Unit Test – Georgia after wwii and during the Civil Rights Movement



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Unit Test – Georgia after WWII and during the Civil Rights Movement

  1. How did Georgia’s population shift after WWII? Why did this happen? (3 reasons)

  1. Synthetic fabrics decreased demand for cotton

  2. Diversification into other products

  3. Technological change in agriculture equipment lessened the need for large numbers of agricultural workers

  4. Prior to WWII: Destruction of the cotton crop by the evil boll weevil, the Great Migration of African-Americans to northern cities, movement of large numbers of Georgians from farms to cities with factories during WWII and WWII, AAA payments to farmers to stop them from growing crops during the Great Depression

  1. How did agriculture change in Georgia after WWII? What did this cause?

  1. Diversification into other products

  2. Technological change in agriculture equipment lessened the need for large numbers of agricultural workers

  3. Tractors, reapers, machinery, fertilizers

  4. Caused there to be less need for workers so they moved into cities – population shift from rural to urban!

  1. What is the importance of major league sports teams coming to Atlanta?

They generate millions of dollars a year in revenue – including jobs and the multiplier effect those jobs create (as those employed by the stadiums and teams spend their paychecks that creates economic growth and job opportunities for others)

  1. Who is credited with bringing these teams to Georgia? Ivan Allen, Jr.

PEOPLE




William B. Hartsfield

Ivan Allen, Jr.

Ellis Arnall

Title


Mayor of Atlanta – 6 terms of 4 years each – 1937-1941 and 1942-1961

Mayor of Atlanta from 1962-1970 – 2 terms of 4 years

Governor of Georgia – 1943-1947

Background


  • Born in Atlanta and attended Atlanta Public Schools, but didn’t finish high school

  • Worked in a law firm and eventually passed the bar exam to open his own law firm

  • Began political career when elected to the Atlanta city council in 1922

  • Son of a business man and born in ATL

  • Graduated from GA Tech and worked in his father’s business

  • Served in WWII then became president of his father’s business




  • Born in Newnan, Ga

  • Law degree from UGA in 1931

  • Elected to GA General Assembly in 1932

  • Attorney General in 1938 – the nation’s youngest at that time

  • Won the governor race in 1942 due to Eugene Talmadge’s interference causing GA’s university system to lose its accreditation

Contributions


  • Actively supported bringing air transportation to GA and helped make ATL an aviation hub

  • Coined the phrase for Atlanta – the city too busy to hate

  • Support for civil rights prevented some of the racial violence that was in other southern cities

  • Helped Atlanta during the Great Depression

  • Led a group to organize and carry out voter registration drives after the ending of the white primary

  • Instrumental in the calm integration of Atlanta Public schools

  • Ended lunch counter segregation

  • Tripled Atlanta’s size by annexing land

  • Expanded the expressway system

  • Built many parks

  • Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport is named for him

  • Unwavering in the fight for civil rights

  • First day of office – removed the white only signs from city hall and desegregated the cafeteria

  • Integrated Atlanta’s fire department and city government

  • Worked with Martin Luther King, Jr. and business leaders to ensure a smooth transition into desegregation for ATL

  • Helped build Interstate I-285, MARTA, and 55 other new building projects

  • Helped had many business move in to the city during his terms

  • Brought major league sports to ATL – Hawks, Braves, and Falcons

  • Made changes that modernized GA making it the most forward thinking southern state – for a time

  • Restored the accreditation for the state’s universities

  • Abolished the poll tax

  • Lowered the voting age to 18 – first state to do so

  • Established teacher retirement system

  • Led the acceptance of the Supreme Court’s ruling to end the white primary

  • Refused to give up his position of governor as part of the three governor’s controversy

  • Lost to Lester Maddox when he was a strong opponent for the governorship in 1966



  1. Who were the three men involved in the three governors scandal?

Ellis Arnall, Herman Talmadge, and Melvin Thompson

  1. Describe Eugene Talmadge’s role.

He was running for election in 1946, however, he was very sick. He was elected as governor but died before taking the office

  1. How did Herman Talmadge become involved?

Eugene Talmadge’s son – was part of a campaign of the Democratic Party to have his name written in by voters as they were concerned that Eugene Talmadge would die before taking office because he was so sick (he did)

  1. Why did Ellis Arnall refuse to leave the governor’s office even though his term was over?

He did not want to give the governor’s office over to Herman Talmadge because their views were so different. He wanted to stay in office while the Lt. Governor (Melvin Thompson) had his case in court. They believed that the GA Supreme Court would name Thompson as the governor based on the GA constitution (they did)

  1. What decision did the General Assembly make? They chose Herman Talmadge as the governor



  1. What did Melvin Thompson do? What was his claim in court? He started a court case. His claim was that he should be named as the governor of GA because he had been elected to the new position of Lieutenant Governor, and the GA constitution allowed for the LT. Gov. to take over if the Governor died



  1. How was the scandal resolved? The Court sided with Lt. Gov. Melvin Thompson making him Governor. They also created a special election in 1948 which Herman Talmadge won



  1. How did this scandal impact Georgia? Made GA a nationwide laughing stock, appear backwards, and lowered its already tarnished reputation / Led to a series of segregationist governors who ended some of the progressive reforms made by Ellis Arnall



  1. Describe the white primary.

Used by southern whited to keep African Americans from voting in the Democratic primary (The primary elections are held first – one for each political party – to narrow the candidates to the one the people want to represent each political party) Because at the time GA was a one party state, the Democratic party was essentially the election. So the white primary was a way of disenfranchisement – preventing African Americans from truly voting

  1. How did the white primary end in Georgia?

Primus King, aided by the NAACP and Dr. Thomas Brewer, tried to vote in a white primary in Columbus, GA. He was of course, arrested. His case then went to the Supreme Court and in the case King v Chapman, the US Supreme Court ruled white primaries unconstitutional. Ellis Arnall is credited with convincing the Democratic party of Georgia not to challenge the decision and end the use of white primaries in GA

  1. What was the decision in the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court Case?

Segregated schools are unconstitutional – This case caused schools to be integrated

  1. How did the Georgia General Assembly respond to that decision? (4 things!!)

  1. They declared the decision null and void – they refused to comply with the decision

  2. They threatened to stop funding and/or shut down any school that integrated

  3. Atlantans founded HOPE – Help Our Public Schools – to demand that the gov’t not shut down any school

  4. Changed the flag in 1956 to include the Confederate States of America battle emblem

  1. Why was the Sibley Commission created? What did the Sibley Commission do?

Created to gage public opinion on if GA should continue to resist the federal government’s desegregation of schools or change its laws to desegregate schools – according to the data from the 10 hearings held across the state, 60% of Georgians claimed they would rather close the public schools than to integrate

John Sibley, the head of the commission created by Governor Vandiver believed in segregation AND that resistance to federal mandates was useless. SO, despite the findings, Sibley pushed for schools to desegregate and the General Assembly accepted the Sibley Commission’s recommendation to allow school systems to decide for themselves about integration without interference from the state government

People




Herman Talmadge

Benjamin Mays

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Maynard Jackson

Lester Maddox

Andrew Young

Title

Governor – 1948-1954

US Senator – 1956-1981



Mentor and civil right leader

Reverend, civil rights leader

Mayor of Atlanta – 1973-1981 and 1990-1994

Governor -

Mayor of Atlanta – 1981-1989

Background




  • Born to former slaves and share croppers

  • Formally educated

  • Met in 1936 with Gandhi in India (he learned about his passive resistance against the British)

  • Born in Atlanta

  • Graduated high school @15 years

  • Studied at Morehouse

  • Became a pastor

  • Moved to ATL in 1945when his father came to pastor a church

  • Graduated from Morehouse in 1956@ 18

  • Earned a law degree from North Carolina Central University in 1964

  • Born in ATL

  • Dropped out of high school, worked jobs, even at Bell Aircraft

  • Opened a restaurant near GA Tech which he closed rather than integrate

  • Born in New Orleans,

moved to GA to pastor a church

in Thomasville



Contributions

  • Governor – increased state sales tax for public education and expanded schools to include grades 1-12 and a 9 month school year

  • Restructured the state highway department

  • Created the forestry commission

  • Brought more money into the state

  • Improved soil conservation programs, county health departments, and the state’s prison system

  • As a segregationist, fought against US Supreme Court civil rights decisions

US Senator -




  • President of Morehouse College – 1940

  • Strengthened the school academically and grew their funding



  • Mentor to Martin Luther King, Jr.




  • Created the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

  • Spokesman for the Montgomery Bus Boycott

  • Involved in the Albany Movement

  • Leader of the civil rights movement

  • March on Washington – I Have a Dream speech

  • Nobel Peace Prize – 1964

  • Created the Poor People’s Campaign to address economic issues left unsolved by previous civil rights legislation

  • Instrumental in ending segregation and changing Americas views on race and racial equality

  • First African American mayor of a southern city @age 35

  • Provided more contract work to African American owned businesses

  • Expanded Hartsfield Airport(Hartsfield JACSON International Airport, now)




  • Appointed more African Americans to government positions than any other governors combined

  • Created “little people days” allowing Georgians to speak with him at the governor’s mansion

  • Integrated the Georgia State Patrol

  • Segregationist

  • Elected Lieutenant Governor in 1970

  • Civil rights leader – voter

registration drives, worked for

the SCLC training civil rights

volunteers and taking part in

non-violent protests



  • An advisor to MLK, Jr.

  • Georgia’s first African

American Congressman since Reconstruction

  • Ambassador to the UN

  • As mayor, grew the city

economically and into an

international city



Describe each of the following – include what it was, important people involved, and how it was important

  1. Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC): College students across the nation, An organization that orchestrated peaceful, non-violent protests for civil rights, Helped draw attention and brought change



  1. The desegregation of the University of Georgia: Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter, Federal court ruled in favor of these students and required UGA to accept them as students – they WERE qualified, The integration of college after even high school was previously denied to African Americans by the Georgia constitution (Remember Cumming vs Bd of Ed of Richmond in 1899)



  1. The Albany Movement: SNCC, Martin Luther King, Jr., Police Chief Pritchett, An organized, peaceful, non-violent protest for civil rights, To desegregate the city of Albany, National attention – the failure to desegregate the city taught many lessons that were used in the successful Birmingham campaigns

HOWEVER – the next spring Albany removed all segregation laws from their city

  1. The March on Washington: MLK, Jr., over 250,000 activists, A political rally to promote the cause of the Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous speech: “I Have a Dream” making him the most well-known spokesperson of the Civil Rights Movement, Influenced the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965



  1. The Civil Rights Acts (1964 and 1965): US Congress, Civil Rights Act – Forbade discrimination on the basis of sex and race in hiring, promoting, and firing Voting Rights Act – Prohibited states from imposing any voting qualification or denying the right of any citizen to vote on account of race or color, Made segregation illegal and stopped disenfranchisement


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