Underground stuructures in swelling rocks

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*Bülent Ecevit University, Department of Mining Engineering, 67100, Zonguldak, Turkey,

*Altınkum Mining Co., 17100 Çanakkale, Turkey

Swelling rocks which contain montmorillonite and anhydrite exhibit serious threats for underground structures. In underground openings like tunnels, galleries, gateroads or boreholes driven in unsaturated swelling rocks, inevitably swelling problems occur due to stress relief and increase in water content. Since water absorption of rocks occurs gradually, swelling problems are time dependant. Due to enormous economic losses and serious problems resulting from lack of appropriate precautionary measures, engineers are usually worried about encountering swelling rocks. Yet, there is always a considerable possibility, of coming across with swelling rocks either in a small zone or alongside of an underground opening since many sedimentary, magmatic and metamorphic rocks may contain swelling minerals. Thus, engineers should be conscientious about the problems associated with the swelling phenomenon and be ready to take the required measures.
In this study, the importance of the subject is emphasized through the selected case studies associated with the swelling rocks from different part of the world. For this purpose, Kappelesberg and Chienberg Tunnels (Anagnostou et al., 2010), Wagenburg and Belchen Tunnels (De Moya et al., 2009), Hanekleiv Tunnel (Nilsen, 2011), Çokal Dam Left Side Injection and Access Tunnels (Ağan, 2011), Aslantaş Dam T-2 Derivation Tunnel (Kafur et al., 1978), Hemsil I and Tunnjeodal Hydraulic Power Plants (Selmer-Olsen and Palstrom, 1989), Harbil Tunnel (Vrkljan et al., 1991), Nakaya Highway Tunnel (Asai, 1994), Heslach II Tunnel (Egger, 1996), Anadolu Motorway Bolu Mountain Tunnel (Özben, 2003), Lilla Tunnel (Alonso and Olivella, 2008) Pavoncelli Tunnel (Barla et al., 2009), Yeni Çeltek Lignite Mine (Ünver and Kargı, 1995), Alpagut-Dodurga Lignite Mine (Yücekent, 1980), ELI Soma Işıklar Main Haulage Decline (Özçelik and Kulaksız, 1995), Turab Lignite Mine (Bilir 2010), Tire Lignite Mine (Bilir, 2011), Yeniçeri Lignite Mine (Bülbül, 2012), Samsun-Havza Geothermal Exploration Wells (Toka and Şahin, 2006), Royal Tombs in Egypt (Wüst and McLane, 2000) were evaluated.

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