Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Westerhout, Nicola [Niccolò] van

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Westerhout, Nicola [Niccolò] van

(b Mola di Bari, 17 Dec 1857; d Naples, 21 Aug 1898). Italian composer. He was born into a musical family of Dutch origin that had been settled in and around Bari for more than a century. He first studied with his father or his grandfather and from 1876 at the Naples Conservatory, where he was a pupil of D’Arienzo, De Giosa and Lauro Rossi; he also attended courses in aesthetics. He became a well-known pianist. Although not in sympathy with the academicism of contemporary Neapolitan musical culture, he became harmony teacher at the Naples Conservatory in 1897. His opera Doña Flor was written for the inauguration of the Teatro van Westerhout, Mola, in 1896. As a composer he was best known for his many songs and piano pieces, which combine French elegance and a tendency towards classicism, modelled on Martucci’s style.


Ops: Cimbelino (dramma lirico, 4, E. Golisciani, after W. Shakespeare), private perf., Naples, 1887; Rome, Argentina, 7 April 1892 [? rev. of earlier work, Una notte a Venezia; see SchmidlD]; Fortunio (Scalinger), Milan, 16 May 1895, vs (Milan, n.d.); Doña Flor (A. Colautti), Mola, Westerhout, 18 April 1896, vs (Milan, n.d.); Colomba (Colautti), Naples, 27 March 1923; Tilde, unperf.

Orch: 3 syms., no.3 inc.; Serenata; Ov., d, to Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar; Vn Conc.

Other works: Pf Sonata, f (Milan, n.d.); pf pieces; sonatas, vn, pf; other pieces, vn, pf; songs




A. Giovane: ‘Nicola van Westerhout’, Musicisti e cantanti della terra di Bari (Bari, 1968)

S. Martinotti: Ottocento strumentale italiano (Bologna, 1972)


Westerkamp, Hildegard

(b Osnabrück, 8 April 1946). Canadian composer, teacher and soundscape researcher, of German origin. She emigrated to Canada in 1968 and settled in Vancouver where she studied at the University of British Columbia (BMus 1972) and at the Department of Communication, Simon Fraser University (MA 1988). She began to teach courses in acoustic communication at Simon Fraser in 1982. In 1972 she married the Canadian poet and playwright Norbert Ruebsaat, with whom she has collaborated on a number of projects. Her contact (c1969) with R. Murray Schafer through the World Soundscape Project (WSP), a research group at Simon Fraser University dedicated to exploring the sonic landscape, has been very important to her creative work. She joined the WSP as a research assistant in 1973. In 1991 she began the Soundscape Newsletter, which was later adopted as the official publication of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology, an international, interdisciplinary organization formed in 1993. Other important influences have been Pauline Oliveros and fellow WSP member, composer Barry Truax.

As a composer she works primarily with the medium of tape (sometimes in conjunction with live instruments or voices), combining, manipulating and/or processing environmental sounds in ingenious ways. The result is a body of work which possesses a high degree of artistic integrity and which often reflects the WSP’s sociological message: the need to listen critically to our acoustic environment. Travel to India, Brazil, Japan and Europe in the early 1990s has had a significant influence upon her work. She divides her output into compositions, sound documents (the audio equivalent of a film documentary, but without narration), and composed environments; the last as a genre lies somewhere between the other two categories. Westerkamp’s writings include ssh … Noise Handbook (Vancouver, 1974) and Listening and Soundmaking: a Study of Music-as-Environment (MA thesis).



Whisper Study, 2-track tape, 1975; Familie mit Pfiff, 2-track tape, 1976; Fantasie for Horns I, 4-track tape, 1978, II, hn, 4-track tape, 1979; A Walk through the City (N. Ruebsaat), spkr, 2-track tape, 1981; Streetmusic, any portable inst, 2-track tape, 1981; Windmusic, any wind inst, 2-track tape, 1981; Cool Drool, spkr, 2-track tape, 1983; His Master’s Voice, 2-track tape, 1985

Harbour Sym., boat sirens, 1986 [c100 sirens, Vancouver harbour, Expo ’86; 6 sirens, St John’s harbour, Newfoundland, 1988]; Cricket Voice, 2-track tape, 1987; Moments of Laughter, female v, 2-track tape, 1988; Music from the Zone of Silence: 1 Desertwind, 2 Meditation, 3 The Truth is Acoustic, 1–4 spkrs, 2-track tape, 1988; The Deep Blue Sea (B. Shein), spkr, 2-track tape, 1989, collab. Ruebsaat

Kits Beach Soundwalk, spkr, 2-track tape, 1989; Breathing Room, 2 track-tape, 1990; Breathing Room 2, 2-track tape, bottles, audience, 1990; Ecole polytechnique, 8 church bells, mixed choir, b cl, tpt, perc, 2-track tape, 1990; Breathing Room 3 – a Self Portrait, 2-track tape, 1991; My Horse and I (S. Thesen), 2-track tape, 1991; Beneath the Forest Floor, 2-track tape, 1992; From the India Sound Journal, spkr, 2-track tape, 1993; Sensitive Chaos, 2-track tape, 1995; Dhvani, 2-track tape, 1996

composed environments

Cordillera (Ruebsaat), 4-track tape, 1980; Zone of Silence Story, 2-track tape, 1985, collab. Ruebsaat; Coon Bay (Can. west coast), 2-track tape, 1988; Tueren der Wahrnehmung, 1989 [for Ars Electronica ’89, Linz]

sound documents

Under the Flightpath [life near an airport], 1981; Streetmusic [Vancouver street musicians], 1982; Voices for Wilderness [environmental festival, Stein Valley wilderness, BC], 1985, collab. Ruebsaat; Women Voicing [women’s music], 1985, in Musicworks no.31 (1985); Convergence [Canadian Electroacoustic Community symposium, Banff, Alberta, 1989], 1990; One Visitor’s Portrait of Banff [soundscape of Banff], 1992

Soundtracks for film


EMC2 (K. Bazzana)

D. Zapf: ‘Inside the Soundscape: the Compositions of Hildegard Westerkamp’, Musicworks, xv (1981), 5–8

G. Young: ‘Composing with Environmental Sound’, Musicworks, xxvi (1984), 4–8

R. Chatelin: ‘Hildegard Westerkamp: Wake-Up and Hear the Crickets’, Music Scene, no.360 (1988), 7 only

H.U. Werner: ‘I am a Composer, I Recycle Sound — Zur Musik der Klangoekologin Hildegard Westerkamp’, Zeitschrift für neue Musik, liv/June (1994)


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