Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Wennerberg-Reuter, Sara (Margareta Eugenia Euphrosyne)

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Wennerberg-Reuter, Sara (Margareta Eugenia Euphrosyne)

(b Otterstad, Skaraborgs län, 11 Feb 1875; d Stockholm, 29 March 1959). Swedish composer, niece of Gunnar Wennerberg. She studied the organ and harmony with Andrée in Göteborg and then took examinations in organ playing and choral church music at the Stockholm Conservatory (1893–5). She was a pupil of Jadassohn and Reinecke at the Leipzig Conservatory (1896–8), and studied counterpoint with Bruch at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1901–2). Awarded the Litteris et Artibus in 1931, from the 1930s until her death she was the only woman in the Swedish composer society, Föreningen Svenska Tonsättare. She composed more than a hundred works. The most popular were the cantatas – among them those for the consecration in 1906 of St Sofia, Stockholm (where she was organist from 1918 to 1945), and for the quincentenary of the town of Lidköping (1946) – and also the melodious and lively male-voice quartets and songs.


(selective list)

Orch: Romans, vn, orch; other pieces

Choral: Skogsrået [The wood-spirit] (V. Rydberg), solo vv, male chorus, orch, orchd E. Westberg; Skogsrået (G. Wennerberg), solo vv, male chorus, mixed chorus, orch, orchd E. Ellberg; cants., hymns, motets, c20 male-voice qts

Vocal: Världens gång [Way of the World] (G. Fröding), 1v, orch

Songs (1v, pf): Dina smala, vita händer [Your Sweet White Hands] (A. Gullstrand); En vintervisa [A Winter Song] (Fröding); Gud välsigne dessa hjärtan [God Bless this Heart] (J.O. Wallin); Lillebarn [Little Child] (B. Bergman); Sen uppå fåglarna [Look upon the Birds] (H. Reuter, Matthew vi.27); [2] Sånger (Reuter, Gullstrand); [3] Sånger (P. Bjerre); Stilla komme och välkomna [Come Calmly and be Welcome] (Wallin); Varde ljus [Let there be Light] (I. Wennerberg); Videvisan [The Willow Song] (Z. Topelius); c17 other songs

Inst: Vn Sonata; Angelus, Höststämning [Autumn Mood], I regnet [In the Rain], pf; Högtidsmarsch [Festival March], När löven falla [When the Leaves Fall], org

Principal publisher: Elkan & Schildknecht


B. Hagman: ‘Sara Wennerberg-Reuter’, Svenska män och kvinnor, ed. N. Bohman and T. Dahl (Stockholm, 1942–55)

M. Myers: Blowing her own Trumpet: European Ladies’ Orchestras and Other Women Musicians 1870–1950 in Sweden (Göteborg, 1993)


Wenrich, Percy

(b Joplin, MO, 23 Jan 1887; d New York, 17 March 1952). American songwriter, singer and pianist. He was influenced by the black ragtime pianists in his hometown of Joplin and began composing while in his teens, publishing several early rags including Noodles (1906) and The Smiler (1907). He earned the nickname ‘The Joplin Kid’ from his birthplace. He then studied the piano at the Chicago Musical College, and subsequently became a song plugger and saloon pianist in Chicago and Milwaukee. After moving to New York he performed in vaudeville with his wife, Dolly Connolly, for about 15 years. Through promoting his own songs on the stage and visiting retail agents on his tours around the country, Wenrich earned a reputation as the ideal Tin Pan Alley songwriter. He wrote four shows for New York between 1914 and 1930, but is best known for his pre-war popular songs, such as Put on your old grey bonnet (1909), Moonlight Bay (1912), and The Tulip and the Rose (‘When you wore a tulip’) (1914), which are still favourites of barbershop quartets and American community singing. Many of Wenrich’s manuscripts and other papers are in the Harry S. Truman Library at Independence and the State Fair Community College Library at Sedalia, Missouri.


(selective list)

Stage: (musical comedies unless otherwise stated; all first performed in New York): The Crinoline Girl (O. Harbach; lyrics, J. Eltinge), 16 March 1914 [incl. That Tempting Tango]; The Right Girl (R. Peck), 15 March 1921; Castles in the Air (Peck), 6 Sept 1926 [incl. Lantern of Love]; Who Cares? (revue, H. Clarke), 8 July 1930

Songs: Rainbow (A. Bryan) (1908); Under a Tropical Moon (C.R. McDonald) (1908); Up in a Balloon (R. Shields) (1908); Put on your old grey bonnet (S. Murphy) (1909); Moonlight Bay (E. Madden) (1912); The Tulip and the Rose (J. Mahoney) (1914); Where do we go from here? (H. Johnson) (1917); Sail along, silv’ry moon (H. Tobias) (1937)

Piano: (all rags; published in Chicago unless otherwise stated): Ashy Africa (1902); Peaches and Cream (New York, 1905); Dixie Blossoms (New York, 1906); Noodles (1906); Dixie Darlings (1907); The Smiler (1907); Sweet Meats (1907); Crab Apples (Erie, PA, 1908); Persian Lamb Rag (Boston, 1908); Cotton Babes (New York, 1909); Egyptian Rag (New York, 1910); Hula Hula (New York, 1911); Whipped Cream (New York, 1913)

Principal publishers: Arnett-Delonais, McKinley, Remick


E.M. Wickes: Writing the Popular Song (Springfield, MA, 1916)

D. Ewen: Popular American Composers (New York, 1962; suppl. 1972)


Wenssler, Michael

(b Strasbourg; fl 1472–99). Alsatian printer, active at Basle. He established his printing shop in 1472, working with the first printer at Basle, Berthold Ruppel, and with Bernhard Richel. His name appears with Jacob von Kilchen’s (‘impensis spectatissimorum virorum MW et JK’) on a spectacular series of printed music books of 1488: a gradual, two antiphonals, missals, and agendas. Another gradual of about 1486 has been attributed to him and a Missale sarumburiense was shipped to England in 1489 at the expense of Wenssler, Kilchen and Hans Wiler. In 1490 financial disaster forced Wenssler to sell his shop; he fled Basle and spent the next decade printing for others in Speyer and Basle and on his own in Cluny, Macon and Lyons. He was allowed to return in 1499. Several missals, vigils and psalters with printed music are attributed to him, but ownership of his types after 1490 is unclear.

Three music types were used in Wenssler’s books and in books printed for Peter Drach in Speyer and others: a very large gothic chant type for the choirbooks and two missals for Worms (1486, 1488, 1489–90); a large gothic type chant for quarto vigils, agendas, psalters and folio missals (1490–1501 and later); and a roman chant type for the Sarum missal (1489). The use of black mensural type for the mensural chant of Glorias and Credos in the graduals is the second known use of mensural music type, after the 1480 Niger Grammatica printed at Venice by Theodor Franck of Würzburg. It is striking that the first printed music attributed to Wenssler is a reprint of that title in Basle, dated about 1485, with music printed from woodcuts.


K. Meyer: ‘Der Musikdruck in den liturgischen Inkunabeln von Wenssler und Kilchen’, Gutenberg-Jb 1935, 117–26

F. Geldner: Die deutschen Inkunabeldrucker: ein Handbuch der deutschen Buchdrucker des XV. Jahrhunderts nach Druckorten, i (Stuttgart, 1968), 79, 109, 112, 173, 192


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