Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Werdier, Pierre. See Verdier, Pierre. Werf, Hendrik van der

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Werdier, Pierre.

See Verdier, Pierre.

Werf, Hendrik van der

(b Hennaard, 1926). Dutch musicologist. He studied musicology at Nijmegen University with Smijers and choral conducting at the Utrecht Conservatory. After emigrating to the USA, he was employed by San Diego State University to teach music history and conduct choirs. In 1961 he began studying for the PhD at Columbia University, which he gained in 1964 with a dissertation on trouvères chansons. He was appointed to the faculty of the Eastman School of Music of Rochester University, New York, where he remained until his retirement in 1996. His research has focussed on music pre-1300.


Chansons of the Trouvères: a Study in Rhythmic and Melodic Analysis (diss., Columbia U., 1964)

‘Recitative Melodies in Trouvère Chansons’, Festschrift für Walter Wiora, ed. L. Finscher and C.-H. Mahling (Kassel, 1967), 231–40

The Chansons of the Troubadours and Trouvères: a Study of the Melodies and their Relation to the Poems (Utrecht, 1972)

‘Accentuation and Duration in the Music of the Cantigas de Santa Maria’, Studies on the Cantigas de Santa Maria: Art, Music and Poetry, ed. I.J. Katz and J.E. Keller (New York, 1981), 223–34

The Emergence of Gregorian Chant: a Comparative Study of Ambrosian, Roman, and Gregorian Chant, i: a Study of Modes and Melodies (Rochester, NY, 1983)

‘The “Not So Precisely Measured” Music of the Middle Ages’, Performance Practice Review, i (1988), 42–60

Integrated Directory of Organa, Clausulae, and Motets of the Thirteenth Century (Rochester, NY, 1989)

Anonymous IV as Chronicler (Rochester, NY, 1990); repr. in Musicology Australia, xv (1992), 3–25

‘The Composition Alleluya Vocavit Jesus in the Book Named Jacobus’, De musica hispana et aliis: miscelanea en honor al Prof. Dr José Lopez-Calo, ed. E. Casares and C. Villanueva, i (Santiago de Compostela, 1990), 197–210

‘The Polyphonic Music’, The Codex Calixtinus and the Shrine of St James, ed. J. Williams and A. Stones (Tubingen, 1992), 125–36

The Oldest Extant Part Music and the Origin of Western Polyphony (Rochester, NY, 1993)

The Chronology of Motet and Discant Passage and the Origin of Modal Notation (Armidale, NSW, 1995)

‘Music’, A Handbook of the Troubadours, ed. F.R.P. Akehurst and J.M. Davis (Berkeley, 1995), 121–64

‘Jean Renart and Medieval Song’, Jean Renart and the Art of Romance: Essays on ‘Guillaume de Dole’, ed. N. Vine Durling (Gainesville, FL, 1997), 157–222


Trouvères-Melodien (Kassel, 1977–9)

with G. Bond: The Extant Troubadour Melodies: Transcriptions and Essays for Performers and Scholars (Rochester, NY, 1984)

with others: A. de la Halle: the Lyrics and Melodies (New York, 1985)

Contredit: the Songs Attributed to Andrieu Contredit d'Arras (Amsterdam, 1992)


Werfel, Franz (Viktor)

(b Prague, 10 Sept 1890; d Beverly Hills, CA, 26 Aug 1945). Austrian writer and poet. Like Schopenhauer, Werfel perceived music as a mystic primary experience and the most immediate expression of human beings freed from their material existence; he described it as ‘God’s remembrance of the word before the Fall of Man’ (‘Die Erschaffung der Musik’, 1913). Singing, the ‘most holy symbol of the lonely dialogue between God and men’, represented for him the highest form of art, with its ultimate fulfilment being opera. This genre features prominently in his writings, both as scene setting and aesthetic object. Embedded in a critique of modernism, Werfel’s dialectic conception of music history saw melody and the human voice ‘dethroned’ during the 19th century by symphonic instrumental music, a process he identified above all with Wagner. This explains Werfel’s endeavour to reinstate Italian opera in German culture, especially the works of Verdi, whose music he had loved since attending as a youth Angelo Neumann’s Italian seasons in Prague. His fictional Verdi: Roman der Oper (Berlin, 1924/R, rev. 2/1930; Eng. trans., 1925), planned since 1911 and drawing on original research, centres on the antithesis of Wagner and Verdi, of German and Italian music, and praises Verdi as an artistic and human paradigm free from Wagner’s corrupting influence. In 1926 Werfel edited with Paul Stefan the first German collection of Verdi letters (Das Bildnis Giuseppe Verdis, Vienna, 1926; Eng. trans., enlarged, 1942, as Verdi: the Man in his Letters) and prefaced it with a lengthy biographical sketch. The first production of his freely translated and revised edition of Verdi’s La forza del destino, which was performed in the same year under Fritz Busch in Dresden, was highly significant for the burgeoning ‘Verdi Renaissance’ in Germany. Although not the first 20th-century German revival of this opera, Werfel’s adaptation was subsequently seen in all major German-language theatres and was also performed abroad. Translations of Simon Boccanegra (1930, Vienna) and Don Carlos (with Lothar Wallerstein; 1932, Vienna) followed. In numerous articles, Werfel defended his enthusiasm for Verdi against a mixed critical reception (many of these writings, including ‘Die Erschaffung der Musik’, are reprinted in Zwischen Oben und Unten, Stockholm, 1946, 2/1975/R). Resident in Vienna after the end of World War I, he and his wife, Alma Mahler-Werfel, emigrated to France in 1938 and settled in the USA two years later.

As well as leaving a few compositional drafts, Werfel collaborated with Ernst Krenek on the libretto for the scenic cantata Zwingburg (1924, Berlin) and wrote the text for Kurt Weill’s biblical drama Der Weg der Verheissung (1934–5; rev. as The Eternal Road, 1937, New York). His writings have inspired various composers, including Carl Orff (early cantatas and songs), Darius Milhaud (Maximilien, 1932, Paris), Lodovico Rocca (Monte Ivnor, 1939, Rome), Giselher Klebe (Jacobowsky und der Oberst, 1965, Hamburg) and Aribert Reimann (Troades, 1986, Munich).


A.D. Klarmann: Musikalität bei Werfel (Philadelphia, 1931)

L.B. Foltin: Franz Werfel (Stuttgart, 1972)

R.S. Furness: ‘A Discussion of Verdi: Roman der Oper’, Franz Werfel: an Austrian Writer Reassessed, ed. L. Huber (Oxford, 1989), 139–51

N. Abels: ‘“Die Wahrheit erfinden”: über Franz Werfels “Verdi: Roman der Oper”’, Musik und Literatur: Bamberg 1991, 215–36

G. Stern and P. Schönbach: ‘Die Vertonung Werfelscher Dramen’, Franz Werfel im Exil, ed. W. Nehring and H. Wagener (Bonn, 1992), 187–98

J.E. Michaels: Franz Werfel and the Critics (Columbia, SC, 1994)

G. Kreuzer: ‘Zurück zu Verdi: the “Verdi Renaissance” and Musical Culture in the Weimar Republic’, Studi verdiani, xiii (1998), 117–54

H. Mautner: Aus Kitsch wird Kunst: zur Bedeutung Franz Werfels für die deutsche “Verdi-Renaissance” (diss., U. of Hanover, 1999)


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