Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Wiley, Roland John

(b Indio, CA, 27 Jan 1942). American musicologist and dance historian. He studied choral literature with Harold Schmidt at Stanford University (1959–63), and undertook postgraduate courses in musicology with John M. Ward at Harvard University (1967–74). He has taught at the University of Michigan since 1974 and is currently professor of music there. He became associated with the Royal Opera House, London, in 1983, and has served as production consultant for the Royal Ballet's revivals of Swan Lake and The Nutcracker. Wiley's principal academic interests are 19th-century Russian music and ballet. He has written extensively on Tchaikovsky, discussing both the music and choreography of the ballets and the ballet music of Yevgeny Onegin. His writings range in topic from ballet in 18th-century London to discussions of Stravinsky's ballet music. He is also the author of essays on dance notation and of articles on the Romantic ballerinas Fanny Elsler and Marie Taglioni.


‘Dances from Russia: an Introduction to the Sergejev Collection’, Harvard Library Bulletin, xxiv (1976), 94–112

‘The Tribulations of Nationalist Composers: a Speculation Concerning Borrowed Music in Khovanshchina’, Musorgsky, in Memoriam, 1881–1981, ed. M.H. Brown (Ann Arbor, 1982), 163–77

‘On Meaning in Nutcracker’, Dance Research, iii (1984), 3–28

‘The Balagany in Petrushka’, Music and Context: Essays for John M. Ward, ed. A.D. Shapiro and P. Benjamin (Cambridge, MA, 1985), 305–16

Tchaikovsky's Ballets: Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, Nutcracker (Oxford, 1985

ed., with M.H. Brown: Slavonic and Western Music: Essays for Gerald Abraham (Ann Arbor and Oxford, 1985) [incl. ‘Dramatic Time and Music in Tchaikovsky's Ballets’, 187–95]

‘The Dances in Eugene Onegin ’, Dance Research, vi (1988), 48–60

‘Tchaikovsky's “Eugene Onegin”’, Eugene Onegin, ed. N. John (London, 1793), 17–36 [ENO opera guide]

ed.: A Century of Russian Ballet: Documents and Accounts, 1810-1910 (Oxford, 1990)

‘Jean Georges Noverre and the Music of Iphigenia in Aulis (London, 1793)’, Harvard Library Bulletin, new ser., ii (1991), 31–53

The Life and Ballets of Lev Ivanov, Choreographer of The Nutcracker and Swan Lake (Oxford, 1997)


Wilfflingseder [Wilflingseder], Ambrosius

(b Braunau; d Nuremberg, 31 Dec 1563). German theorist and poet. In 1550 he was appointed schoolmaster and Kantor at St Sebaldus, Nuremberg, where Sebald Heyden was Rektor; he became deacon there in 1562. Carbach wrongly gave the date of his death as 1574. Wilfflingseder’s school music treatise, Musica teutsch, der Jugendt zu gut gestelt (Nuremberg, 1561), was the first of several such treatises in German, but it presented the subject matter more fully than the textbooks based on Heinrich Faber’s Compendiolum (1548). In addition to the basic chapters on keys and solmization he discussed the eight ecclesiastical modes, intervals and, in most detail, mensural theory. In his second treatise, Erotemata musices practicae (Nuremberg, 1563), he extended this chapter and illustrated it with numerous music examples to form a 242-page ‘Liber secundus De musica mensurali’. While younger writers concentrated on contemporary composers such as Clemens non Papa and Lassus, Wilfflingseder quoted from older composers, including Ockeghem, Finck, Isaac, Josquin, Obrecht and Senfl, to whose works an explanation of mensural theory was relevant (hence Schilling’s mistaken description of the Erotemata as a ‘collection of classical compositions’). Most of the examples are taken from Heyden’s Musica (1537), and some from Gaffurius’s Practica musice (1496). The first part of the Erotemata also develops material dealt with in Musica teutsch. The forewords of the two textbooks differ fundamentally; the Latin foreword to the Erotemata praises the powers and virtues of music, quoting from the Bible and classical authors, whereas the foreword to Musica teutsch is addressed to less educated readers. Wilfflingseder’s only other known work is the text of Der LXIII Psalm des Konigklichen Propheten Davids, zu beten oder zu singen (Nuremberg, n.d.), a 12-verse metrical psalm to be sung to either the melody Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl or Aus tiefer Not.




J.J. Carbach: Nürnbergisches Zion, das ist Wahrhaffte Beschreibung aller Kirchen und Schulen in und ausserhalb der Reichs-Stadt Nürnberg (?Nuremberg, 1733)

G.A. Will: Nürnbergisches Gelehrten-Lexicon (Nuremberg, 1755–8); continued by C.C. Nopitsch (Altdorf, 1802–8)

J.N. Forkel: Allgemeine Litteratur der Musik (Leipzig, 1792/R), 282

P. Wackernagel: Das deutsche Kirchenlied von der ältesten Zeit bis zu Anfang des XVIII. Jahrhunderts, iii (Leipzig, 1870/R), 1081

F. Onkelbach: Lucas Lossius und seine Musiklehre (Regensburg, 1960)

M. Simon: Nürnbergisches Pfarrerbuch (Nuremberg, 1965), 252


Wilhelm, Carl

(b Schmalkalden, 5 Sept 1815; d Schmalkalden, 26 Aug 1873). German composer and conductor. He learnt the violin and the piano from his father at an early age and decided on a musical career when he was quite young. He took harmony, thoroughbass and organ lessons from the organist Burbach and in 1832 went to Kassel to study the violin and the piano with Anton Bott and theory with Baldewein; he completed his music education in Frankfurt, studying the piano with Aloys Schmitt and theory with Johann André. After public performances as a pianist, he went to Krefeld in 1840, where he took over the conductorship of the Liedertafel from 1841 and the Singverein from 1849. He also founded and directed song festivals in the Lower Rhine area. In 1865 he returned home to Schmalkalden after increasing ill-health and bad nerves, partly the consequences of alcoholism.

Wilhelm is remembered for his male-voice setting of Max Schneckenburger’s poem Die Wacht am Rhein. His friend Wilhelm Greef had given him the text, which he set on 10 March 1854 and his setting appeared in Greef’s Liedersammlung in May. Its popularity increased through performance at the song festivals and it was sung by 20,000 voices at a Dresden song festival in July 1865. In 1871 Bismarck wrote him a letter of recognition and awarded him an annual pension for his setting, which had become one of the most popular patriotic songs, almost reaching the status of a national anthem, during the Franco-Prussian War.


E. Hanslick: Concerte, Componisten und Virtuosen der letzten fünfzehn Jahre, 1870–1885 (Berlin, 1886, 4/1896/R)

M. Rogati: Carl Wilhelm der Komponist der ‘Wacht am Rhein’ (Hamburg, 1932)

R. Sietz: ‘Wilhelm, Carl’, Rheinische Musiker, i, ed. K.G. Fellerer (Cologne, 1960), 264–5


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