(b Patton, PA, 2 April 1927). American liturgiologist. He took two BA degrees at St Vincent College (1949 and 1952) and the MS in piano at the Juilliard School (1954), and then took further graduate courses at Columbia University. From 1957 to 1967 he was associated with St Vincent College, first as a music teacher and later in administrative positions, including those of chancellor and chairman of the board of directors. He was a member of the university seminar in medieval studies at Columbia, 1957–66. In 1967 he was appointed abbot primate of the Benedictine Confederation and in 1977 he became the Archbishop of Milwaukee. He was also music editor of the New Catholic Encyclopedia. His principal interests are medieval Latin drama and music theorists, and Ambrosian chant. He studied the compositions and theoretical writings of Hucbald, and his transcription of the Play of Daniel from a British Library manuscript was widely performed by the New York Pro Musica. One of the most influential American bishops in the liturgical reforms of the 1980s and 90s, his earlier musicological writings continue to be of use to scholars.
‘Hucbald as Musician and Theorist’, MQ, xlii (1956), 66–84; repr. in The Garland Library of the History of Western Music, E. Rosand, i (New York, 1985), 314–32
‘The Beginnings of Troping’, MQ, xliv (1958), 477–88
‘The Compositions of Hucbald’, EG, iii (1959), 155–62
The Play of Daniel, ed. N. Greenberg (New York, 1959) [transcr.]
Modal Accompaniment (Latrobe, PA, 1959)
‘El drama litúrgico en la Edad Media’, RMC, no.77 (1961), 52–60
‘The Rhythmic Modes and Medieval Latin Drama’, JAMS, xiv (1961), 131–46
‘The Performance of Ambrosian Chant in the 12th Century’, Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: a Birthday Offering for Gustave Reese, ed. J. LaRue and others (New York, 1966/R), 856–66
Weatherall, Andy [Andrew]
(b Windsor, 6 April 1963). English disc jockey and remixer. He was a builder in the early 1980s, then came to prominence in 1988 through Boy’s Own, an irreverent football, fashion and club fanzine popular with the dance club community and which, as Junior Boys Own, became one of Britain’s most eclectic record labels. In 1989 he became a disc jockey at Shoom, the London club that helped begin the UK boom in acid house. He came to prominence soon after with Loaded (1990), his remix of the Primal Scream track I’m Losing More than I’ll Ever Have, and his subsequent production of that group’s Screamadelica album (1991), which mixed traditional indie elements with danceable rhythm tracks and gave rise to a burgeoning indie-dance crossover movement. After working with other similarly-inclined indie artists such as James, New Order and the Happy Mondays, he formed the challenging techno Sabres of Paradise cooperative with Nina Walsh, Jagz Kooner and Gary Burns, before adopting the name Two Lone Swordsmen. He continued sporadically to work as a disc jockey.
American jazz-rock group. It was founded in December 1970 by original members Joe Zawinul (keyboards), Wayne Shorter (soprano and tenor saxophone), Miroslav Vitous (double bass), Alphonse Mouzon (drums) and Airto Moreira (percussion). Over the years the group has undergone many personnel changes, with Zawinul and, until 1985, Shorter serving as the only constant members; the electric bass guitarist Jaco Pastorius gave the ensemble its most significant new instrumentalist (1976–81). In 1986 the quintet performed briefly under a new name, Weather Update, and then disbanded.
Weather Report’s first albums provided several remarkable instances of unconventional collective playing, though their music remained accessible to a large audience. Discarding the traditional jazz roles of soloist and accompanist, the players took the lead by turn and created textures that were continuously changing; they elided tonal ostinato themes with improvisations, and alternated unmetred passages with others underpinned by rock or Latin rhythms. Excellent examples of this novel approach to ensemble improvisation are Seventh Arrow and Umbrellas (on Weather Report, 1971, Col.), or Crystal and Surucucú (on I Sing the Body Electric, 1971–2, Col.). By 1972 Zawinul dominated the group, which had moved towards rock. He had a preference for dance rhythms and fixed arrangements featuring complex electronic effects. His striving for commercial success precipitated the many personnel changes in the group, but also led to its resounding hit Birdland (on Heavy Weather, 1976, Col.). Havona (also on Heavy Weather) demonstrated Jaco Pastorius’s unique command of the electric bass guitar, as well as the group’s continuing ties to improvisation.
D.Morgenstern: ‘Weather Report: Outlook Bright and Sunny’, Down Beat, xxxviii/11 (1971), 14–15, 42
B.McRae: ‘Weather Report’, Jazz Journal, xxix/6 (1976), 10–11
K.Dallas: ‘Weather Report’, Melody Maker (29 Oct 1977)
L.Birnbaum: ‘Weather Report Answers its Critics’, Down Beat, xlvi/3 (1979), 14–16, 44–5
L.Blumenthal: ‘Weather Report’, Down Beat, xlviii/2 (1981), 14–15
A.J.Liska: ‘On the Road with Weather Report’, Down Beat, xlix/10 (1982), 21–3, 66
J.Zawinul and G.Armbruster: ‘The Evolution of Weather Report’, Keyboard, x/3 (1984), 49–51
Weaver, John (i)
(bap. Shrewsbury, 21 July 1673; d Shrewsbury, 24 Sept 1760). English dancer, choreographer and dancing-master. The son of another dancing-master named John Weaver, he was educated at Shrewsbury School but spent part of his youth in Oxford, where his father kept a dancing school. By 1700 he was a theatrical dancer in London and early in 1703 he created The Tavern Bilkers, his first work for the stage. He became associated with the dancing-master Mr Isaac, who wished to improve both the status and the practice of dancing, and in 1706, at Isaac's suggestion, he published Orchesography as well as six of Mr Isaac's ball-dances in Beauchamp-Feuillet notation. He returned to Shrewsbury, and, in 1712, with the encouragement of the essayist and dramatist Sir Richard Steele, he published An Essay towards an History of Dancing. It dealt mainly with the status of dancing in antiquity, but in the final chapter Weaver argued for the reform of contemporary stage dancing so that it could represent ‘Persons, Passions, and Manners’ and explain ‘whole Stories by Action’. In 1717 he returned to London and produced a new work at Drury Lane, The Loves of Mars and Venus, in which he put his theories about expressive dancing into practice. It has been described as the first ballet d’action. Weaver danced Vulcan and Hester Santlow was Venus, the music was by Henry Symonds and Charles Fairbank (d 1729). In 1718 he created Orpheus and Eurydice, an even more boldly experimental danced work to music by Charles Fairbank, in which he appeared as Orpheus. In 1721 he published Anatomical and Mechanical Lectures upon Dancing, the first work to apply systematically anatomy and the mechanics of bodily movement to dancing. He returned to Drury Lane in 1728 to collaborate with the dancer and choreographer [?A.F.] Roger on a pantomime, Perseus and Andromeda, and in 1733 he produced his last work, The Judgment of Paris, which included singing as well as dancing, with music by Seedo, and the dancer Denoyer appearing as Paris. In the same year he retired from both the stage and writing and spent the rest of his life as a dancing-master in Shrewsbury.
all published in London
Orchesography, or the Art of dancing, (1706) [trans. of R.A. Feuillet: Chorégraphie, Paris, 2/1701]
A Small Treatise of Time and Cadence in Dancing (1706) [trans. of Feuillet: ‘Traité de la cadance’, Recüeil de dances, Paris, 1704]
Letters to The Spectator (17 May 1711; 24 March 1712; 25 August 1712)
An Essay towards an History of Dancing (1712)
Anatomical and Mechanical Lectures upon Dancing (1721)
The History of the Mimes and Pantomimes (1728)
I.K.Fletcher,S.J.Cohen and R.Lonsdale: Famed for Dance: Essays on the Theory and Practice of Theatrical Dancing in England, 1660–1740 (New York, 1960/R)
A.Chatwin and P.J.S.Richardson: ‘The Father of English Ballet: John Weaver (1673–1760)’, Ballet Annual 1961, 60–64
M.H.Winter: The Pre-Romantic Ballet (London, 1974)
L.Kirstein: Four Centuries of Ballet: Fifty Masterworks (New York, 1984)
R.Ralph: The Life and Works of John Weaver (London, 1985)