V. Iljin the primary trade-union organization of the factory ««ford motor kompani» in vsevolozhsk leningrad region background of a factory

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Background of a factory
Automobile factory "Ford" has appeared in Vsevolozhsk recently, however he(it) has background which is important for understanding of the present. Company " Ford " has traditional communications(connections) with Russia which roots leave to the beginning of 20 centuries. The company kept for Russian market, despite of all falsities of a history of this country. It is the important fact in part explaining why "Ford" appeared among the first foreign automobile companies which were dared(were was solved) on large-scale manufacture in Russia.

For the first time Henry Forda's automobiles have appeared in Russia in 1907 when in Moscow the trade mission « Ford Motor Company » which has been transferred to Petersburg later has opened. By 1911 dealers Ford worked in Warsaw, Kharkov, Odessa, Екатеринославле. And by 1913 automobiles (various marks) Fordа have got popularity from rich Russians.

Revolution of 1917 has interrupted activity "Fordа" in Russia. But, as appeared, not for a long time. In 1919 both parties(sides) had been made the contract on delivery to the Soviet Russia 400 machines for an agriculture. In 1925 import of automobile production has reached(achieved) the peak: 11140 units of technics(technical equipment) of which 10505 made a tractor. In 1928 of the USSR has decided to adopt experience of America where the Soviet delegation has recovered. On May, 31, 1929 was the contract with company " Ford " about cooperation in construction in the USSR of a factory the maximal capacity up to 100 thousand automobiles one year is signed. The contract has been signed for nine years, but in 1935 the agreement has actually ceased to operate.

In 1970th years Ford repeatedly accepted invitations from Soviet party(side) to take part in construction the Autovase, the question on participation in construction КАМАЗа (but "Ford" has not accepted) was discussed. Real rapproachement has taken place only in the autumn of 1987 when "Ford" again have invited to participate in development of the Soviet car industry. On this time negotiations were successful and even the whole complex полигонных tests of new model has taken place, but manufacture of machines of a "management" class has not been started. The project in 1989 has been curtailed(turned), the parties(sides) this time were not left on questions especially economic.

In 1991 in Moscow the first official dealer « Ford the Motor of the Company » has appeared. Two years later automobiles " Ford " (practically full European scale and some the American models) have passed becoming obligatory certification. In 1995 successful development of commercial operations in Russia has demanded creation in the country of own representation. One of the primary goals put before Moscow office which have opened in March, 1996 of the company, began search of a platform under construction of a factory which capacities would cover needs(requirements) of the local market.

Eventually the platform has been found in Vsevolozhsk Leningrad region. Major factors of a choice of steel:

1) Affinity sea and tracks:

it facilitates delivery of accessories from Europe.

2) presence in area of resources of a labour, including qualified.

3) Saint Petersburg is the commodity market of automobiles largest after Moscow. By 2005 60 % of made automobiles of the company here came true.

Now « Ford Motor Co » 159 factories on all planet, including 70 - in territory the USA belong. On them it is borrowed(occupied) about 332800 person. Besides the field of activity of concern includes manufacturing

electronics, the fuel equipment, products from plastic, conditioners, and also rent of automobiles and manufacture of spare parts.

Creation of a factory
On July, 8, 1999, the management of the company has entered into the investment agreement with the Russian government about the organization of manufacture of automobiles in the city of Vsevolozhsk of Leningrad region. In one year "Ford" leaves the joint venture " Ford the Union " which since 1997 conducted "отверточную" assembly of models "Escort" and "Transit" at a factory in settlement Obchak near Minsk Manufacture in Belarus is curtailed(turned) within the framework of the program of re-structuring of the European division of the company, and all forces have been thrown on construction of the big factory in Russia. The factory has been focused on release of model « Ford Focus » - models which has received a rank « the automobile of year » in Europe and America in the same 1999.

On July, 9, 2002 solemn opening a factory has taken place in the city of Vsevolozhsk. His(its) cost has made 200 million dollars. It(he) became the first manufacture in Russia, completely belonging and taking place under the control of the international automobile company. Capacity of a factory has made 25000 automobiles in one year with possible(probable) increase in manufacture up to 100000 automobiles in case of change of inquiries of the market. At a factory originally there were 400 workplaces. Specially under Ford the mode of a free customs warehouse allowing беспошлинно to import accessories in exchange for the obligations on localization of manufacture (the level of localization should make 50 % after five years, since 2002) has been developed.

In 2003 the factory has typed(collected) capacity and has passed for work to two changes, and in 2003 – in three changes. In 2002 the factory has let out(has released) 2,5 thousand automobiles, in 2003 — 16,3 thousand, in 2004 — 29,7 thousand (it is sold – about 40 thousand), in 2005 - about 32 thousand automobiles.

In 2005 the factory has been reconstructed under release « Ford Focus » the second generation. Besides the strategic decision to increase manufacture up to 60 thousand automobiles one year was accepted. The company has spent for this reconstruction about 50 million dollars. According to president Ford Motor Company in Russia Хенрика Нензена, transition to new model has been dictated by strategic plans of mark on a gain of the Russian market.

The "know-how" and working conditions
Manufacture of the automobile in Vsevolozhsk begins with welding a body. This process will consist of three stages. The first — welding of separate details (them about hundred) in large units. The second — assembly of a body in a single whole in the main conductor. The third — final procooking of welded seams and "навеска" external details of a body. All works are carried out manually. On conductors of a detail are compressed by clamps and are welded by welding ticks. To use robots, each of which costs(stands) about one million dollars, at rather small volumes of manufacture it is considered economically inexpedient. Therefore here quality of welding entirely depends on " the human factor ". The control of welded points is carried out(spent) mechanically (with the help of a hammer and a chisel), and on "obverse" panels — with the help of ultrasound. Each fourth body is exposed to such control. And once a month one of bodies leaves in factory laboratory: it(him) break off in клочья, checking all up to a uniform point of welding.

Painting of bodies carry out(spend) on a line capacity up to 25 thousand machines one year. It not the painting chamber, namely a line which borrows(occupies) the big shop. The skim body acts on a site фосфатирования and drawings катафорезного a ground. It is already fully-automated process during which the body is consistently immersed in some baths. Then — drying, hermetic sealing of welded seams, drawing шумоизолирующей mastics and противогравийного coverings, stacking шумопоглощающих it is matte. First the ground is rendered, and after drying the body enamels and is delicious. Bodies are painted manually, usual pistols - краскопультами. It is possible to paint bodies in 10 colors and to replace a paint, it is necessary to take other pistol only. Latent кузовные cavities are processed by wax mastic. The input(entrance) on a line of painting is prohibited to the stranger: all process should occur in sterile cleanliness.

On the small pendant conveyor which is laid in the form of letter U, electroposting, internal furnish are mounted, glasses are put. In parallel "подсобираются" doors, the instrument panel, suspension brackets, the engine. Connection of a body with a running part passes in two stages. First on a body the back suspension bracket, and then — the forward module which includes the engine collected on a underframe, a box of transfers, the steering mechanism and actually a suspension bracket is mounted. After refuelling by operational liquids the automobile acts in the rain chamber on the control of tightness, and then — on racing drums.
The personnel
Opening of a factory in suburb of St.-Petersburg seemed to many local residents excellent(different) prospect. When have declared a set of the personnel, the stream of applications(statements) has rushed. On four hundred workplaces applied about ten thousand person. In result selection was rather rigid: tests, interviews with the psychologist, the master.. The Selected workers were trained in the center of a professional training in Vsevolozhsk, and the some people - and on Fordовских factories in Spain, Germany and Sweden. Preparation of workers for work on the conveyor simple also borrows(occupies) usually some days.

In due course appeal of a factory has decreased.

- As far as rigidly selection conduct?

- Was more rigid earlier. Now all already know, that pay here in 10 thousand, and to work it is necessary much. People not very much goes (3).

To the middle of 2005 number of constant workers of the company in Vsevolozhsk has reached(achieved) 1700 чел.

Aspiring to raise(increase) flexibility in work with the personnel and independence of pressure of trade union, administration began to use a policy(politics) of outsourcing. Рекрутинговые the companies select for « Ford Motor Kompani » workers for performance of time works. According to leaders профкома, in him(it) pay almost twice more, than the constant worker of similar qualification. To tell the truth, these workers are involved on conditions of temporal contracts, do not receive the medical insurance, do not participate during professional growth that is connected to increase of the salary in connection with increase of categories. As time workers they cannot enter trade union.

- In the long term, - chairman профкома considers, is there can be a threat, but employ 150 person of all on a line. And we perfectly realize this prospect of threat (3).
The salary
Doubtless advantage of work on "Fordе" - a stable payment.

- But the white salary, in time pay (3).

To tell the truth, the level of her(it) cannot be named high even to local measures. The tariff rate of the working 1 category - 11100, « pure(clean) on hands » - 9500.

- The yard keeper in Peter 10000 receives! (3).

The important factor of possible(probable) increase in the income of workers are overtime – "overtimes" as speak at a factory. They allow to increase the salary by m. Therefore, by calculations профкома (the official data will not be promulgated), the average salary of the worker – about 15 thousand roubles a month.

- But to earn 15 thousand, - chairman профкома speaks, - people live at a factory: in the middle of a week processing, on Saturday leave. The conveyor machine squeezes out all. Someone is pleased, people of near mind(wit) that there is an opportunity to earn. Yes, is, but business in the friend: how many you leave health for these three thousand superfluous (3).

The salary on « Ford Моторс Компани » in Vsevolozhsk approximately in 5 times is less, than receive working corporations " Ford " in Poland, Czechia, Hungary. But in comparison with position in Russia the salary here is looked tolerably: the average salary of workers in machine-building branch across Russia makes

less than 6 thousand roubles, in Petersburg - 10,8 thousand roubles, on "Autovase" - 12,1 thousand roubles.

Aspiring to reduce costs, the administration began to carry out(spend) a line on rationalization of system of a payment.

In 2005 the administration has unilaterally changed surcharges for categories. In result those who has received new categories after March, 1, have started to receive on 1000-15000 roubles less those who has received the same category earlier and performs the same work.

Is a discrimination absolute! – consider in профкоме.

Work on "Fordе" does not provide any bonus for performance and перевыполнение the plan, that it seems to Russian workers natural. Only during the conflict of autumn of 2005 it was possible to achieve it.

- Understand, - make comments in профкоме, - on the western companies, coming here, try to veil all this as though command work: « we members of one command(team) … Give! » With slogans operate, the same as in "McDonald's": you know, we to you do not pay a fig, but all of you members of one

commands(Teams), commands(teams) "McDonald's"! Everywhere same. But if in "McDonald's" of the boy and the little girl here already everywhere adult people and as though these slogans are good only all over again when you have got in the western company and it is glad, they here were not earlier, and now they are, and I with them, and we members of one command(team) … Through there some time there comes inspiration, that all this only words to not pay money. And when you start it to understand, you try something to make (3).

In 2006 the administration has cancelled overtimes. Профком considers, that it in отместку for intractability of workers.

- Such as times you so, we to you to earn we shall not give (3).

Annually since March, 1 the management of the company carries out(spends) indexation of wages: in 2004 inflation has made 12 %, the salary have raised(increased) on 13 %.

Is, - chairman профкома, - not asserts(approves) increase of the salary: 1 %. Firstly they still confused us, but потихонечку we start to understand (3).
Creation of the trade-union organization
The primary trade-union organization of a factory has arisen in 2002 under the initiative from below. As the initiator the manager on purchases has acted рядовый. Some workers of a factory explain his(its) determination to that the administration of it(him) something has offended.

The initiative has been maintained обкомом trade union of machine engineers where the primary organization has come. At the same time it has been similarly created primary the organizations and at other foreign factory "Катерпиллер".

- Guys came here, and the organizations have been created, then we have notified employers (4).

The management(manual) обкома has apprehended this event as the important and symptomatic step.

- At "Fordа" great achievement. There work young ребятишки – 25 – 26 years. And they have decided to take destiny in the hands. And this great achievement. People have understood, that is necessary to be engaged. The trade union will not be engaged instead of them, it(he) only enables. And in this sense to overestimate Fordовцев it is impossible (4).

Administration of the enterprise has apprehended this event negatively, but actively did not interfere. And soon fears have been removed(have been taken off). The trade-union organization has borrowed(occupied) a traditional niche, having concentrated on the organization of holidays, gifts to children, etc. In 2003 the decision was accepted, that the trade union before a management(manual) will not represent interests of workers, since this function has been transferred(handed) to advice(council) of labour collective.

To the middle of 2005 in the trade-union organization have consisted 112 чел.
Trip of trade-union delegation to Brazil
Push to radical change of the trade-union organization became trip of pair workers of a factory to Brazil as representatives профкома.

The Brazilian trade unions of corporation " Ford " annually hold a seminar on which trade-union leaders and the active workers working at factories of corporation in Northern and Southern Америках gather. When organizers have learned(have found out) about creation of the trade-union organization at a factory "Ford" in Russia, they have invited therefrom a pair of representatives. The big role in the organization of a seminar and involving in him(it) representatives of trade unions different the country, including and Russia plays international organization TIE (Transnational Information Exchange).

Chairman профкома for any reason could not go. Instead of him(it) there has gone Alexey Etmanov, working, the member of trade union which was not consisted even in профкоме. To tell the truth, it(he) showed some activity already and then. When have offered trip, it(he) at once has agreed. Motivation simple: « I Shall visit to Brazil on a freebie! ».

But expected tourist trip appeared completely other. Rest has failed. " For all time, - it(he) speaks, - only two times was expiated at ocean " (2).

In Brazil visitors have acquainted with work of the local trade-union organization. It has shaken A.Etmanova. It(he) for the first time has understood, that the trade union can be not such what it(he) saw it(him) in Russia. The picture was remembered:

- There I have seen such situation. The chief of a site approaches to the worker and speaks: « Do(Make)! » - « I am not obliged it to do(make). We shall meet in профкоме ». The chief at once: « it is Good. You should not do(make) it ». This a parameter! Security material and moral. Has seen real trade-union work (2).

During all seminar - in the afternoon and in the evening - there was a dialogue with colleagues from other countries, despite of a language barrier.

- When at them conference - ежевечерние пьянки. People разноязыкие. But after the second glass I have found out, that at me smart English language [is dared]. I once learned(taught) it(him). To Canadians have communicated (2).

It was found out, that work at a factory in Brazil same heavy, as well as in Russia, and at times and more hardly. But difference will be, that the trade union tries to supervise working conditions though is compelled to go on compromises.

- Plough the same as also we. But heat! « And how you struggle with it? » - « the Central air costs(stands) dearly. The agreement is signed, but neither we, nor administration we can not go on it » (2) yet.

The first impression from dialogue:

- The strongest trade union! Initiators are mechanics. They with formation(education) also realize necessity of trade-union work (2).

Probably, for the first time A.Etmanov has collided(faced) questions of ideology which are bound with daily problems of work at the enterprise. During the postSoviet epoch of a word "ideology" and furthermore " марксисистская ideology " for many sound as nostalgia on " политико-mass work " ideological departments of party bodies of the CPSU which pasted over space of cities and factories slogans " Glory of the CPSU! ", " Glory to working class ", " Forward to a victory of communism! ", etc. In Brazil A.Etmanov with surprise has found out, that people never living in the USSR or in the similar countries, speak about marxism as a key to understanding of realities of modern capitalism. And it(he), apparently, being surprised with itself(himself), has seen in it the big sense.

- Speak about marxism, about struggle of working class against the capital. But in fact it indeed actually! They from us extend all veins. Their purpose – as small as possible to pay, and our opposite: it is as much as possible to receive. Really struggle (2).

Short dialogue with colleagues from other countries has brought Alexey to reflections concerning a life in the country:

- I have listened and потихонечку started to understand, that is valid in unity force, that people have achieved … became insulting for Russia. We people, not monkeys any! Brazilians – the same Russian. The same fans(amateurs) to have a drink. Absolutely similar people, though more impulsive. Has looked. It became insulting. It was lit (2).
Turn in a life of the trade-union organization
Alexey has returned to Russia with ideas of revival of the present(true) trade union.

- It was lit. Has arrived. And at us here collective holiday. With me has got 8 person. I have dinned into them all. And we have arrived home already trade-union active workers (2).

At A.Etmanov's conference has told about trip to Brazil, about the impressions and conclusions.

- I told about Brazil as trade union has punched a buffet (not as at us crappy столовка). Workers are protected. The chief has not the right to stick you into dung with a nose. Have believed (2).

Профком has been re-elected in new structure. As new chairman have selected A.Etmanova. Former chairman have left in профкоме from especially humanitarian reasons:

- Even in профкоме we have left it(him). It is impossible to hand over! It(him) simply would dismiss for old time's sake (2).

- on August, 9, 2005 - new active workers count this day in the afternoon of revival of the trade-union organization of the factory. At once all forces have been thrown on increase in number of members of trade union since without achievement of the level exceeding 50 %численности of personnel, according to the law, it is impossible to bring an attention to the question on the right профкома to represent labour collective. And successes in this business appeared impressing: to conference in trade union have consisted 112 person, and a month later - already 800. To convince workers to enter trade union it was not simple.

- I, Саня [a member профкома - В.И. And others have gone to each change. And to us speak: « we there already were! We know, that this such ». - « Is not present, such at you yet was not. Let's try! Give trust ». Now in trade union 1056 person. Also have started потихонечку to act, flounder (2).
New профком has been created basically from adherents who were inspired with idea of creation of efficient trade union with which everyone will be considered.

- And in профкоме active people or those whom have pushed out how during Soviet time? – I ask chairman.

- Absolutely active. At elections there was a condition: readiness to endow personal time (2).

- In профкоме 10 person which are simply ready to work at any time for people, free-of-charge (3).

To tell the truth, full unity to achieve it was not possible. In профком have included former chairman, other people which then appeared an alien element that was showed during the become aggravated attitudes(relations) with administration have got also.

- It(He) [former chairman профкома - В.И.] has sold us on the first negotiations: " I should leave, but if there will be a voting, I for that negotiations proceeded ". It(he) insisted faster to vote. And they have seen, that it(he) a weak part, a pair of conversations have lead(have carried out), a post offered. We have then asked it(him), how many to it(him) have paid … does not speak … we it(him) even a bad word have called. Now in work профкома does not participate. As a matter of fact, it is necessary to clean(remove), in профкоме three persons not those, including it(him). Two we have already cleaned(removed) (3).

In профкоме 11 members.

- All workers. Employees повыходили at once as soon as we have started to struggle. From employees it [is dared] I turn out one. And that I as though only execute duties (2).

33-years Alexey Etmanov has the biography typical for the person of the generation. Before arrival on "Ford" tried to become the businessman:

- Than only was not engaged, time was valiant. On itself worked. To Finland it was wound, there back, барахло, the mounting was, but business on another's money will not construct in our country, wild percent(interests) under the loan. Banks do not give, it was necessary to go on bow to friends, and there percent(interests)! Well, and so it was tormented, a car repair service, шиномонтажом, has spat, and that there, copecks remained. Desires was much, and opportunities … It is necessary to have money that something to do(make) (3).

On "Ford" has got casually ("being drunk"):

- To the friend has arrived, and it(he) only on "Ford" was arranged. I only have arrived from Finland, is tired, day in the machine, and it(he) has bragged, that on "Fordе" all is good. Well and I have decided to try, three years (3).

Has passed short training. Worked at a factory as the welder. Besides work at a factory studies on the second rate – as the technologist.

- I was waited with a post of the master, the chief of a site. They detained me. I year waited. And here to the wife I speak: listen, we shall start trade union to lift, in fact a post I shall not receive. And she(it) speaks: yes what difference, already time has decided, give (3).

Then it(him) have appointed acting as the chief of a site. This increase has coincided with the beginning of rise of trade-union movement. Many have apprehended this step of administration as attempt to buy the active worker.

- To me have offered a post. I speak the wife: « All! It is necessary to refuse. People will speak: Buy! ». To me gave a post as soon as development of trade union though a post should give still one year ago went. The wife speaks: « And that to refuse? Continue the business! You that are afraid to leave back the welder? In what a problem? When you throw out from this post, it becomes clear, that only сука can become the chief of a site. Therefore continue! » And I began. People, the truth, approached(suited): « Buy! And we of the beginnings to trust you ». – « Give, - I speak, - guys a reality. Let's look on actions. To speak it is possible much ». After that at us have begun бучи: preparation of strike, the requirement, have started to assert hard workers, to not allow to dismiss, bear(dismiss, take out) them reprimand unreasonable. And that person who spoke « Buy! », has come and speaks: « Excuse, Alexey. I was mistaken. I did not think, that is possible to take all this and долбать them for their money » (3).

Turn in the destiny, voluntary made A.Etmanovym, is clear not to all:

- It is a lot of strikebreakers, a lot of selling … And for them

not clear, why I was not sold. And at me conscience, painful(unhealthy) feeling own advantages (3).

But the wife working at the same factory in shop of painting, understands it(him), supports also itself participates in trade-union work.

Chairman, as well as all members профкома, work in trade union free-of-charge at leisure, considering(examining) it as the principle.

- It is possible to argue, that should be released(exempted). I now receive normally enough, with processings, me suffices for a life. I cannot dare to request money of trade union so much. That to me the trade union paid 25 thousand a month. When we shall press through the collective agreement and we shall oblige the employer to pay to chairman профкома, I shall leave in released(exempted), I shall be engaged only in trade-union affairs (3).

There are only some indemnifications of charges:

- Well, from trade-union money a cellular telephone have bought, well sometimes give on gasoline (by the machine on affairs I go much), and so all on naked enthusiasm.

There are also other arguments for the benefit of work on public principles:

- To me chairmen assume in released(exempted), but I refuse, because here I on pulse hold a hand, here I every day at a factory, in any second is accessible to everyone, something happened, me at once will find (3).

A.Etmanov goes by "Zhigulis" of 12-th model.

- We here our manager on the personnel приплющили: it is time to give out the machine, in fact we the person of the company. It(he) then speaks: « we Shall look, as there will be negotiations on money ». – « And then it is not necessary. We shall better go by "12-th" if you have decided so to buy us (2).

Профком in the cleared structure aspires to work jointly. To this principle the different parties(sides) prove adherence differently. Heads обкома trade union of machine engineers assert(approve), that it(he) has gone from them when they have found out, that chairman does not lead up the information which receives in обкоме to a trade-union active:

- We on them have spent for 80 thousand more. But members профкома about it do not know. And I have suggested at conference: « you chairman профкома one do not release(let off), since all time goes the curve information ». And you saw? They here were together (4).

Chairman профкома deduces this principle from own understanding of trade-union work, from generalization of its(her) experience:

- It is dangerous вождизм. At us if I was not present, my place will be borrowed(occupied) with others. And when all becomes isolated on one person, it is very bad. <…>. Now we have received such situation on "Катерпиллере". Was Валера, we did not know other people. We have for two become isolated. They: « we shall lead! ». Ten loud applications(statements). High self-conceit. All! Валера слег: whether in hard drinking has left, whether was ill. And now the administration will take away all of them on different corners. Will create then trade union at this enterprise much more difficultly, than now (5).

Профком through constant informing of rank-and-file members on a condition of labour attitudes(relations) and on the actions, aspires to create a situation, at which initiative will go from below, and профкому it is necessary to organize only workers on their realization.

- We have put business so, that people decide. I all the day in shop, approach(suit) to people, I show the schedule, I speak, what possible(probable) ways are: we strike, or they sell this schedule + 30 %. To you will suffice? No. They sell the schedule + 45 %, will suffice? Yes, everything, I shall not strike. Dialogue with people. And if 70 % will tell, that though +, but people will not want, then yes, we shall head, we shall go to strike. But the protest should be born from within. And on negotiations, they give us that - that, sign, and we speak: no, we can not, we sound opinion of people and should coordinate all with them (3).

This principle in the organization of attitudes(relations) with administration of the enterprise is especially important. Chairman does not incur functions of individual representation.

- And at us, you know, who at us is near at hand, that and goes. At us is not present such, that we there prepare. Well, if only the problem is, then we prepare, and so who can, that and goes. Three or four persons, and you know, we have taken for a rule to ourselves a principle of Polish trade union " Solidarity ", where there is such rule to not meet a management(manual) in private. Because they play such interesting games, can compromise at any moment. Here it is important: if you have caught in a corridor and any question on running have discussed with the heads, it is not terrible, but if you go on a meeting, only with someone (3).

Formation capable профкома demands serious efforts on training his(its) members, in fact anybody from them earlier never seriously was engaged to trade-union work and was trained in its(her) subtleties.

- The most active we try to train, because together with it(him) we shall not make this revolution (2).

Sessions new профкома pass on a regular basis – usually two once a week on Sundays. To do(make) it at the enterprise for the different reasons it is inconvenient. The enterprise is from Vsevolozhsk on removal(distance). On his(its) territory do not suppose strangers who are quite often invited профкомом. Besides administrations feels like the owner at a factory, letting know to trade-union active workers their guest status. First профком sat on an apartment of chairman, then started to rent a premise(room) in the local house of officers.

- We gather every week, on Sunday (3).

Serious trade-union work demands from active workers of a new way of life which involves not only them, but also members of families.

Is it is necessary to come off family, from children. To come on a pair of hours (3).

The active trade-union life changes all way of life of active workers.

- Firstly the wife concerned intently, - speaks one of members профкома. And now: « At you when профком? On Sunday or on Saturday? ». She(it) perceives it as due. And I, when we of day two where

нибудь we do not fly, I feel, that already something does not suffice me. As muzhiks,

to which would like to thump. It is any драйв (sm). Seriously! <…> Trade-union dependence. <…> Couple of days – and something does not suffice (5).
Attitudes(Relations) with higher trade-union bodies FNPR
The primary trade-union organization of a factory has arisen at support of regional committee of trade union of machine engineers and part of this Russian trade union. Till autumn of 2005 this step called nobody in question.

The situation has changed after the management(manual) of the primary organization was replaced and its(her) number has sharply grown. The sum deducted in обком payments began to seem профкому to incommensurable that help which renders обком the primary organization.

According to decisions of the All-Russia congress of trade union of machine engineers первички should deduct in обкомы 35 % of collected payments.

In opinion of heads обкома, such percent(interest) not only is not great, but also obviously insufficient for maintenance effective trade-union деятелности:

- All over the world there is no such division: 100 % everywhere pay. And it was our mistake: to please первичкам all over again have made 55 %, have then started to reduce. From these deductions in the world funds – strike, solidarity are created. The strong trade union is a rich trade union. There is a pendant. It "Турметал" (turkish ПС). It(he) can stop branch for half-year and pay on average (4).

35 % are a norm but if there is a resistance from the party(side) первички the presidium can go on exception, having lowered percent(interest) of deductions. There was such opportunity and at Fordовцев, but they essentially did not begin to achieve her(it).

The management(manual) обкома looks at a situation completely differently. It is convinced, that only обком trade union of machine engineers in a condition to render to the primary organizations the qualified and versatile help.

- Trade union, - chairman обкома speaks machine engineers, - should operate professionally. We have technical, legal inspection. At the enterprises there are no lawyers who in perfection would know the labour legislation, simply are not present. They work with contracts. There and then are floating, when business concerns the labour legislation. And at us experts are (4).

Among services which offers обком and the federation of trade unions, a special place borrows(occupies) system of improvement of professional skill of trade-union workers.

- At us, - chairman обкома explained chairman профкома "Fordа", - regional school of a trade-union active. We shall result in you lecturers, experts who will educate you. We today have undertaken to tighten the forgotten economic educational program that they understood, that them make a fool. And if it is necessary – to recollect Marx, about a surplus value because it is quints an essence. It is necessary to struggle for the added cost, and its(her) any employer to show does not want. For it we struggle. <…> we have constant adviser from Engineering - economic university. It(he) the expert on wages (4).

Training of trade-union activists is conducted without collection with первичек additional money. All charges are carried out from the means acting in the form of regular transfers of a part of gathering of payments.

Chairman профкома "Fordа" looks at this system of training skeptically:

- What seminars? Three person brought, and I should learn(teach) 50 person. And

not during your time among a week. All of us work (3).

The management(manual) обкома results the calculations showing, that not only all payments are used, but organization "Fordа" received more, than deducted:

- When they have lead(have carried out) conference and have accused обком that do not know where there are payments, we have considered, how many there is their service. The bookkeeper – 7 thousand roubles, is half from average on the enterprise. Bank service. Carrying out of seminars in our territory. And when have counted up, they for 3 years have listed 490 thousand roubles, but we on them have spent for 80 thousand more (4).

The separative idea at leaders Fordовского trade union has arisen on financial ground.

- Now, - chairman профкома in February, 2006 has explained, - money have deduced(removed) from ФНПР-овских, we shall create a normal strike fund. For now was not. At us when strikes have begun, I have arrived to chairman of our regional committee, I speak: « Where fund? » - "is not present", - speaks. From that our idea about an output(exit) also began. For what we pay in him(it) of money, if help any? And trade union rich (3).

The management(manual) обкома tried to transfer(translate) imminent conflict in the form of open reports on the expenses, but the submitted balance could not convince Fordовцев to change the intention.

- They, - explains A.Etmanov, - to us came, when we have declared an output(exit). The cafe sat here with us in this, spoke, that are ready to show, where there is our money. Have left to us I shall sweep away the next year. We have looked: at them type 10 чел. In committee, they have written the salary to themselves on 26 thousand to a month (with premiums). That such money to earn, it is necessary in sweat of the person, instead of for staffs(states) to stay, as they (2).

Similar disagreements arise and with a number(line) of others профкомов, especially new.

- At him(it) [chairman профкома "Катерпиллера" - В.И.] 6-7 members of trade union. All money which насобирали up to him(it), it(he) took away on wages. It(he) did not list(transfer) one and a half year copeck. The swindler! And Fordовцы it(him) support financial (4).

The management(manual) of trade union of machine engineers tried to interfere with the labour conflict which inflamed on "Fordе" in the autumn of 2005.

On September, 27, 2005 on a factory there arrived chairman of the central committee of trade union of Machine engineers of the Russian Federation G.A.Trudov and chairman of the Leningrad regional committee of trade union of Machine engineers of the Russian Federation V.P.Kalinin. But on a factory they have not been admitted(allowed). The administration has explained this step to that at the enterprise go реорганизационные works. The purpose of their visit was desire to familiarize with position and the organization of work of workers of a factory, and also acquaintance and dialogue with representatives of the primary trade-union organization at a factory. In result behind territory of a factory there was a spontaneous meeting in which representatives of all shops (about 350 person) have taken part. In a result the resolution has been accepted:

1) To support requirements профкома, the put forward administrations and to suggest administrations to start immediately negotiations on realization of these requirements.

2) In default administrations from negotiations and realizations of requirements to enter collective labour dispute, to create strike committee and to begin preparation for strike.

3) Participants of meeting have made the protest concerning an illegal interdiction on visiting of a factory by chairman of the central committee of trade union of Machine engineers of the Russian Federation G.Trudova and chairman of the Leningrad regional committee of trade union of Machine engineers of the Russian Federation V.Kalinina.

4) Participants of meeting have made the decision to address to a management of the company "Ford-Europe", in international federation Metallistov and in administration of Leningrad region concerning the roughest infringement at the enterprise of the Russian legislation.

Chairman профкома so makes comments on event:

- When Kalinin [chairman обкома _ В.И.] have not let on a factory, it(he) has been dumbfounded: first time for 14 years. And I to it(him): and what you wanted? Here roses not усыпано! Him(it) to spit on you, you the native, they tried to invite here press, that обком trade union on a factory do not start up, and it is not interesting to press. There was in the street 350 чел., we have deduced(removed) them. During a lunch break though with them, I speak, talk. But it is bourgeois trade union, at them later ignition, they in 4 months after the beginning of our labour dispute have gathered in обкоме (3).

Attempts обкома to interfere with negotiations of the primary organizations with administration of the enterprises leaders of trade-union organization "Fordа" regard as conciliation. Обком with it it categorically disagree:

- All necessary conditions on "Катерпиллере" are created. It is result of mutual negotiations. Director was here, I there went. To tell the truth, Этманов me has accused that I met director: « Behind our back go

negotiations! » I invited their chairman here – have refused. Yes, nobody

negotiated behind your back. The question was the general(common) principles of attitudes(relations) (4).

As a whole профком looks skeptically at readiness of the trade-union bodies which are included in ФНПР, really to protect workers before the person of management, seeing in ФНПР conciliatory structure.

- I, - speak A.Etmanov, - read, how they in Norilsk persuaded members of trade union to stop strike, instead of persuading the employer to meet striking. And to what you talked in обкоме [chairman ОК В.И.], it(he) speaks me before new year: we have such practice, that we congratulate general directors happy New Year. I speak: « that? From an oak have failed? ». It is bourgeois trade union (3).

- What claims at you to обкому? – I try to find out from chairman профкома in more detail essence of disagreements.

- They are not necessary for us, - it(he) laconically answers. - Claims are not present. Perhaps, they there are good from its part, from them any pluss and a quantity of minuses, can, for someone something do(make) (2).

Even strongly dim vertical ФНПР causes the protest in chairman профкома:

- ФНПР all refers to congress, and to me on it to spit, I there was not, me on a drum. We have not got used, that for us someone decides. We solve problems (3).

All structure FNPR is perceived by leaders of trade union " Fordа " as a handicap to development of working-class movement.

- It is necessary to disperse really this шарашку ФНПР-овскую or all there to change. They there how ticks, they have seized who from such grain place will leave? To work it is not necessary, money go (2).

I try to check up the attitude(relation) to arguments which repeatedly heard on the part of heads of the trade-union structures which are included in ФНПР:

- But it is possible to lift a question at conference of the regional organization and to move all?

- You know, conference passes time in 4 years. We should wait for her(it) to clean(remove) the same Kalinin? Or Shmakov whom 12 years sit. They there lobby the interests. They as though there above, they in government participate, and when they last time were at the enterprise when people strike?

- That is to not shift this structure?

- Very hardly, and what for to us on it to spend forces, that this structure перелопатить? They will want, let come, we of them shall learn to work (2).

In parallel with deterioration of attitudes(relations) профкома with обкомом machine engineers there was a search of opportunities of ocurrence in Соцпроф. They have invited to the conference in January, 2006 Fordовцы have invited Храмова, Tyulkin, but have ignored обком. At this conference the decision on an output(exit) from trade union of machine engineers was accepted.

Attitudes(Relations) with Соцпрофом
Профком "Fordа", leaving trade union металлистов, tried зарегистроваться as the independent legal person. However at the modern Russian legislation it appeared it is impossible. It is necessary to enter into any large structure. And then there was an idea of the introduction in Соцпроф.

Обком trade union of machine engineers such prospect has considered skeptically since does not count Соцпроф the serious organization.

- Temples of them never will take. If will take, with them to work it is necessary. And he(it) does not have experts, it(he) can act, agitate only (4).

But leaders of trade-union organization "Fordа" are involved with organizational flexibility Соцпрофа.

- At Соцпрофа it is much easier the charter. It not ФНПР. And if you sometime want to leave, it is easier. While have concluded the contract, we prepare for documents. <…> the Account will be соцпрофовский, and we shall organize in general the. At them it is written down in the charter precisely, that the decision of the primary organization cannot challenge any congress (5).

To tell the truth, not all in it are sure:

- To us in Moscow spoke, that from Соцпрофа too it is hard to leave. But to us it is now more convenient. To us have given account (5).

Certainly, anybody on "Fordе" has no illusions be relative Соцпрофа and the help from his(its) party(side). But the main arguments pro - not only the big autonomy, but rather insignificant percent(interest) of payments listed(transferred) in the Russian structure.

- Fairly to tell, how those did not work, that and these will not be, but those did not work for 35 percent(interests), and these will not be for 5 (3).

To tell the truth, this sum – while the offer профкома.

- We want to offer them of 5 percent(interests), no more. Can, it is necessary to it(him) for authority (3).

In February, 2006 began process of transition of rank-and-file members of trade union in new Russian structure. The administration of a factory has demanded the application(statement) from each worker about the introduction in первичку Соцпрофа and about translation into his(its) account 1 % of the salary.

Trade-union solidarity
Despite of romantic belief in the force, active workers with "Fordа" realize, that alone their opportunities are limited. The realized need(requirement) for solidary actions grows from practice of daily trade-union work with other organizations. Simultaneously and from the outside the aspiration of other organizations to establish interaction with workers "Fordа" is shown.

One of the first pulses to association has come from the West, when organization TIE located in Holland (Transnational Information Exchange) has acted as the initiator of the first contacts of workers from Vsevolozhsk with trade unions Fordовских the enterprises Northern and Southern Америк. This organization recognizes that globalizations of the capital it is possible to resist, only organizing working solidarity in global scales. A problem of a low payment on Fordовских it becomes quite obvious factories of Russia in the greater measure a problem of the working western countries which lose the workplaces translated in those countries where a cheap labour. Therefore support of the Russian trade unions from party(side) TIE is completely not humanitarian help, and the rational form of protection of interests of the members.

TIE not only has financed trip of two active workers to Brazil. From this organization means for carrying out of the training seminar devoted to negotiating have acted(arrived). It(he) was carried out(was spent) by the specialized group конфликтологов from the St.-Petersburg state university. For participation in a seminar active workers of some new trade-union organizations of St.-Petersburg and the Autovase from Tolyatti have been invited.

From the moment of reorganization of trade union " Fordа " it(he) became the centre of gravity of those groups of workers which try to create at the enterprises independent первички. Contacts профкома "Fordа" with initiative groups and active workers of some other enterprises of St.-Petersburg are established: "Botchkarev", "Катерпиллер", "Скания", "Phillip Morris", etc. I was present at session профкома "Fordа" on which there were initiative groups of the workers, trying to create the trade-union organizations on "Скани" and "Phillip Morris".

Ideas of the creation soar in the environment of new trade-union active workers профобъединения. Chairman профкома "Катерпиллера" suggests to create trade union of workers of the foreign enterprises. In обкоме trade union of machine engineers to this idea gave the critical comment:

- At them arose idea фикс to unit all organizations with the foreign capital. But them will not register, since such organization does not fall under the legislation. It not a trade union. It will be association, but she(it) does not fall under the law giving to a guarantee to trade unions. <…> Year – two – three and they will break up. The general(common) interests at them are not present and cannot be. Now at many enterprises there are foreign investors – 20, 30, 40 %. Then it is necessary to remove and create existing structure new. What for to create something? The legislation from it will not change. What people are, such and is, as do not name the organization (4).

In профкоме "Fordа" to this idea also concern critically:

- Well, it Семушин [chairman профкома "Катерпиллера" - В.И.] speaks, incorrectly speaks a little bit, well, all have the right to the opinion. We can help workers of firms with the foreign capital somehow

сорганизоваться, under their any reference(manipulation) (3).

Among Fordовских active workers the idea of creation of trade union автомобилестроителей which will unit working all automobile factories of Russia has much more support.

Attitudes(Relations) with administration
New профком "Fordа" has chosen rigid style of attitudes(relations) with administration. Chairman профкома so describes style of attitudes(relations) with administration:

- More business. Sparks fly, when they try to press through any unpopular piece, having spat on our opinion. But so already recognize (3).

The administration behaves differently at different levels. The top management tries to show the tolerance combined to hardness, at the same time avoids open confrontation. Attitudes(relations) vary in view of an estimation of support which uses профком at workers.

<…> On results of these two strikes only also there were normal affairs. Who will talk to you, if you are weak. And we have shown force (3).

The most active workers try to neutralize, offering(suggesting) prospects of promotion on a scale of ranks.

- Approach to a member of trade union: « Well, what for to you

trade union? We shall give overtimes to you … » (5).

The basic line of intensity passes between workers and an average control link. Masters and chiefs of shops are used as the main tool of pressure upon workers and represent itself as the main thing раздражителя. Their hands undertake attempts to limit influence of trade union, to not admit(allow) participation of workers in strike. Профком in turn undertakes active actions against this category of management, for example, catching managers on infringements of a labour discipline, petty thefts.

- We too do not sit without an affair. We collect on them the compromising evidence. Now in assembly to shop everyone who has been involved in struggle against trade union, appeared involved in larceny. We have taken all, have particularly opened. But administration all the same … the Chief of shop who the worker dismissed that that only has taken and in a pocket has put … And here the chief of change from it(him) is conducted charged the machine on 5 thousand. And it(he) covers it(him), his(its) proteges! Mongrels! Not shame, conscience. Only beautiful words speak. Only it has taken place – at us at once leaflets. Our weapon publicity. Leaflets have illuminated everything as we have opened it as I have come to the chief of change, and me: Her(It) already assort ». – « Is not present! Protection cause! » - « Is not present! » - « Then I call itself! ». Well, it(he) has been covered itself. Consequence(investigation) (2) went.

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