Tips for answering these questions

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Tips for answering these questions

  • You will need to use two pieces of information to get top marks

  • You will need to make 4 points and extend them to get full marks

  • You must make sure you link your ideas back to the question

  • Often marks are awarded for spelling, punctuation and grammar (SPaG)

  • You have been given the case studies and I have also included a range of questions which could be asked

Physical Geography

Restless Earth Case Studies

Fold Mountains

Place: The Alps, Europe


  • Step upland areas are used to farm goats for cheese and meat

  • Sunnier slopes have been terraced to plant vineyards

Hydro-electric power

  • Narrow valleys dammed to generate HEP – Berne area

  • 60% of energy in Switzerland is from HEP


  • Salt, iron and gold


  • Scot’s Pine is planted all over the Alps – logged and sold to make furniture

  • Goats do not eat Scots Pine


  • 100 million tourists

  • 70% visit steep snow covered mountains for skiing, snowboarding and ice climbing

  • New villages built to cater for tourists in France - Tignes

Poor country volcano

Soufriere Hills Volcano – Montserrat

Date: June 25th 1997


  • Above a destructive plate margin

  • Atlantic plate is being forced under the Caribbean plate

  • Magma rose up through weak points under the Soufriere hills forming an underground pool of magma

  • The rock above the pool collapsed, opening a vent and causing the eruption

Primary impacts

  • 19 people died

  • 7 injured

  • 20 villages and two thirds of homes destroyed

Secondary impacts

  • Fires destroyed many buildings

  • Tourists stayed away and businesses were destroyed ruining the economy

Immediate responses

  • People were evacuated from the south to safe areas in the north

  • UK gave £17 million of emergency aid

    • Rescuing people

Long-term responses

  • A risk map was created and an exclusion zone set up

  • Volcano observatory to monitor the volcano


  • Global effects

    • Thousands of tonnes of ash will be erupted

    • Super heated cloud of gas and ash will flow killing thousands of people

    • Ash will shoot into the atmosphere and block out most of the daylight

      • Trigger mini-ice ages as less heat energy from the sun gets to Earth

    • As will settle over hundreds of square kilometres burying fields and buildings

Rich country earthquake

Place: L’Aquilia Italy

Date: 6th April 2009

6.3 on the Richter scale

Cause: movement along a crack at a destructive plate margin


  • Laws on construction standards

  • Civil protection department that rains volunteers to help rescue people

Primary effects

  • 290 deaths

  • Thousands of buildings were damaged or destroyed

  • Thousands of people were made homeless

Secondary effects

  • Broken water pipe caused a landslide

  • Fires in some collapsed buildings caused more damage

Immediate responses

  • Camps set up for homeless people

  • Cranes and diggers were used to remove rubble

  • Money was provided by the government to pay rents

Long-term responses

  • Build a new town to replace L’Aquila as the area capital

Investigation into poorly constructed buildings

Poor country earthquake

  • Kashmir, Pakistan

  • 8th October 2005

  • 7.6 on the Richter Scale

  • Movement along a crack at a destructive plate margin

Primary effects

  • 80,000 deaths from collapsed buildings

  • 3 million made homeless

  • Water pipelines and electricity line were broken, cutting off supplies

Secondary effects

  • Landslides buried people

  • Diarrhoea and other diseases spread due to little clean water

  • Freezing winter conditions meant that rescue and rebuilding operations were difficult

Immediate responses

  • Help did not reach many places for days or week

  • Tents, blankets and medical supplies were distributed within a month

  • Aid from helicopters and rescue dogs to look for survivors

Long-term responses

  • 40,000 people relocated to a new town

  • Gov. money given to survivors to build new houses

  • New health centres set up


Destructive plate margin along the west coast of Indonesia in the Indian Ocean

26th December 2004

9.1 on the Richter scale

The plate that’s moving down into the mantle cracked and moved very quickly, which caused a lot of water to be displaced – 30m high waves


  • 230,000 people killed

  • 1.7 million people lost their homes

  • 5-6 million people needed emergency food, water and medical supplies

  • Massive economic damage – millions of fishermen lost their livelihoods

  • Tourism industry collapsed

  • Salt water damaged the mangrove swamp which need freshwater


  • Short-term

    • Ships, planes and soldiers sent in to help and rescue people

    • Millions of pounds donated to give people access to food and water

  • Long-term

  • Re-build infrastructure and towns

    • Tsunami warning system has been put in place in the Indian Ocean

    • Disaster management plans set up for the future

Water on the land – Rivers

Flood in a rich part of the world

Place: Carlisle, England

Date: 8th January 2005

River: Eden


  • Heavy rainfall – 200mm in 36 hours – saturated ground increasing surface run-off

  • Carlisle- large urban area – impermeable surfaces – like concrete – increased run-off  increased discharge

Primary effects

  • 3 deaths

  • 4 schools severely flooded

  • 350 businesses shut down

Secondary effects

  • Children lost out on education

  • 3000 jobs were at risk in businesses affected by floods

Immediate responses

  • People were evacuated from areas that flooded

  • Temp. accommodation was set up for the people made homeless

Long-term response

  • Community groups set up to provide community support and to give practical support

  • A flood defence scheme has been set up – build up flood banks on the River Eden to prevent flooding

Flood in a poor part of the world

Place: South Asia

Data: July & August 2007

River: Ganges


  • Heavy rainfall – 900mm in on region - saturated ground increasing surface run-off

  • Melting snow from Himalayan glaciers

Primary effects

  • Over 2000 deaths

  • 44 schools were totally destroyed

  • 10,000KM of roads destroyed

Secondary effects

  • Children lost out on education

  • 100,000 people caught water borne diseases such as dysentery

  • Rice fields flooded so farmers lost their crops

Immediate Responses

  • Tents and fresh water flown in

  • Medical aid from foreign governments

Long-term responses

  • International Charities have funded the rebuilding of homes and the agriculture and fishing industries

  • Some new homes built on stilts so less likely to be damaged by future floods


Place: Katse Dam, Lesotho


  • Energy generation for local people

  • Fresh water supplied to South Africa

  • Local people got jobs in construction


  • People displaced by the flood water

  • Loss of farmland for local people

  • Loss of wildlife land


Place: Rutland water

  • Cover 12 square kilometres

  • Supply water to the East Midlands

  • Areas around the reserve are used as a nature reserve and recreation

Economic impacts

  • Boosts the local economy – popular tourist attraction because of its wildlife and recreation facilities

  • 6 square km of land was flooded to create reservoir. This included farmland, so some farmers lost their livelihoods

Social impacts

  • Lots of recreational activities take place on and around the reservoir, e.g. sailing, wind surfing, birdwatching and cycling

  • Many jobs have been created to build and maintain the reservoir, and tu run the nature reserve and recreational activities

  • Schools use the reservoir for educational visits

  • Two villages were demolished to make way for the reservoir

Environmental impacts

  • Rutland is a Site for Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) - an area where wildlife is protected

  • Hundreds of species of birds live around the reservoir and tens of thousands of waterfowl come to Rutland Water for the winter

  • A variety of habitats are found around the reserve, e.g. marshes mudflats and lagoons. This means lots of different organisms live in or around the reservoir

  • Ospreys (fish-eating birds of prey) have been reintroduced to central England by the Rutland Osprey Project at the reservoir

  • A large area of land was flooded to create the reservoir, which destroyed some habitats

Living World Case Studies

Hot Desert – Poor country

  • Kalahari – South Africa

  • Threats

    • Overgrazing

    • Fences stop natural animal movement

    • Mining and farming have forced native people off of the land

    • Depletion of groundwater supplies in a low precipitation environment

  • Management strategies:

    • Conserve water

    • Building dams and drilling more boreholes to increase water supplies

    • Create wildlife reserves

    • Reduce agricultural fences so animals can migrate and reach food and water sources

Hot desert – Rich country

  • Mojave desert – Nevada, Utah, Arizona, California – USA

    • Rapid population growth  depleted water resources

    • Farming uses a lot of water and it can cause soil erosion

    • Tourists deplete water resources, drop litter, damage plants and cause soil erosion (e.g. by using off-road vehicles

  • Management:

    • Water conservation schemes – vouchers to buy water efficient toilets

    • National Parks (Death Valley, Joshua Tree) – native species are protected and strict rules on mining to reduce environmental damage

    • Designated roads for off-road vehicles and sensitive areas are fenced off

    • Hotels conserve water – MGM Mirage Hotels in Las Vegas

Temperate Deciduous Forest

Place: The New Forest Hampshire – National Park


  • Timber, timber products, farming and recreation

  • 50,000 tonnes of timber a year

  • Local mills make fencing products out of the timber from the New Forest

  • Around 20 million visitors per year

  • Recreational activities available include walking cycling (100 miles of cycling track), wildlife watching, horse riding, fishing, golf, water sports and special; events such as the New Forest and Hampshire County Show

Sustainable Forest Management

  • Areas cleared of trees are either replanted or restored to other habitats like heathlands

  • Walkers and cyclists are encouraged to stick to the footpaths and cycle paths to limit damage to surrounding habitats

  • Dogs aren’t allowed near wildlife breeding sites at certain times of the year. These measures help conserve wildlife so it’s still there for the future generations

  • Recreational users are encouraged to act responsibly (e.g. close gates, take home litter home by information at the National Park Forest Centre and local information points


Place: Amazon Rainforest – 8 million square km

Covers: Brazil, Bolivia, Venezuela, Ecuador

Causes of deforestation

  • 60% was caused by cattle ranching

  • 33% was caused by small-scale subsistence farming

  • 3% was caused by logging

  • 3% was caused by mining, urbanisation, road construction, dams and fires

  • 1% was caused by large-scale commercial farming (other than cattle ranching

Deforestation has many impacts


  • Habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity, e.g. The number of endangered species in Brazil increased from 218 in 1989 to 628 in 2008

  • The Amazon stores around 100 billion tonnes of carbon – deforestation will release some of this as carbon dioxide which causes global warming


  • Local ways of life have been affected

  • Native tribes have been forced to move

  • Conflict between landowners such a cattle ranchers and subsistence farmers

Sustainable Management Strategies are being used

  • Deforested areas are being replanted - 100,000 square km before 2018

  • Brazil banned mahogany logging in 2001

  • Ecotourism is becoming more popular

  • Setting up National Parks with fences banning certain activities

  • Reducing debt – cancel the debt of the country so it can spend the money on conservation


Place: Tataquara Lodge in the Brazilian Rainforest

15 rooms and offers activities such as fishing, canoeing, wildlife viewing and forest walks

  • Waste is disposed of responsibly and it runs lights using solar power

  • Small groups only

  • Employs local people in construction and maintenance so they do not need to log

  • Ecotourism is an example of sustainable development of an area as it improves the quality of life for local people without stopping people in the future getting what they need because it doesn’t damage the environment or deplete resources

Past Exam questions

Higher: Always 8 marks

Foundation: Always 6 marks

Restless Earth

Use a case study to describe how people use fold mountains.

Study the figure below, photographs of how people use fold mountains. With the help of the figure and a case study of a fold mountain range, describe how people use fold mountains.

Using a case study describe the effects of a volcanic eruption.

Using a case study describe the responses to a volcanic eruption.

Explain how a supervolcano could have worldwide effects.

Earthquakes are another example of tectonic activity. Using an example, describe the primary and secondary effects of an earthquake.

Using a volcanic eruption or an earthquake you have studied, describe the short-term responses to the disaster.

Compare the effects of two earthquakes in contrasting parts of the world.

Use a case study to describe the responses to a tsunami.

Use a case study to describe the effects of a tsunami.

Living World

Explain how vegetation in a temperate deciduous woodland adapts to the climate and soils and is in harmony with them.

Using a case study describe the ways that a deciduous forest can be managed

Describe the impacts of deforestation using a case study

Use the extracts and your own knowledge to explain how international co-operation can ensure that tropical rainforests are managed sustainably.

Using a case study of a tropical rainforest, describe the effects of deforestation.

Use a case study of a hot desert area in a richer part of the world to discuss whether economic development is sustainable.

Use a case study of a hot desert area in a richer part of the world to describe how people try to manage the area in a sustainable way.

Water on the land

Study the image above, a photograph of an information board describing flood management in Boscastle, Cornwall. With the help of the photograph, explain how hard and soft engineering strategies help to manage the risk of flooding in areas such as Boscastle.

Explain how flooding can be managed using hard engineering strategies.

Use a case study to describe the effects of river flooding.

Explain how dams and reservoirs help to provide a reliable water supply.

Changing Urban Environments

Describe the effects of air pollution and water pollution in urban areas in poorer parts of the world.

Study the photograph above of pollution in rapidly urbanising countries.

Using the photograph and your own knowledge, explain how rapid urbanisation and industrialisation in poorer parts of the world lead to pollution in urban areas.

  Using a named urban area, describe what has been done to improve the CBD.

Use a case study to explain how squatter settlements can be improved.

Use a named case study to describe the main features of a squatter settlement redevelopment.

With the help of one or more examples, explain how the lives of people living in some shanty towns have been improved.

Use one or more named case studies to describe the features of a sustainable settlement.

Use a case study to describe the main features of sustainable urban living.


Explain why manufacturing industry developed rapidly in China.

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of one type of renewable energy that you have studied.

Use a case study of one renewable energy source to explain how it might help achieve sustainable development.

Describe how TNCs can cause globalisation.

Assess the advantages of TNCs to poor countries.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of TNCs.


Use a case study to discuss how well an extreme environment is coping with the development of a tourist industry.

For an ecotourism area or scheme that you have studied, describe the features that make it sustainable.

Describe how your chosen area manages the impact of a large number of tourists. (Coastal resort or National park).

 Use a case study to explain why an area in the tropics attracts a large number of tourists.

Describe the impacts/effects of mass tourism.

National Park or a coastal resort in the UK. Name of National Park or coastal resort

  1. Explain why your chosen area attracts many tourists.

Explain two ways an extreme environment like Alaska may suffer if it is visited by large numbers of tourists.

  Explain how ecotourism can contribute to sustainable development.

Describe the physical and human attractions of a named tourist area in an LEDC.

Name of tourist area in an LEDC

Human Geography

Changing Urban Environments

Squatter settlement - Kibera, Kenya

People have 1m2 of space each

Roofs are made with corrugated iron

High cases of HIV/AIDs

1 in 5 children do not reach their 5th birthday

100,000 children are orphans

Open sewer which runs through the middle

World Bank has provided 2 water pipes to help with sanitation. This is 2 per 20 litres.

Medical facilities provided by charities

Practical Action has given low cost roof tiles as part of the self-help scheme

Gap year students are encouraged to go and help

15year projected started by the Kenyan government has seen 770 families be rehoused into blocks with running water, toilets, electricity and showers

- The UN have provided electricity for each home at £2.25 per home.

How can people in squatter settlements be helped?

SELF HELP SCHEME – Given a loan to improve their homes

  • They are given bricks to build their houses from

  • The roofs are no longer made from corrugated iron

  • The council give the people loans to help buy proper materials.

  • Standpipes are installed which give clean water and sanitation

  • Councils and locals build health centres and schools

  • The land is given to the locals so it is no longer illegal land

SITE AND SERVICE – designated area of land for locals with basic sanitation already built there

  • There are specific areas for water, electricity and sanitation

  • People build their homes with whatever material they can afford in specific areas.

  • Schools and health care centres can be built

  • New jobs can be provided by the new industry

Curitiba, a sustainable city in Brazil

How is the city sustainable?

-80km of bus routes.

-Cheap busses which come every 60 seconds

-28 parks across the city

-Lakes/floodplains built for floods (flood into lake, not homes)

-Low income families from shanty towns allowed to exchange rubbish for bus tickets or food

-70% of rubbish is recycled

-Sheep mow the lawns instead of lawn mowers

-50,000 homes given to the poor to get them out of shanty towns

BedZED, a sustainable housing project in London.

-777m2 of solar panels

-Car share scheme (only electric cars)

-Only 100 homes

-Recycle rain water to flush toilets

-triple glazed windows

-South facing homes

-81% less heating needed

-45% less electricity

-500m from a train station

-roof gardens to grow vegetables

Rapid urbanisation in India


Factories pollute the River Mithi with toxic waste which clogs up the drains and causes floods (e.g. 2005, 406 people died.

Human waste is put in the river

Channel dug deeper to stop floods

Public toilets introduced


Bhopal disaster killed 3000 people and left 50,000 people disabled

No solution but the plant has been shut down due to health and safety regulations and the owner was arrested.


Workshops chuck out waste onto the streets e.g. old PC monitors which leak toxic gasses e.g. lead into the atmosphere. India’s hospitals have seen patients with 10 times the amount of lead in their blood

Recycling plants or it is sent to the USA so they can dispose of it safety.


Fossil fuels are being burnt from cars and factories releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

This is causing breathing problems such as asthma.

New metro system is now in place which should have 9 tracks by 2021

The city has banned diesel for taxis and they must run on natural gasses

Main roads have soother flowing traffic due to the 55 new fly overs which have been built.

Birmingham CBD regeneration

The area needed regenerating after industry had left the city by the 1980s and the Bull Ring shopping centre looked run down and in need of regeneration.

In 2003 thy regenerated the Bull Ring which had 140 stores including a flag ship Selfridges. Other shops and tourists have been attracted to the area. They have also made the CBD entirely pedestrianized and Brindley Place used to be old warehouses. £400 million was spent turning it into an upmarket area with apartments and restaurants.

How did they improve the inner city housing in Birmingham? They needed a mixture of homes for young professionals, families and students!

  • Lozells neighbourhood – Victorian terrace houses knocked down and replaced with new houses, some eco-friendly. Some old Victorian houses had been split into bedsits have now been converted back to family homes

  • Birchfield neighbourhood – Old tower blocks have been knocked down to create mixed, affordable houses or families

Inner city regeneration schemes:

NDC – New deals for communities – Aston Pride, Birmingham.

-£400,000 on a health care centre

-Broadband centres set up to help locals search and apply to jobs

-Young people given guidance from employers

-1300 now have jobs

-Work experience programmes set up

-Locals were involved in the process

UDC – Urban development co-operation – London Docklands, London

-24,046 homes built

-11 new primary an 2 new secondary schools

-5 new health care centres

-2,700 businesses now in operation

-144km of roads built.

City Challenge – Manchester

-1960s terrace houses were knocked down for new houses

-New homes are energy and water efficient

-Crime rate now lower

-Park built.


BT NOW LOCATED IN INDIA (but used to be located in Newcastle)

Work longer hours than people in the UK and through the night

Cheaper set up costs and cheaper running costs in India

Average wage is £1,200 in India and £12,000 in the UK

They can speak multiple languages including English and often imitate a ‘Geordie’ accent

10% of people speak English in the country – Graduates work in call centres so intelligent people!

Globalisation has allowed this to happen - Internet and phone lines.

Submarine cables – SEA-ME-WE

Motor Sports Valley – Oxfordshire (local industrial region
Submarine cables have allowed businesses to set up factories in cheaper countries and have headquarters in rich country where all the research and development goes on. The example we looked at was SEA-ME-WE4 – (South East Asia, Middle East, Western Europe). This is the area joined up for business purposes.

Shared research:2,200 businesses linked to research and design and linked to Oxford and Cambridge universities

Located near large cities: Leicester and Birmingham which provides 40,000 jobs.

Good internet: introduction of 4G in cities = faster internet

Location of headquarters: Subaru/Nissan in Japan but sell here

Localised road links: M1, M5, M6

Close to airports: Heathrow - Rolls Royce ship components from Germany and assemble in the UK

TNC - WalMart



-Jobs: Jobs in many sectors and across the world e.g. Argentina 450 jobs

-Local: Local suppliers of foods and goods

-Jobs: Unskilled jobs to those in poorer countries and makes people there managers

-Charitable:$77,000 in Argentina to provide food for 120,000 people

-Sustainable development: Solar panels on roofs in Puerto Rico

-Long working hours: 60 hours a week in clothing factories in Bangladesh

-Different wages: USA $6 an hour and in China $1

-Competition: Forces smaller stores to shut

-Environmental problems: People driving to the stores from out of town = pollution e.g. in Hawaii

China – Why has it become an industrial giant?

1)Government legislation

Special economic zones were set up (SEZs) to attract business to China through things like tax incentives.

2)The Home Market -

China is becoming wealthy; 1993 income= £200, but by 2001 = £600. More money = more demand for Chinese products, so industries produce more.

3)The Olympic Factor 2008 Beijing Olympics

This was China’s attempt to get rid of any negatives images surrounding China in order to stimulate foreign investment.

4)The Three Gorges Dam – Yangtze River

As China is industrialising, they demand more energy. The Dam creates more HEP (22,500mW) and has improved development in the area.

5)Cheap labour

Wages in China are 95% lower than in the USA. This means that TNCs which locate in China have lower costs and make greater profits. Also, longer working hours in China means the workers can make more products which allows the TNCs to sell more goods and make more profit

Wind energy- Lambrigg Cumbria (renewable)

 Built on high land = strong NW winds throughout the year

 Built on Moorland and the farmer can continue to graze his sheep

 Existing connection to the national grid was close by = reduction in costs

 It is next to junction 37 of the M6 on the A684 – building costs were reduced 

 The turbines are built just below the ridge thus reducing their visual pollution

 Over 1km from away from the nearest house

 Any noise is drowned out by the M6

Biofuel (Cow Dung) for cooking electricity – ASTRA, India

 ISSUE - Rural families (many women and children) were spending hours collecting fuel and water for cooking and cleaning, but there was not enough wood for everyone

 Women and children gained two hours a day so children could go to school.

 80% of families now earn extra money

 The waste (called slurry) is used for crops as it is high in nutrients

 Cattle are kept in compounds. This makes it easy to collect the dung.

 Villagers use the dung to give them electricity. This means they can now have light which is not from a fire and use it for cooking

Food Miles


Subsistence farmers – bad crop = no food = death

Cash crop farmers rely on it for income

Lake Naiasha, Kenya

-Water supply affected as fertilisers are washed into the lake so people die drinking this water

-Flower farmers in the area take too much of the water so nothing left for locals

-chemicals sprays onto the flowers case rashes


We demand out of seasons products e.g. apples all year round.

-In the UK, growing season is Sep-Oct and apples are chilled once picked but this uses a lot of energy.

-It is actually more environmentally friendly to import them from New Zealand than chill them all year.


Cash crop farmers sell their produce on. With the money they make they can spend it on new technology so they can farm more and become richer

Some farmers borrow money to purchase fertilisers. This puts the in rural debt and often they cannot pay this money back in poorer countries


Farmers need to irrigate (water) their crops. However this can cause tensions e.g. The River Indus rivers through Pakistan and India and both countries needs this water for crops. However, Pakistan fear India may cut of their water supply as they have control of the water

Countries often have trade agreements. These allow cheaper food to be bought into the country.


Blackpool, UK – Rejuvenated Coastal resort that has been rejuvenated


Run down

Seasonal employment

Full of stag-do’s

Poor weather

Relies on day trippers

After rejuvenation

They have built a new Nickelodeon Land for children

£1 million spend on the illuminations

New conference centre

Winter Gardens for a theatre performances

New hotels

EXPLORATION – first discovered

INVOLVEMENT – locals open up hotels

DEVELOPMENT – Big companies come in and set up big hotels

CONSOLIDATION – Area relies on tourism money

STAGNATION – Area not fashionable

REJUVENTAION/DECLINE – Improve and renew or fall into day trip only

Indoor amusement arcades.

The Lake District – National Park

Why do people visit the Lake District?

-Water sports

-West Coast Mainline train service between London and Glasgow

-Famous writers such as William Wordsworth lived in the Lake District and his house is a visitors attraction

-M6 easy access from Manchester

-Outdoor activities including walking, climbing and fishing

-Highest Mountain (Scarfell Pike) and largest lake (Windermere) are located here

NEGATIVES of tourism in the Lake District

Seasonal employment

Congestion – only 5% of people use public transport = pollution

Second home owners push locals out

Low paid jobs

Footpath erosion

POSITIVES of tourism in the Lake District

 20,000 employed full time

Tourists spend £80 each

Demand local food

Taxes paid improves local infrastructure

Farmers turn buildings into hotels

Solution to the problems in the Lake District

Repair worn footpaths - Repair using the local materials, however it is expensive

Too many cars = too much pollution - Build a bypass and charge people to enter the car parks near Ambleside

Limit visitor numbers - Reduces environmental impact, but stops tourists spending money

Jamaica – Mass Tourism in the tropics

-Beaches such as BUFF BAY

-WHITE WITCH golf course and


Many of the tourism businesses are owned by foreign companies e.g. Thomas Cook. Therefore the profits often go abroad (economic leakage).

Seasonal jobs (Dec – April)

Coastal vegetation removed to build hotels, killing animals and their habitats

Hotels put untreated sewage into the sea, killing coral reefs

Water sports damage coral reefs


Jamaica earns $229 million Jamaican dollars from tourism.

Tourism provides jobs for locals e.g. working in hotels.

Taxes paid to the Jamaican government by tourism = better roads, schools and healthcare.

Tourist jobs are better paid.
-BOB MARLEY museum

Yachana Ecolodge, Ecuador - Ecotourism

-Locally produced food

-Only allowed only 36 people can be here at one time.

-Lights are solar panels

-Travel to Ecuador by 54ft

-Employ Amerindian guides, who speak English and Spanish

-20km of walking trials

-People can volunteer on their holidays to work to protect the rainforest

Antarctica – Extreme environment

Bad impacts on Antarctic?

Cruise ships can come too close to the shore and disturb wildlife. This can affect the feeding and breeding.

Ships can have accidents e.g. leak oil which pollutes the sea, beaches and threatens birds/animals. For example the Explorer ship leak in 2007.

Tourists can take historic artefacts from Antarctica.

Long plane journeys add to global warming.

Management in Antarctica

The Treaty of Antarctica:

Nearly 50 countries have signed up to it since 1961 to protect Antarctica from drilling, mining, pollution and wars.


There are 50 research stations in Antarctica. Tourists can visit the research stations to learn.

Tourism Management:

The IAATO (International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators) was set up in 1991. It said:

-Only a certain amount of people can go onto the shore for wildlife and activities.

-Tour operators and cruise ships are not allowed to leave any rubbish behind. They must not dump it in the sea!

The Polar Code:

This bans the number and size of ships visiting Antarctica. Ships carrying more than 500 people will not be able to land and only 100 tourists are allowed on the shore at one time.

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