(b Vienna, 29 June 1900; d Mannheim, 27 Dec 1975). Austrian pianist and teacher. At the Vienna Music Academy (1915–20) he studied the piano with Franz Schmidt, music theory and composition with Joseph Marx, and conducting with Ferdinand Löwe. He also studied law and musicology at the University of Vienna. In 1923 he began to tour as a concert pianist. He was also a much sought-after and influential piano teacher, at the Vienna Music Academy (1922–32, 1939–45), the Mannheim Musikhochschule (1934–6, 1952–8), Kiel (1936–9), the Salzburg Mozarteum (1948–51) and Munich (1955–68). He had a special interest in the Viennese Classical and German Romantic and late-Romantic composers, and performed and published his own two-hand arrangements of all Schmidt’s works that had been written originally for the one-armed pianist Paul Wittgenstein. Between 1923 and 1928, as a founder-member of the Austrian section of the ISCM, he performed many works by contemporary composers. His many recordings (including the first complete set of Schubert’s sonatas) testify to a style of playing that combines clear articulation with warmth of expression. Wührer composed piano works, string quartets and songs, as well as cadenzas for Mozart concertos; he wrote Meisterwerke der Klaviermusik (Wilhelmshaven, 1965).
RUDOLF KLEIN/MARTIN ELSTE
Wuiet [Vuiet], Caroline [Auffdiener, Baronne]
(b 1766; d 1835). French author and composer. The daughter of an organist in Rambouillet, she was trained as a pianist and later obtained patronage from Marie-Antoinette. She studied with Beaumarchais and Greuze, and took composition lessons from Grétry. Two of his later letters to her survive (Froidcourt). Her L’heureuse erreur (1786) was intended as a sequel to Grétry and Desforges’ L'épreuve villageoise (1784) and was rehearsed with orchestra at the Comédie-Italienne, but not voted for public performance. At the Revolution she was arrested, but fled to Holland and then England.
During the Directory, Wuiet returned to fashionable Paris society and was the editor of several short-lived papers. In about 1807 she married one Colonel Auffdiener and lived with him in Lisbon, where he was posted. On the defeat of the French armies they returned to France but lived separately, and Wuiet continued to write both music and fiction. Her literary works include the three-act opéraZéphire et Flore (Brussels, 1784), the comédiesAngélina (1782) and Sophie (1787), and Esope au bal de l’Opéra, ou Tout Paris en miniature (Paris, 1802).
L’heureuse erreur (oc), rehearsed, Paris, Comédie-Italienne, Feb 1786
L’heureux stratagème, ou Le vol supposé (opéra bouffon, 1, G. Saulnier), Paris, Théâtre des Beaujolais, 19 Aug 1786; ov. arr. for kbd, vn obbl, n.d.
6 romances (Paris, 1798); 6 romances, F-Pc; Comme elle était jolie, romance; Moi, j’aime la danse, chansonette; 3 sonatas, kbd, vn, b, op.1 (Paris, 1785); Potpourri, pf, op.2 (Paris, n.d.); arrs. for kbd, vn obbl of ovs. to Sacchini: L’amore soldato (Paris, c1779) and Anfossi: Le mari insolent, n.d.
G.de Froidcourt: La correspondance générale de Grétry (Brussels, 1962)
N.Epton: Josephine, the Empress and her Children (London, 1975)
(b 1907; d 1987). Chinese qin zither master. Brought up in Changshu city, Jiangsu province, he first learnt to play the pipa lute, xiao flute and other instruments of the local sizhu (silk-and-bamboo) ensemble music. Around 1930 he began to devote himself to qin music, learning from various masters. In 1936 he took part in the founding of the Jin Yu qinshe (Qin Society of Contemporary Yu Region), becoming one of its leaders from 1939. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, he was appointed a teacher and researcher in the Central Conservatory of Beijing in 1956, directing a number of students who subsequently became noted performers and scholars. Apart from transmitting the traditional repertory, he took part in the dapu movement to interpret early scores of pieces whose performing tradition had been lost, as well as composing some new pieces such as Shengli cao (‘Victory march’), which incorporated elements from folk music. Wu was also a maker and restorer of qin and experimented with the manufacture of silk and metal strings.
Wu's playing remained largely traditional; he was acclaimed for his ‘elegant and pleasing’ style. He performed widely and made recordings of many favourite qin pieces, such as Xiaoxiang shuiyun (‘Mist and Cloud over Xiao and Xiang Rivers’), Wuye wu qiufeng (‘Wutong Leaves Dancing in Autumn Wind’) and Pu'an zhou (‘Incantation of Pu'an’).
Li Xiangting: ‘Wu Jinglue xiansheng de guqin yanzou yishu’ [The qin performance artistry of master Wu Jinglue], Zhongyang yinyuexxueyan xuebao (1984), no.3, pp.20–24
Wu Wen'guang: Wu Jinglue's Qin Music in its Context (diss., Wesleyan U., 1990)
Yi Hongshu: ‘Qintan jubo, yidai mingshi: guqinjia Wu Jinglue’ [An authority in the qin world, and master of his generation: the qin musician Wu Jinglue], Zhongguo jinxiandai yinyuejia zhuan [Biographies of modern Chinese musicians], ed. Xiang Yansheng (Shenyang, 1994), 708–17
Zhongguo yinyue daquan, guqin juan/An Anthology of Chinese Traditional and Folk Music: a Collection of Music Played on the Guqin, vol. 2, China Record Co. CCD 94/342–9 (1995); repr. as Zhongguo yinyue daquan: qindao chanyun, Cradle Records CRCD 703–10 (1996)
The Qin Repertoire of Wu Jinglue, ROI Productions, RA981014-2C (1998)