Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56



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Weikert, Ralf


(b St Florian, 10 Nov 1940). Austrian conductor. He studied the piano and conducting at the Bruckner Konservatorium in Linz, followed by studies with Hans Swarowsky (conducting) and Hanns Jelinek (composition) in Vienna. In 1965 he gained first prize in the Malko Competition in Copenhagen. In 1966 he became first Kapellmeister and two years later chief conductor at the Theater der Stadt Bonn, a post he held until 1977, and from 1977 to 1981 he was deputy General Musikdirector of the Frankfurt Opera. In 1981 Weikert was appointed principal conductor of the Mozarteum Orchestra and musical director of the Salzburg Landestheater, and in 1984 he became musical director of the Zürich Opera, a post he held until 1992. He has also made many guest appearances in leading opera houses, including the Vienna Staatsoper, the San Francisco Opera, the Metropolitan Opera and the Staatsoper in Munich. His recordings include Rossini’s Tancredi and Zemlinsky’s Kleider machen Leute.

MARTIN ELSTE


Weikl, Bernd


(b Vienna, 29 July 1942). Austrian baritone. He studied in Mainz and Hanover, where he made his début in 1968 as Ottokar (Der Freischütz). He was engaged at Düsseldorf (1970–73) and sang Melot (Tristan und Isolde) at Salzburg in 1971. He first appeared at Bayreuth as Wolfram in 1972, and has subsequently sung there Amfortas, the Herald (Lohengrin) and Hans Sachs. He made his Covent Garden début (1975) as Rossini's Figaro and his Metropolitan début (1977) as Wolfram, returning as Orestes (Elektra), John the Baptist and Hans Sachs. He sings regularly in Berlin, Hamburg, Munich and Vienna, where he created Ferdinand in von Einem's Kabale und Liebe (1976), repeating the part in Florence. Weikl's huge repertory of over 100 roles ranges from Guglielmo, Count Almaviva, Don Giovanni, Belcore, Luna, Posa, Boccanegra and Ford to Onegin, Tomsky, Golaud, Eisenstein and Morone (Palestrina). Weikl's powerful voice, warm and resonant, and his dramatic gifts are particularly well displayed in his Wagner and Strauss roles, notably Hans Sachs, the Dutchman, Mandryka, Orestes and John the Baptist. He has recorded many of his operatic roles and such works as Winterreise (of which he is a sensitive interpreter), Brahms's German Requiem and Schoenberg's Gurrelieder.

ELIZABETH FORBES


Weil, Bruno (Kurt)


(b Hahnstätten, 24 Nov 1949). German conductor. He studied conducting with Hans Swarowsky from 1972 to 1974 and Franco Ferrara (1974) and in 1975 made his début at the Wiesbaden Opernhaus, where he was shortly afterwards appointed Kapellmeister, a post he held until 1977. After a period as Kapellmeister in Brunswick (1977–81) he was Generalmusikdirektor in Augsburg from 1981 to 1989, during which time he deputized for Karajan at the Salzburg Festival. From 1989 to 1992 he conducted regularly at the Staatsoper in Vienna, and in 1994 he became Generalmusikdirektor of the symphony concerts in Duisburg. Weil also works as guest conductor with leading orchestras around the world and at opera houses such as Bologna and Hamburg. He frequently conducts the Canadian ensemble Tafelmusik on period instruments. In 1992 he made his début at Glyndebourne with Così fan tutte. He is music director of the Carmel Bach Festival, California, and artistic director of the Festival Klang und Raum at Irsee, Allgäu. Weil's recordings have been widely admired for their vitality and vivid sense of instrumental colour. They include works by Haydn (The Creation, symphonies and masses), Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail and Schubert's complete masses.

MARTIN ELSTE


Weiland, Julius Johann


(d Wolfenbüttel, 2 April 1663). German composer and musician. From the prefaces to his first two collections we learn that he was a pupil at Brunswick Gymnasium in 1642 and also that, for almost five years at the same period or a little later, he belonged to the Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Hofkapelle. He went to Minden for further training. He published his Erstlinge (1654) from nearby Petershagen, signing himself as ‘Küchenschreiber to Count Wittgenstein’. At Easter 1655 he returned to the service of Duke August the Younger of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Duchess Sophie Elisabeth. He played a decisive part in the musical life of the court under the direction of Johann Jakob Löwe von Eisenach. In 1660 he was appointed vice-Kapellmeister. He was almost exclusively a composer of church music. His compositions, which include small-scale sacred concertos, are clearly influenced by Schütz. The majority are dedicated to Duke August.

WORKS


Erstlinge musicalischer Andachten, 1–4vv, 2 vn, bc (Bremen, 1654); 1 ed. in NM, xiv (1928); 1 ed. F. Saffe (Kassel, 1933); 1 ed. Längin (Kassel, 1966)

Deuterotokos: hoc est Sacratissimarum odarum partus, 1–3vv, 2 vn, bc (Bremen, 1656)

Zweyer gleich-gesinnten Freunde Tugend- und Schertz-Lieder, auff die jtzige neueste Art in die Sing- und Dicht-Kunst verfasset, 1–3vv, 2 vn, va, bc (Bremen, 1657), collab. J.J. Löwe von Eisenach

Billich ist es, dass wir preisen, aria, 1v, bc (Wolfenbüttel, 1658)

Grosser Fürst wer kan doch recht, aria, 1v, bc (Wolfenbüttel, 1660)

Nun dancket alle Gott, 4vv, 4 vn, bn, bc (Wolfenbüttel, 1661); ed. in Brauer

Lob- und Danck-Lied, aus dem 89. Psalm, 5vv, 5 insts, bc (Wolfenbüttel, 1661)

Psalmus CXVII, 6vv, 2 vn, bc (Wolfenbüttel, 1662)

Uns ist ein Kind gebohren, 8vv, 2 vn, 2 va, bc (Wolfenbüttel, 1663)

Ich rufte zu dem Herrn, 3vv, 2 vn, bc, D-W

Wer wälzet uns den Stein, 5vv, 2 vn, 2 va, db, bc, Bsb, doubtful (see Krummacher)

3 motets, from Deuterotokos, S-Uu (in tabulature)

Other works, now lost, cited in Seiffert

BIBLIOGRAPHY


EitnerQ

GerberL

F. Chrysander: ‘Geschichte der Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttelschen Capelle und Oper vom 16. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert’, Jb für musikalische Wissenschaft, i (1863), 147–286, esp. 182

M. Seiffert: ‘Die Chorbibliothek der St. Michaelisschule in Lüneburg zu Seb. Bach's Zeit’, SIMG, ix (1907–8), 593–620

F. Saffe: ‘Wolfenbütteler Komponisten des 17. Jahrhunderts’, Universitätsbund Göttingen: Mitteilungen, ii/2 (1920–21), 81–4

G. Skjerne, ed.: M.H. Schacht: Musicus danicus, eller Danske sangmester (MS, 1687, DK-Kk); (Copenhagen, 1928), 56

H.C. Worbs: ‘Die Schichtung des deutschen Liedgutes in der zweiten Hälfte des 17. Jahrhunderts’, AMw, xvii (1960), 61–70

W. Schmieder and G. Hartwieg: Kataloge der Herzog-August-Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel, xii: Musik: alte Drucke bis etwa 1750 (Frankfurt, 1967)

F. Krummacher: Die Choralarbeitung in der protestantischen Figuralmusik zwischen Praetorius und Bach (Kassel, 1978)

J.L. Brauer: Instruments in Sacred Vocal Music at Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel: a Study of Changing Tastes in the Seventeenth Century (diss., CUNY, 1983), 406–10, 231–6

K.W. Geck: Sophie Elisabeth Herzogin zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg (1613–1676) als Musikerin (Saarbrücken, 1992), 82–4, 88, 133–6, 169–75

HORST WALTER




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