. James Chalmers July 1781. (2) Also listed in list dated at "Newton" 25 Aug 1781-24 Oct 1781. (3) in Capt Grafton Dulaney's Company of Maryland Loyalists, 4 Sept 1778. There was also an "Alexander Swindle" in this company. (4) 23 Feb 1779, Capt Patrick Kennedy's Company, 1st Batt of Maryland Loyalists. There was also a William A. Bowles in this company.
There is nothing to indicate that these two Bowles men were in any way connected to the Kings County Bowles, other than the names of William and John being in the family, but these were very common names of the time.
There was a "John Bolds" who was among the Loyalist who received a land grant at Port Mouton, Queens county in 1784.
There was also a "Cornelius Boles" (of African descent) who petitioned for land in Cumberland County in 1814, stating that his father was a refugee and during the rebellion belonged to Col Delancy's Regiment. The Christian Messenger 11 May 1838, has the record of the marriage, at Amherst, on the 15th by Rev. Mr Townsend, Edward, eldest son of Mr Joseph Morse, to Cynthia, eldest daughter of Mr Cornelius Bowles.

In 1812, Stuart, John and Others, including "Thomas Boles" received a land grant between Macan and Five Islands, Cumberland County. Thomas Boles received 300 acres.

In 1813, Thorp, Timothy and Others, including "Alexander Bowls" received land grants near the Musquodoboit River, Halifax County. Alexander Bowls received 450 acres at that time. This may have been around the time that some of Rev Hugh Graham's flock were planning to follow him to the Stewiake area, or it may have been a group of people thinking ahead about land needs for their families. Within 7 years, Alexander Bowls was dead, and buried at Chipman Corner, so it is unlikely he ever lived on this land grant. Did any of his children? (Unknown, but certainly not our line, as Hugh Graham Bowles purchased land in Kings. I wonder if the money he used was his portion of Alexander's estate.)

In 1825, a "Robert Boles", native of Ireland, age 45, petitioned for land at Clam Harbour Lake, within the reserve at Manchester, Sydney County. The petition says that he lived in Clonmol, Ireland, and received leave of absence from his regiment, the Tipperary Regiment of Irish Militia, to come to nova Scotia. He has a wife and 5 children.

In 1828, DesBarres, William, & Others (including Robert Boles) petitioned for land in Sydney County. Robert Boles asks for 300 acres. In the petition, it says that he emigrated 10 April 1822, and came to Guysboro in August, that he is 40 years old and has a wife and 4 children. Served 16 years in the Tipperary Regiment, as sergeant and Quarter-master. Before leaving Ireland he purchased from Capt Ralph Cunningham a tract of land supposed to contain 450 acres. Finds that parts of the land have been reserved, and only 150 acres remain. Asks other lands. Two character references attached.

I also found references in the New Brunswick Museum, St John, to some Bowles who were Loyalists who received land grants, presumably in New Brunswick.

. John Bowle -Corporal-Loyalist Reg. A30 p44

. James Bowles -Private-Loyalist Reg. A31 p33


There is also an oral tradition that one of the women in the family (?Bowles family) was looking out a window and saw a handsome officer riding by and said "There's the man I'm going to marry" (and did). This suggests a military connection (but it could be on the Shaw side). There was an Adj. Gen. by the name of Major George Bowles at Quebec at the time of the War of 1812. As romantic as this sounds, it is unknown if he could be connected to our family. This war was a full generation after the Revolutionary War, so George is unlikely to be one of ours.

THEIR RELIGION:
Next, I am going to record some of the history of the Congregational/Presbyterian church of Chipman's Corner here, as it would have played a central role in the lives of the Bowles family.

Among the names of the first deacons of this church was John Newcomb (1756-1832). The Newcomb Genealogy says that he was the father of Alice Newcomb (1791-1866) who married Hugh Graham Bowles (1788-1864), and that their children resided at Waterville. The Newcomb Genealogy pg. 110 says that John Newcomb (1756-1832), son of John the Planter, was an elder in the Presbyterian church.

The history of this Congregational Church was written by Eaton in his "History of Kings County", chapter XVI, and the next chapter is "Early Presbyterianism." I also have an article written by Rev. W.A.Ross, entitled "Brief Historical Sketch of the Emmanuel United Church of Canada, Kingsport, N.S. and Canard United Church of Canada, Upper Canard, N.S. which talks about this church, from which the "New Light" Congregational church, originally at Jawbone Corner, was formed... Members included Benjamin Kinsman, Jonathan Rockwell, Elias & Elizabeth Tupper ( I wondered it this might be Elizabeth Bowles, d/o Alexnder, but this list was before 1799, so whe would have been too young for this to be her), William Chipman, Benjamin Cleveland (prob. father of Jerusha who married James Neary). This New Light church eventually split over the question of immersion, and in 1807 Rev Manning formed the First Cornwallis Baptist church at Upper Canard, with 7 of it's members, including William Chipman. The Congregational church at Jaw Bone corner, moved to Habitant, and in 1819 the minister was Rev. John Pineo.

The old Congregational mother-church at Chipman corner had been left in a weakened position after the withdrawal of the New Lights to Jawbone Corner. Quoting from Rev Ross: "However, new Presbyterian recruits were arriving from North Ireland and Scotland - the Dickies, McKittricks, Cummings, etc., who became associated with the Chipman Corner church....it was a time of crisis with the old church. The war of the American Revolution was at its height, and as Nova Scotia was Loyal to Britain, there was little intercourse with New England, and owing to the experience with Mr Phelps, (who m. Phobe, d/o Col Robert Dennison), who had sympathized with the revolutionaries, it seemed unwise to send to New England for a minister. Rev Phelps' father, Nathaniel Phelps, was a Revolutionary Patriot from Hebron, Connecticutt. A son of Henry Burbidge and Hannah Bishop, Abel, m.1808 Martha Phelps, probably a daughter of Rev. Phelps.

By this time, there was a well established Presbyterian church at Lower Horton (Grand Pre), with the Rev James Murdock as minister, and there existed a fine fellowship between this church and the one at Chipman Corner. Other Presbyterian churches sprang up at Truro, Onslow and Londonderry. Truro and Onslow were settled by New Englanders at about the same time they came to Cornwallis, and Col Alexander MacNutt brought out about the same time, settlers from Ireland to Londonderry, N.S. They named it after their home town, and some of these...found their way to Horton and Cornwallis. There was therefore a fellowship between the churches of Cornwallis and those in Truro and Londonderry and considerable going back and forth of the people from the first along the shores of Minas Basin and Cobequid Bay. It was natural then, that the church at Cornwallis should look to the ministers of these places for guidance in their time of crisis. Accordingly, we find the Rev.Daniel Cock of Truro and the Rev. David Smith of Londonderry visiting Cornwallis, where they had heated arguments with Henry Alline, who came to hear them preach."

A number of members, including Hezekiah Cogswell and John Huston, had tried, to no avail, to get Rev. Jonathan Scott, of Chebogue, Yarmouth County, to help fill the pulpit after Rev. Phelps left.

"...Under all the circumstances it is not strange that an appeal went out from the Cornwallis church to the Associate synod of the Secession Church in Scotland for a minister. In answer to this prayer, in 1785 the Rev. Hugh Graham arrived and preached his first sermons on 29th of August in that year in the Chipman Corner Church. Graham's arrival was the beginning of the Cornwallis church as a Presbyterian one, and for some years it was known as the "Congregational and Presbyterian Church of Cornwallis". Eaton says "Prior to 1765, the only Presbyterian ministers who had laboured in Nova Scotia had been Rev Samuel Kinloch, and Rev James Lyon, the former had previously preached in Pennsylvania, the latter in New Jersey. These clergymen had made the Scotch-Irish settlers of Colchester their chief charge, but in 1766, the county of Kings was added to the field of Presbyterian missionary work."

Rev Graham married (15 Dec 1791) as his second wife, Elizabeth, d/o James Whidden, of Truro, by whom he had at least 3 children. Rev. Graham died in 1829, age 75. He was said to be "a man of peace and an eminent example of meekness and piety."

"Our Fathers in the Faith, by A.E. Betts, gives some information on Rev. Graham's education. It says that he served 1785-1829. He was born in West Calder (between Edinburgh and Motherwell), Scotland, about 1755, and was educated at Edinburgh University and Haddington. Ordained and sent by Associate Synod to Cornwallis, N.S., preaching his first sermon there 29 Aug 1785. Called to Stewiake and Musquodoboit, 1800, and remained with Stewiake when the congregations were separated in 1815. Died April 1829.

The Chipman's Corner church was built where the French Acadian St Joseph's Catholic church had been built, and stood until at least 1866. It was built using massive oak timbers brought in from New England. It was a large square, 2 story building, finished inside and out after the pattern of the New England Puritan churches with the high-backed pews, arranged in four tiers, and the end pews were closed in by doors. There was a lofty pulpit, with a sounding board above it. It had a large gallery around three sides, and could seat 1000 people. It served the people for over 100 years and was finally sold to Hon Samuel Chipman, while still in good condition, and it's timbers sound, about 1875.

Rev. Graham was a member of the oldest Presbytery in Canada, founded at Truro in 1786. The other ministers were Rev. David Smith, Rev Daniel Cock, and Rev James MacGregor of Pictou.

During the ministry of Rev. Hugh Graham, the Hon. Henry H. Cogswell had been a member of the church, and in 1853, in memory of Rev Hugh Graham, he donated 100 pounds to the church, to be invested in real estate, the income of which would go to the minister and his successors.

Rev. Graham resigned in 1799, because, it has been suggested, the church refused to give up the Watts hymn book and sing only Psalms. He was called to Stewiake and Musquodoboit, where he was inducted 27 Aug 1800. He was followed there by some of his people who were so attached to him including Abraham Newcomb and Eliakim Tupper. (note: Eliakim and Elizabeth Tupper removed to Stewiake from Truro in 1792, so this suggests Rev Graham was called there by his former parishoners who settled in this area). Rev. John Waddell preached the induction sermon. Rev Graham was succeeded at Chipman Corner, by the Rev William Forsythe, who belonged to the Auld Kirk of Scotland. He served until 1840, and was succeeded by Rev. George Struthers. (Deacon Seth Burgess was a member at this time). Rev Forsythe established a grammer school.

In 1857, it was decided to divide the large congregation, and build 3 new churches, one in Canard, one in Kentville, and one in Lakeville. In 1858, the members and adherents in Western Cornwallis asked that Lakeville, Waterville, and Berwick be set off as a separate charge. This was approved. (Note: Hugh Graham Bowles (see VIII), who died 1864, is buried in the churchyard of Saint Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Waterville. Bentley notes say that a Graham Bowles is buried at Berwick. Perhaps this is another Graham Bowles, possibly the son of John Boles (see VI.C) and Margaret Webster. The first minister for these western churches was Rev. Alex. McKay and the then just completed church at Lakeville was dedicated, and the one at Waterville completed and dedicated.

These were "Free Presbyterian " churches. One of the ministers at Canard was Rev. A. MacDougall, who temporarily served Lakeville and Waterville churches. Charles Magee was one of the Elders of the Canard Presbyterian church in 1917.
NOTE: I have written Mrs Elizabeth (Magee) Rand about these churches, and anything she knows about the origin of the Bowles, and their connections with the Tuppers. She replied that she will take it to the Genealogy committee at Kings County museum, Kentville.
Another Presbyterian minister was Rev. William Sommerville, "an Irish - Scotch Covenanter of the strongest personality". He had been ordained 1831 by the Reformed Church of Ireland, and for a time had ministered in Amherst, N.S. He came to the Horton church, but spent about a quarter of his time to Cornwallis. He left the Horton church for West Cornwallis in 1840, and as a "Reformed" or "Covenanting" minister began missionary work there and in Wilmot. He was very against the Watts Hymn book and was said to lay "violent hands upon it " and replace it with the Scotch Metrical version of the Psalms and Paraphrases. In 1843 he organized a Reformed church in the Grafton area. He remained pastor of the church until his death in 1878. In the 1861 census, he is listed in the Somerset district with 13 in his family. He is listed 14 names away form William Chipman, also a powerful orator, but a Baptist.

After Rev. Sommerville, Rev. Thomas McFall, also a native of Ireland, but educated in the Middle States, became pastor, and was still there when Eaton wrote his History of Kings (1910). It is not probable that Graham or George Bowles ever belonged to this church, as they are both buried at St Andrews Presbyterian in Waterville, vs.the Covenanter church in Grafton, but some of Alexander Bols' children did. In 1988, I visited this old cemetery surrounding the church, and found the following names that are connected to the Bowles family:


1.) Nesbit, William: d. 1855 age 85 (ie. b. 1770)

Nesbit, Robert: d. 1882, age 32

Nesbit, Hugh: d. 1869?

Elizabeth, wife of Hugh Nesbit: d. 1886 age 39

Mary Nesbit: d.1861 age 54 (note: this means she was born 1807)

Note: Mary Jane Bols b. 1774, the eldest child of Alexander Bols m. a William Nesbit. She would have been the right age to have married the above William Nesbit. If this is the right conclusion, then these would have been her children. But whatever happened to Mary Jane??
2.) Woodworth, William: d. 1811 age 18

Eunice, wife of Andrew Woodworth: d. 1869 age 78


3.) John Newcombe: d. 1866 age 56

Abigail Calkin, wife of John Newcombe 1822-1923


4.) Jonathan Newcombe: d. 1851 Age 81 (ie. b. 1770)

Margaret Newcombe, wife of Jonathan d. 1853 age 74 (ie b. 1779)

Margaret Trueman, 1857-1935, dau. of above, first woman graduate of Dalhousie University.
Note: According to Eaton, Jonathan Newcomb, b. 1770, was s/o John Newcomb Jr and Mercy Barnaby, and so brother to the John Newcomb (b. 1756) who married Thankful Burgess. (parents of Alice, Mrs Hugh Graham Bowles).

Jonathan Newcomb m. Margaret, daughter of James Cummings, from Inverness. Their children as listed on page 760 of History of Kings, were:


Abigail Newcomb m. Daniel Cogswell (see #7 cemetery listings below)

Hugh Ross Newcomb m. Sophia Morton

Grizel Newcomb m. David White

Mary Newcomb m. James McMasters

Lemuel Morton Newcomb m. Matilda Flagg

John Cummings Newcomb (1809-1866) m.1853, Abigail, d/o Elias & Mercy (Burgess) Calkin.

Margaret Alice Newcomb m. Solomon Woodworth (see #6 cemetery listing below)
5.)Andrew Woodworth: d. 1869 age 80 (ie. b. 1789)

Sarah Woodworth: d. 1889 age 68

Anna Woodworth b. 1823 d. 1906
Note: according to Eaton, Andrew Woodworth b. 1788, was a son of the John and Submit (d/o Benjamin and Hannah Newcomb) Woodworth, and a brother to Solomon, next mentioned, and Sarah b. 1774 was a sister of Andrew and Solomon. Another sister, Submit, is said to have married a "Thomas Magee". Eaton, Pg. 83 mentions that there was a "Jonathan Woodruff" an early grantee, who sold his land before too many years, and returned to his early home, in Machias, Maine, along with Jabez West, Jonathan Longfellow etc.
6.) Margaret Alice, wife of Solomon Woodworth 1811-1864

Solomon Woodworth 1793-1883.



Note: according to Eaton (pg. 878), Solomon Woodworth (b. 1793) was a son of John and Submit (Newcomb)Woodworth, and he married Mary Alice (b. 1811), daughter of Jonathan and Margaret (Cummings) Newcomb.
7.) Abigail Newcombe, wife of Daniel Cogswell d. 1854, age 59.
Note: she was either the daughter of Jonathan Newcomb and Margaret Cummings, as noted above, or John and Thankful (Burgess) Newcomb.

Eaton (pg. 760) says that Jonathan and Margaret were married 1796, so unless Abigail was born before her marriage, she could not be theirs. wrong date? Abigail was born 1781, therefore, the other Abigail closer in age.


8.) Diadame, wife of John Shaw d. 1856 age 44

John Shaw d. 1874 age 62.


9.) John Brown, a native of Kirleyechalm, Scotland. d. 1859 age 55
10.) John White, elder of the R.P. Church in West Cornwallis who departed 1860, age 69. A native of Perth (note: on the Tay river, mid eastern Scotland), Scotland.

Note: Perhaps the David White who m. Grizel Newcomb, above, was related to this man.



The last two names confirm the presence in this community of some people who were born in Scotland.
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