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Bina Nusantara University



PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH is to understand about Android operating system, what the tools for developing Android applications, how to compile it into runnable file and publish it to the Android market. Also to found what community which widely discussed about Android application development is.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY used in this research is literature study. Literature study means looking for references from books, journals, or articles in a library or the internet. The references have to be within the scope and help to achieve the objectives of this research.

THE EXPECTED OUTCOME is to know about Android operating system for smartphones which is thriving recently. We also discussed about the IDE for developing Android application, what programming language is used for developing it, how to compile it into runnable Android file, how to publish the file into the market, and one of the community that interested in developing Android application.

CONCLUSION of this research is that today Android is widely thriving around the world. The percentage of Android users increased every year, leaving other operating systems in small number. We believe that interested in developing Android application will bring us advantage for now and years later.

Android, Application, Integrated Development Environment, Android market, Android communities, Operating System, Programming Language.



    1. Background

In this era of globalization, computerization of information has grown rapidly. There are growing operating systems including mobile phones and smartphones. Smartphones today are more developed and more attractive because of the variety of features that attract the society and fulfill what the society need. In 2013, approximately one billion smartphones have been sold (Intrik Times, 2014). The types of smartphone operating systems are Windows mobile, Blackberry, Android, Symbian, IOS, and so on. The Android operating system is one of today's operating systems that are growing in society. From December 2011 to March 2012, Android users percentage have increased from 47.3% to 51% (Tenni Purwanti, 2012) There are advantages of this operating system, among others, this operating system can be changed according to our own desires, and many computer applications are already available for Android smartphones.

    1. Scope

The research focuses on Android open source operating system for smartphone and the tools required for Android development. The research also discusses about compiling the code into installable Android file, publishing the file into the Android market, and finding the communities of Android developers.

    1. Objectives and Benefits

The objectives of the research are:

  1. To know which IDE is used in Android programming.

  2. To know supporting programming language in developing Android application.

  3. To know how to compile Android application code into installable Android file.

  4. To know how to publish one’s Android application to the market.

  5. To find the communities of Android developers.

The benefits of the research are:

  1. Understand which IDE is used in Android programming.

  2. Understand supporting programming language in developing Android application.

  3. Understand how to compile Android application code into installable Android file.

  4. Understand how to publish one’s Android application to the market.

  5. Know where the communities of Android developers are.

    1. Research Methodology

The research uses literature study as the research method. Literature study means looking for references from books, journals, or articles in a library or the internet. The references have to be within the scope and help to achieve the objectives of this research.



2.1. Operating system

An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.

2.2. Computer hardware

Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system. Computer hardware refers to the physical parts or components of a computer such as the monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, hard drive disk (HDD), system unit (graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard and chips), etc. all of which are physical objects that can be touched.

2.3. Software

Computer software, or simply software, also known as computer programs, is the non-tangible component of computers. Computer software contrasts with computer hardware, which is the physical component of computers. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used without the other.

2.4. Application software

Application software is all the computer software that causes a computer to perform useful tasks beyond the running of the computer itself. A specific instance of such software is called a software application, application program, application or app.

2.5. Integrated development environment (IDE)

An integrated development environment (IDE) or interactive development environment is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. An IDE normally consists of a source code editor, build automation tools and a debugger. Most modern IDEs offer Intelligent code completion features.

2.6. Smartphone

A smartphone, or smart phone, is a mobile phone with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than basic feature phones.

2.7. Compiler

A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program.

2.8. Programming language

A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms.

2.9. Software development

Software development (also known as application development, software design, designing software, software application development, enterprise application development, or platform development) is the development of a software product. The term "software development" may be used to refer to the activity of computer programming, which is the process of writing and maintaining the source code, but in a broader sense of the term it includes all that is involved between the conception of the desired software through to the final manifestation of the software, ideally in a planned and structured process. Therefore, software development may include research, new development, prototyping, modification, reuse, re-engineering, maintenance, or any other activities that result in software products.

2.10. Extensible Markup Language (XML)

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced by the W3C, and several other related specifications, all free open standards.

2.11. HTML or HyperText Markup Language

HTML or HyperText Markup Language is the standard markup language used to create web pages. HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like ). HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like


, although some tags represent empty elements and so are unpaired, for example . The first tag in a pair is the start tag, and the second tag is the end tag (they are also called opening tags and closing tags).

2.12. ADT (Android Developer Tools)

ADT (Android Developer Tools) is a plugin for Eclipse that provides a suite of tools that are integrated with the Eclipse IDE. It offers you access to many features that help you develop Android applications quickly. ADT provides GUI access to many of the command line SDK tools as well as a UI design tool for rapid prototyping, designing, and building of your application's user interface.

2.13. Android software development is the process by which new applications are created for the Android operating system. Applications are usually developed in the Java programming language using the Android Software Development Kit, but other development tools are available.

2.14. SDK (Software Development Kit)

Android SDK is a reliable software development kit issued by Google in order to provide developers with a comprehensive set of tools for building Android applications. If used properly, the SDK, together with Eclipse (the officially supported IDE) and JDK (Java Development Kit) is able to deliver state-of-the-art software for Android devices.

2.15. IntelliJ IDEA

IntelliJ IDEA is a Java IDE by JetBrains, available as an Apache 2 Licensed community edition and commercial edition. It is often simply referred to as "IDEA" or "IntelliJ". In a report by Infoworld in 2010, IntelliJ got the highest test center score out of the 4 Top Java Programming Tools : Eclipse, "IntelliJ IDEA", NetBeans, and Oracle JDeveloper.

2.16. Emulator

In computing, an emulator is hardware or software or both that duplicates (or emulates) the functions of one computer system (the guest) in another computer system (the host), different from the first one, so that the emulated behavior closely resembles the behavior of the real system (the guest).

2.17. Debugging

Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware, thus making it behave as expected. Debugging tends to be harder when various subsystems are tightly coupled, as changes in one may cause bugs to emerge in another.

2.18. Source Code

In computing, source code is any collection of computer instructions (possibly with comments) written using some human-readable computer language, usually as text. The source code of a program is specially designed to facilitate the work of computer programmers, who specify the actions to be performed by a computer mostly by writing source code.

2.19. Kernel

In computing, the kernel is a computer program that manages input/output requests from software and translates them into data processing instructions for the central processing unit and other electronic components of a computer. The kernel is a fundamental part of a modern computer's operating system.

2.20. Android

Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel, and designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google backed financially and later bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance—​a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. The first publicly available smartphone running Android, the HTC Dream, was released on October 22, 2008.

2.21. Android version and the Key user feature added

  1. Android 1.0 named Apple pie released on 2008 Sep 23

Key User feature added:

  • Download and updates via Android Market

  • Web Browser

  • Camera support

  • Gmail, Contacts and Google Agenda synchronization

  • Google Maps

  1. Android 1.1 named Banana bread released on 2009 Feb 9

Key User feature added:

  • "Show" & "Hide" numeric keyboard, in caller application

  • Ability to save MMS attachments

  1. Android 1.5 named Android cupcake released on 2009 Apr 30

Key User feature added:

  • Bluetooth A2DP, AVRCP support

  • Soft-keyboard with text-prediction

  • Record/watch videos

  1. Android 1.6 named Donut released on 2009 Sep 15

Key User feature added:

  • Gesture framework

  • Turn-by-turn navigation

  1. Android 2.0 named Éclair released on 2009 Oct 26

Key User feature added:

  • HTML

  • Digital zoom

  • Microsoft Exchange support

  • Bluetooth 2.1

  • Live Wallpapers

  • Updated UI

  1. Android 2.2 named Froyo released on 2010 May 20

Key User feature added:

  • Speed improvements

  • JIT implementation

  • USB Tethering

  • Applications installation to the expandable memory

  • Upload file support in the browser

  • Animated GIFs

  1. Android 2.3 named Gingerbread released on 2010 Dec 6

Key user feature added:

  • Updated UI

  • Improved keyboard ease of use

  • Improved copy/paste

  • Improved power management

  • Social networking features

  • Near Field Communication support

  • Native VoIP/SIP support

  • Video call support

  1. Android 2.3.5 named Gingerbread released on 2011 Jul 25

Key user feature added:

  • Improved network performance for the Nexus S 4G

  • Fixed Bluetooth issues on the Samsung Galaxy S

  • Gmail app. Improvements

  1. Android 3.0 named Honeycomb released on 2011 Feb 22

Key user feature added:

  • Multi core support

  • Better tablet support

  • Updated 3D UI

  • Media/Picture transport protocol

  • Google Talk video chat

  • Google eBooks

  • "Private browsing"

  • System-wide Clipboard

  • HTTP Live streaming

  1. Android 3.1 named Honeycomb released on 2011 May 21

Key user feature added:

  • UI improvements

  • Open Accessory API

  • USB host API

  • Mice, joysticks, gamepads... support

  • Resizable Home screen widgets

  • MTP notifications

  • RTP API for audio

  1. Android 3.2 named Honeycomb released on 2011 Jul 15

Key user feature added:

  • Optimizations for a wider range of tablets

  • Compatibility display mode (zoom for fixed-sized apps)

  • Media sync from SD card

  1. Android 3.2.1 named Honeycomb released on 2011 Sep 20

Key user feature added:

  • Android Market updates including easier automatic updates

  • Google Books updates

  • Wi-Fi improvements

  • Minor fixes

  • Chinese handwriting prediction improved

  1. Android 4.0.1 named Ice Cream Sandwich released on 2011 Oct 19

Key user feature added:

  • Facial recognition (Face Unlock)

  • UI use Hardware acceleration

  • Better voice recognition (dictating/Voice typing)

  • Web browser, allows up to 16 tabs

  • Updated launcher (customizable)

  • Android Beam app to exchange data through NFC

  • New lock screen actions

  • Improved text input and spell-checking

  • Control over network data

  • Email app supports EAS v14

  • WI-FI direct

  • BlueTooth Health Device Profile

  1. Android 4.0.3 named Ice Cream Sandwich released on 2011 Dec 16

Key user feature added:

  • Social stream API in Contacts provider to show updates associated to your contacts

  • Video stabilization and QVGA video resolution API access

  • Accessibility API refinements for screen readers

  • Calendar provider updates

  1. Android 4.0.4 named Ice Cream Sandwich released on 2012 Mar 28

Key user feature added:

  • stability improvements

  • better camera performance

  • smoother screen rotation

  1. Android 4.1 named jelly bean released on 2012 Jul 9

Key user feature added:

  • Google Now

  • Voice Search

  • Speed enhancements

  • Camera app improvements

  • Accessibility: gesture mode, enable braille external keyboards.

  1. Android 4.2 named Jelly bean released on 2012 Nov 13

Key user feature added:

  • Lockscreen widgets

  • 360 degree images with Photo Sphere

  • Gesture Typing, for faster typing

  • Wireless display with Miracast

  • Daydream to display information when idle or docked

  • Multi-user for tablets

  1. Android 4.2.2 named Jelly bean released on 2013 Feb 11

Key user feature added:

  • Allow toggling Wi-Fi and Bluetooth state in Quick Settings using long-press

  • Shows the percentage and estimated time remaining in the active download notifications

  • Wireless charging and low battery sounds changed

  • Gallery app updated for faster loading with new image transition

  • Performance enhancements and bug fixes (Bluetooth A2DP audio streaming fix...)

  1. Android 4.3 named Jelly bean released on 2013 Jul 24

Key user feature added:

  • Dial pad auto-complete

  • Photo Sphere enhancements

  • Camera app UI updated

  • 4K resolution support

  • Ability to create restricted profiles for tablets

  • Hebrew and Arabic right-to-left (RTL) support

  • Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) support

  • Bluetooth Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP) 1.3 support

  • Security and performance enhancements

  1. Android 4.4 Kitkat released on 2013 Oct 31

Key user feature added:

  • Screen recording

  • New Translucent system UI

  • Enhanced notification access

  • System-wide settings for closed captioning

  • Performance improvements

  1. Android 4.4 Kitkat released on 2013 Dec 5

Key user feature added:

  • Bug fixes

  • Enhance the camera on the Nexus 5

  1. Android 4.4 Kitkat released on 2013 Dec 9

Key user feature added:

  • Bug fixes

  • Security enhancements



3. 1. Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

IDE is an application that provides a friendly user interface for people to write a set of commands as codes to build programs. IDE also checks whether user makes a mistake or error while they write the code. Eventually, the IDE will translate those codes into machine language (compiling process) because that is the only language which computer understands. From the machine language, computer will execute the command that user writes into a program.

These are following IDE for developing Android:

1. Eclipse

Eclipse is an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) to develop software and can be executed in all platforms (platform-independent).

Characteristics of Eclipse:

    1. Multi-platform

Eclipse can be executed in following operating system, Microsoft Windows, Linux, Android, and Mac OS X.

    1. Multi-Language

Eclipse is developed using Java programming language, but Eclipse supports application development based on other language, such as C/C++, Perl, PHP, etc.

    1. Multi-role

Other than being an IDE, Eclipse also can be used for other activity in software development cycle, such as documentation, software testing, and web development.

To develop an android application using Eclipse, you must have the latest Android SDK (Software Development Kit) and install Android Development Tool (ADT) to your Eclipse as a plug-in.

2. Android Studio

Android Studio is a new Android development environment based on IntelliJ IDEA. Similar to Eclipse with the ADT Plugin, Android Studio provides integrated Android developer tools for development and debugging. The Advantages of Android Studio are:

  1. Gradle-based build support.

  2. Android-specific refactoring and quick fixes.

  3. Lint tools to catch performance, usability, version compatibility and other problems.

  4. ProGuard and app-signing capabilities.

  5. Template-based wizards to create common Android designs and components.

  6. A rich layout editor that allows you to drag-and-drop UI components, preview layouts on multiple screen configurations, and much more.

  7. Built-in support for Google Cloud Platform, making it easy to integrate Google Cloud Messaging and App Engine as server-side components.

3. Android IDE (AIDE)

AIDE is an IDE to develop Android application in your Android device. It also provides an interactive programming lesson with step-by-step instruction. Not only Android application, but you can also develop Java application and PhoneGap application using AIDE. This IDE also compatible with Eclipse and Android Studio for later use.

3.2. How to Compile

Before we start to code, we need to :

  1. Download the Android SDK.

  2. Install the ADT plugin for Eclipse (if you want to use the Eclipse IDE).

  3. Download the latest SDK tools and platforms using the SDK Manager.

During the build process, Android projects are compiled and packaged into an .apk file, the container for your application binary. It contains all of the information necessary to run your application on a device or emulator, such as compiled .dex files (.class files converted to Dalvik byte code), a binary version of the AndroidManifest.xml file, compiled resources (resources.arsc) and uncompiled resource files for your application.

To run an application on an emulator or device, the application must be signed using debug or release mode. You typically want to sign your application in debug mode when you develop and test your application, because the build tools use a debug key with a known password so you do not have to enter it every time you build. When you are ready to release the application to Google Play, you must sign the application in release mode, using your own private key.

The build process involves many tools and processes that generate intermediate files on the way to producing an .apk. If you are developing in Eclipse, the complete build process is automatically done periodically as you develop and save your code changes. If you are using other IDEs, this build process is done every time you run the generated Ant build script for your project. It is useful, however, to understand what is happening under the hood since much of the tools and processes are masked from you. The following diagram depicts the different tools and processes that are involved in a build:


3.3. Programming Language

1. C++

C++ is a general purpose programming language that is free-form and compiled. It was was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in the early 1980s at Bell Laboratories. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises both high-level and low-level language features. It provides capabilities for object-oriented programming. C++ is an extension of C.

  1. C

C is a general-purpose programming language initially developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs. Like most imperative languages in the ALGOL tradition, C has facilities for structured programming and allows lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

  1. JAVA

JAVA is a computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is an object-oriented language developed by Sun Microsystems. It was designed to have the "look and feel" of the C++ language, but it is simpler to use than C++ and enforces an object-oriented programming model.

3. 4. How to Publish

There are several steps you have to take before you publish an Android application into the market. The steps are:

  1. Understand the publishing process

Take a moment to read and understand the overall publishing workflow and become familiar with how the process works. In particular, you or your development team will need to prepare your app for release using a process common to all Android apps.

  1. Understand Google Play policies and agreements

Make sure that you understand and follow the Google Play program policies that you accepted when registering. Google Play actively enforces the policies and any violations can lead to suspension of your app or, for repeated violations, termination of your developer account.

  1. Test for Core Application Quality

Before you publish an app on Google Play, it's important to make sure that it meets the basic quality expectations for all Android apps, on all of the devices that you are targeting. You can check your app's quality by setting up a test environment and testing the app against a short set of core app quality criteria.

  1. Determine your application’s content rating

Google Play requires you to set a content rating for your app, which informs Google Play users of its maturity level. Before you publish, you should confirm what rating level you want to use. The available content rating levels are: Everyone, Low maturity, Medium maturity, and High maturity. On their Android devices, Android users can set the desired maturity level for browsing. Google Play then filters apps based on the setting, so the content rating you select can affect the app's distribution to users. You can assign (or change) the content rating for your app in the Developer Console, so no changes are required in your app binary.

  1. Determine country distribution

Google Play lets you control what countries and territories your app is distributed to. For widest reach and the largest potential customer base, you would normally want to distribute to all available countries and territories. However, because of business needs, app requirements, or launch dependencies, you might want to exclude one or more countries from your distribution. With your country targeting in mind, you should assess what your localization needs are, both in your app and in its Google Play listing details, and start the work of localization well in advance of your launch target date.

  1. Confirm the application’s overall size

The overall size of your app can affect its design and how you publish it on Google Play. Currently, the maximum size for an APK published on Google Play is 50 MB. If your app exceeds that size, or if you want to offer a secondary download, you can use APK Expansion Files, which Google Play will host for free on its server infrastructure and automatically handle the download to devices. Using APK Expansion files is a convenient, cost-effective method of distributing large apps. However, the use of APK Expansion Files requires some changes in your app binary, so you will need to make those changes before creating your release-ready APK.

  1. Confirm the app's platform and screen compatibility ranges

Before publishing, it's important to make sure that your app is designed to run properly on the Android platform versions and device screen sizes that you want to target. From an app-compatibility perspective, Android platform versions are defined by API level. You should confirm the minimum version that your app is compatible with (), as that will affect its distribution to Android devices once it is published. For screen sizes, you should confirm that the app runs properly and looks good on the range of screen sizes and densities that you want to support. You should confirm the minimum screen-size and density support that your app declares (), since that can affect its distribution to Android devices once it is published.

  1. Decide whether your app will be free or priced

On Google Play, you can publish apps as free to download or priced. Free apps can be downloaded by any Android user in Google Play. Paid apps can be downloaded only by users who have registered a form of payment in Google Play, such as a credit card or Direct Carrier Billing. Deciding whether you app will be free or paid is important because, on Google Play, free apps must remain free. Once you publish your app as a free app, you cannot ever change it to being a priced app. However, you can still sell in-app products and subscriptions through Google Play's In-app Billing service.

If you publish your app as a priced app, you can change it at any time to being a free app (but cannot then change it back to priced). You can also sell in-app products and subscriptions. If your app is be priced, or if you'll be selling in-app products, you need set up a Google Wallet merchant account before you can publish.

  1. Consider using In-app Billing

Google Play In-app Billing lets you sell digital content in your applications. You can use the service to sell a wide range of content, including downloadable content such as media files or photos, and virtual content such as game levels or potions. In-app Billing service lets you sell one-time purchases and subscriptions from inside your app. This can help you to monetize the app over its installed lifetime. If you are looking for more ways to monetize your app and build engagement, you should consider In-app Billing. The service has become very popular with both users and developers. To use In-app Billing, you need to make changes to your app binary, so you will need to complete and test your implementation before creating your release-ready APK.

  1. Set prices for your products

If your app is priced or you will sell in-app products, Google Play lets you set prices for your products in a variety of currencies, for users in markets around the world. You can set prices individually in different currencies, so you have the flexibility to adjust your price according to market conditions and exchange rates. Before you publish, consider how you will price your products and what your prices will be in various currencies. Later, you can set prices in all available currencies through the Developer Console.

  1. Start localization

To localize your store listing, first create and finalize your app title, description, and promotional text. Collect and send all of these for localization. You can optionally translate the "Recent Changes" text for app updates as well. Later you can add your localized listing details in the Developer Console, or you can choose to let Google Play auto-translate your listing details into the languages you support. A key part of making your app listing attractive to a global customer base is creating localized versions of your promotional graphics, screenshots and videos. For example, your app's feature graphic might include text that should be translated, for maximum effectiveness. You can create different versions of your promotional graphics for each language and upload them to the Developer Console. If you offer a promotional video, you can create localized versions of it and then add a link to the correct localized video for each language you support. When your translations are complete, move them into your app resources as needed and test that they are loaded properly. Save your app's translated listing details for later, when you upload assets and configure your product details.

  1. Prepare promotional graphics, screenshots, and videos

When you publish on Google Play, you can supply a variety of high-quality graphic assets to showcase your app or brand. After you publish, these appear on your product details page, in store listings and search results, and elsewhere. These graphic assets are key parts of a successful product details page that attracts and engages users, so you should consider having a professional produce them for you. Screen shots and videos are also very important, because they show what your app looks like, how it's used or played, and what makes it different. All of your graphic assets should be designed so that they are easy to see and highlight your app or brand in a colorful, interesting way. The assets should reference the same logo and icon as users will actually find in the All Apps launcher once they have downloaded the app. Your graphic assets should also fit in well with the graphic assets of other apps published by you, which will be also be displayed to users on your product details page. To help you market your app more effectively to a global audience, Google Play lets you create localized versions of your promotional graphics, screenshots, and videos and upload them to the Developer Console. When a user visits your app's store listing, Google Play displays the promotional graphic, screenshots and video that you've provided for the user's language.

  1. Build and upload the release-ready APK

When you are satisfied that your app meets your UI, compatibility, and quality requirements, you can build the release-ready version of the app. The release-ready APK is what you will upload to the Developer Console and distribute to users. The process for preparing a release-ready APK is the same for all apps, regardless of how they are distributed. Generally the process includes basic code cleanup and optimization, building and signing with your release key, and final testing. When you are finished preparing your application for release, you'll have a signed APK file that you can upload to the Developer Console for distribution to users.

  1. Plan a beta release

Before launching your app, it's always valuable to get real-world feedback from users — even more so when you are launching a new app. It's highly recommended that you distribute a pre-release version of your app to users across your key markets and provide an easy means for them to provide feedback and report bugs.

  1. Complete the app's product details

On Google Play, your app's product information is shown to users on its product details page, the page that users visit to learn more about your app and the page from which they will decide to purchase or download your app, on their Android devices or on the web. Google Play gives you a variety of ways to promote your app and engage with users on your product details page, from colorful graphics, screenshots, and videos to localized descriptions, release details, and links to your other apps. As you prepare to publish your app, make sure that you take advantage of all that your product details page can offer, making your app as compelling as possible to users.

  1. Use Google Play badges and links in your promotional campaigns

Google Play badges give you an officially branded way of promoting your app to Android users. Use the Google Play Badge generator to quickly create badges to link users to your products from web pages, ads, reviews, and more. You can also use special link formats to link directly to your product details page, to a list of your products, or to search results. To help your app get traction after launch, it's strongly recommended that you support launch with a promotional campaign that announces your product through many channels as possible, in as many countries as possible. For example, you can promote the launch using ad placements, social network or blog posts, video and other media, interviews and reviews, or any other channel available.

  1. Final checks and publishing

When you think you are ready to publish, sign in to the Developer Console and take a few moments for a few final checks. Make sure that:

  • Your developer profile has the correct information and is linked to the proper Google Wallet merchant account (if you are selling products).

  • You have the right version of the app uploaded.

  • All parts of your Product Details are ready, including all graphic assets, screenshots, video, localized descriptions, and so on.

  • You have set your app's pricing to free or priced.

  • You have set country (and carrier) targeting and priced your products (if appropriate) in buyer currencies.

  • "Compatible devices" shows that your app is actually reaching the devices that you are targeting. If not, you should check with your development team on the apps requirements and filtering rules.

  • You have provided the correct link to your web site and the correct support email address.

  • Your app does not violate content policy guidelines.

  • You have acknowledged that your app meets the guidelines for Android content on Google Play and also US export laws.

  1. Support users after launch

After you publish an app or an app update, it's crucial for you to support your customers. Prompt and courteous support can provide a better experience for users which results in better ratings and more positive reviews for your products. Users are likely to be more engaged with your app and recommend it if you are responsive to their needs and feedback. This is especially true after publishing if you are using a coordinated promotional campaign. There are a number of ways that you can keep in touch with users and offer them support. The most fundamental is to provide your support email address on your product details page. Beyond that, you can provide support in any way you choose, such as a forum, mailing list or a Google+ page. The Google Play team does provide user support for downloading, installing and payments issues, but issues that fall outside of these topics will fall under your domain. Examples of issues you can support include: feature requests, questions about using the app and questions about compatibility settings.

3. 5. Community

  1. Stack Overflow

Stack Overflow is a question and answer site for professional and enthusiast programmers. It's built and run by you as part of the Stack Exchange network of Q&A sites. With your help, we're working together to build a library of detailed answers to every question about programming. This site is all about getting answers. It's not a discussion forum. Focus on questions about an actual problem you have faced. Include details about what you have tried and exactly what you are trying to do. Not all questions work well in our format. Avoid questions that are primarily opinion-based, or that are likely to generate discussion rather than answers.

All questions are tagged with their subject areas. Each can have up to 5 tags, since a question might be related to several subjects. Click any tag to see a list of questions with that tag, or go to the tag list to browse for topics that interest you. Your reputation score goes up when others vote up your questions, answers and edits. As you earn reputation, you'll unlock new privileges like the ability to vote, comment, and even edit other people's posts. At the highest levels, you'll have access to special moderation tools. You'll be able to work alongside our community moderators to keep the site focused and helpful.


4.1. Conclusion

In this research, we have discussed about Android operating system for smartphones which is thriving recently. We also discussed about the IDE for developing Android application, what programming language is used for developing it, how to compile it into runnable Android file, how to publish the file into the market, and one of the community that interested in developing Android application.

Android operating system is commonly used for smartphone and tablet devices. The advantages of using Android than other operating system are its low cost and it’s easy to customize application that allow common Android users to make their own Android application.

The IDE that commonly used for developing Android applications are Eclipse, Android Studio, and Android IDE. Eclipse and Android Studio provide a tool to export your Android application project to a runnable Android file (.apk) for software testing in an actual Android smartphone or you can always test it in Android simulator from Android Virtual Device (AVD).

Publishing the Android application can be done by uploading the .apk file to the Google Playstore, but first we must have a Google Playstore developer account and make sure that the application is ready to be published.

We also found one of the communities that interested in Android application development. The community is Stack Overflow. Stack Overflow is not made only for Android application development but also other software development. But today, Android application development is often discussed in Stack Overflow.

4.2. Suggestion

We have some suggestions about Android, and they are:

  1. More people should be interested in developing Android application because of it’s an open source instead of only be consumer of applications.

  2. Tutorial in developing Android applications will be helpful for people who are interested in developing Android applications but don’t know where to start.

  3. Expert Android application developer should be more often in sharing their experience in developing Android application.


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