Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Wynsem Fragment

(D-Bsb theol.q.290). See Sources of keyboard music to 1660, §2(iii).

Wynslate [Wynslade, Winslade etc.], Richard

(d Winchester, bur. 15 Dec 1572). English composer. He was a conduct (i.e. singer) of St Mary-at-Hill, London, from 1537 to 1540. Richard Winslade, Master of the Choristers (and therefore also Organist) of Winchester Cathedral from 1541, was very probably the same man. He apparently held these posts until his death; he is last mentioned in the Winchester Chapter Book in a list dated November 1572.

Wynslate's sole surviving composition is an antiphon for organ, Lucem tuam (GB-Lbl Add.29996, f.19v; ed. in EECM, vi, no.9) signed ‘Rychard Wynslate’. Since this is one of only two names (the other being that of Richard Coxsun) which appear in the earliest section of this manuscript without a prefix such as ‘Master’ it is at least possible that Wynslate himself compiled this part of the manuscript. The repertory includes works by Thorne and Philip ap Rhys, both of whom were at St Mary-at-Hill in the 1540s and perhaps earlier. Lucem tuam is an unpretentious piece in three parts with the plainchant in the bass.


H. Baillie: ‘A London Church in Early Tudor Times’, ML, xxxvi (1955), 55–64

B. Matthews: ‘Winslade of Winchester’, MT, cxix (1978), 711–12

W. Shaw: The Succession of Organists of the Chapel Royal and the Cathedrals of England and Wales from c.1538 (Oxford, 1991)


Wyschnegradsky, Ivan Alexandrovich.

See Vïshnegradsky, ivan alexandrovich.

Wysocki, Kasper Napoleon

(b Warsaw, 1810; d Zürich, 1850). Polish composer and pianist. He studied with Józef Elsner at the Warsaw Conservatory, and later with Karl Arnold in Berlin. He gave many concerts in Warsaw and Kraków (1839–40) and in Dresden (1841); ill-health frequently led to spells away from the concert hall. He wrote orchestral marches and dances, krakowiaks, mazurkas and a rhapsody for piano, and also a number of songs, which for a time enjoyed a measure of popularity in Poland. Some of his compositions were published in Warsaw and Leipzig.


SMP (J. Reiss) [with work-list]

Biblioteka Warszawska (1853), no.4, p.346

E. Altberg: Polscy pianiści [Polish pianists] (Warsaw, 1947)


Wysocki, Zdzisław

(b Poznań, 18 July 1934). Austrian composer of Polish origin. He studied at the Poznań Conservatory, where his teachers included Stefan Boleslaw Poradowski and Andrzej Koszewski, and in Vienna with Erich Urbanner (until 1970) and Dieter Kaufmann (1978–80). From 1971 to 1973 he worked at Universal Edition and later divided his time between choral conducting, performing as a pianist and a cellist, and teaching in Vienna and Graz. He took Austrian citizenship in 1976. He has won awards in both Poland and Austria.

Wysocki's output, primarily for chamber ensemble, reflects his preference for new and transparent sound structures achieved through unconventional performance techniques (Fantasia, 1981) and unusual combinations of instruments (Quasi divertimento, 1993). Characterized by colouristic richness and sharply contrasting effects, his music is similar in style to that of the Polish avant garde. Although the logic of his thematic development shows the influence of the Second Viennese School, he has rejected serialism and made only a very limited use of aleatory elements (in, for example, the Fantasia and the Trio, 1993). On the whole, his compositions are freely tonal and create a strong element of tension through a frequent use of dissonant intervals (Piano Quartet, 1990).


(selective list)

Op: Gespräch mit einem guten Menschen (1, A. Böcs, after F. Karinty), 1991, Vienna, 18 June 1992

Inst: Präludium und Fuge, 3/6 perc, pf, 1966; Elegia in memoriam S.B. Poradowski, orch, 1968; Improvisazione e Fughetta, vc, pf, 1968; Sonata espressiva e polifonica, pf, 1968; Preludio e fuga mixtura, 2 pf, 1970; Wind Qnt, 1972; Conc., db, orch, 1975; 2 caratteri, gui, 1978; Fantasia, vc, pf, 1981; 4 miniaturi, vn, pf, 1984; Elegia 1943, orch, 1985; Conc., gui, str orch, perc, 1989; Pf Qt, 1990; Movimenti, 4 sax, 1991; Quasi divertimento, cl, sax, accdn, pf, perc, vn, db, 1993; Trio, vn, hn, pf, 1993; Quintettino, accdn, str qt, 1995; Etüden, chbr ens, 1996; Momenti, cl, sax, pf, vn, 1997; Musica de la passione, str orch, 1998–9

Vocal: Rapsodia Tatrzanska [Tatra rhapsody] (J. Kasprowicz), T, chorus, orch, 1965; Missa in honorem Ioannis Pauli Secundi, chorus, org, 12 insts, 1979–80; 2 Lieder (E. Wanderer), A, pf, 1987; De finibus temporum (G. Ungaretti, J. Przybos, W. Gross, Y.L. Gordon), S, 16 insts, 1994

Principal publisher: Edition Contemp Art


LZMÖ (incl. further bibliography)

E. Jensik and S. Viator: ‘Komponistenporträt Zdzisław Wysocki’, ÖMz, xliii (1988), 438 only

J. Breitner: Der Kompositionsstil von Zdzisław Wysocki in seiner Duoliteratur mit Klavier (thesis, Hochschule für Musik und darstellende Kunst, Vienna, 1996)


Wyssenbach, Rudolf

(b Zürich, ?1517–27; d before 1572). Swiss wood-cutter and printer. Son of Heinrich Wyssenbach, a shopkeeper, he was a wood-cutter in the employ of the Zürich printer Christoph Froschauer the elder from 1544. Around 1548 Wyssenbach set up his own press. In October 1551 he went into business with the printer Andreas Gessner the younger, but the partnership was dissolved by the end of 1553. Apparently he again worked as a wood-cutter and printer for Gessner from around 1557 to 1559.

Wyssenbach took the pieces in his Tabulaturbuch uff die Lutten (Zürich, 1550/R, 2/1663 as Ein schön Tabulaturbuch) from Francesco Canova da Milano and Borrono’s Intabulatura di lauto, libro secondo (Venice, 1546). He transcribed them from Italian into German lute tablature, as he pointed out in the title and in the preface, in which he also mentioned the signs for Mortanten, but, according to his explanation, the execution of these ornaments needed oral instruction. He omitted the fantasias and included only two of Janequin’s songs in arrangements by Francesco. However, he adopted exactly the same order as that of the original for Borrono’s eight dance suites. One piece in Peter Fabritius’s lute manuscript (1605–8), which was taken from Wyssenbach’s print, as well as the date 1610 written in the Leipzig copy of the Tabulaturbuch uff die Lutten, show that Wyssenbach’s publications were in use into the early 1600s.



W.J. von Wasielewski: Geschichte der Instrumentalmusik im XVI. Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1878/R)

J. Dieckmann: Die in deutscher Lautentabulatur überlieferten Tänze des 16. Jahrhunderts (Kassel, 1931)

P. Leemann-Van Elck: Zürcher Drucker um die Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts (Berne, 1937)

P. Leemann-Van Elck: Die Offizin Gessner zu Zürich im 16. Jahrhundert (Berne, 1940)

P. Päffgen: Laute und Lautenspiel in den ersten Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts (Regensburg, 1978)


Wyton, Alec

(b London, 3 Aug 1921). American organist of English birth. Trained at the RAM and at Exeter College, Oxford, he studied with G.D. Cunningham, and in 1946 was appointed organist of St Matthew’s, Northampton, where he gave premières of works by Britten and Finzi. His career in the USA began in 1950 and following brief terms in Dallas and St Louis has centred on the Cathedral of St John the Divine in New York, where in 1954 he succeeded Norman Coke-Jephcott as organist and Master of the Choristers. From there he went on to teach as adjunct professor at Union Theological Seminary and as visiting professor at Westminster Choir College, Princeton. He served as president of the American Guild of Organists (1964–9). In 1974 he moved to St James’s Church, New York, and in 1987 he retired to Ridgefield, Connecticut, where he directs the music at St Stephen’s Church. Until 1993 he was chairman of the church music department at the Manhattan School of Music. He has lectured and given recitals throughout the USA and Canada. His altruism, wit and musical talents have served his commitment to church music and musicians well. In addition to composing for organ or choir, he has been a pioneer in bringing popular or ‘mainstream’ music into the church. He has given first performances of works by Felciano, Panufnik and Hamilton. He wrote and performed a Dialogue for Duke Ellington to perform at a sacred concert at the cathedral in 1968. Wyton has brought together and caused to flourish three separate traditions: English church music, American church music and music from outside the churches.


Wyttenbach, Jürg

(b Berne, 2 Dec 1935). Swiss composer and pianist. He studied at the Berne Conservatory with von Fischer and Veress among others, at the Paris Conservatoire, where his teachers included Lefébure and Calvet, and with Karl Engel (1958–9). He has taught the piano at the conservatories of Biel (1959–67) and Berne (1962–6), and at the Basle Musik Akademie (from 1967). A specialist in the performance of new music, he co-founded the Basle Ensemble of the ISCM with his wife, Janka Brun, the Holligers, and Nicolet and Eduard Brunner. He has received particular recognition for his interpretations of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire, Stockhausen's Mantra and works by Elliott Carterand, which he has recorded for the Accord label.

As a composer, Wyttenbach was influenced early on by the music of Bartók and Stravinsky, as can be heard in the humorous-satirical choruses Sutil und Laar (1962–3). The Drei Sätze for oboe, harp and piano (1963) draw on Boulez and also on the music of Wyttenbach's friends Huber and Holliger. In the works that followed, Wyttenbach sought a direct and often dramatic expression; this reached its peak in De metalli (1965), which combines serial ideas and variation form with an implied warning against political repression. Dramatic elements are further exposed in Paraphrase (1969), and the Exécution ajournées (1970–71) can be described as ‘instrumental theatre’, in which music and action are coupled, producing a humorous, often grotesque or satirical, oppressive situation which synthesizes the essential traits of earlier works. From the 1970s he has increasingly appeared as a conductor. His honours include first prize in the Béla Bartók Competition, Indiana University (1958), a scholarship from the city of Stuttgart (1959) and a Paris Biennale prize.


(selective list)

Stage: Encore!, actress, vc, 1986; Harlekinade, actress, 2 clowns, str qnt, 1986–91, rev. str orch, 1991 [after W.A. Mozart: k448]; Gargantua chez les Hélvètes du haut-valais (music theatre), spkr, 8vv, 8 insts, 1997–8, Altdorf, 1999

Orch: Pf Conc., 1963–4; Anrufungen und Ausbruch, wind, 1966; Ein Sätzchen für Sándor Veress, ob, 2 hn, str orch, 1993

Vocal: Scherzlied (J.W. von Goethe), chorus, 1961; Sutil und Laar (H.P. Matter), chorus, 2 pf, 1962–3; 4 Kanzonen (H. Arp, Matter), S, vc, 1964; 2 Nonsense-Verses, an Epigram and a Madrigal (O. Nash, S. Coleridge, anon.), S, vc, 1964; De metalli (L. da Vinci), Bar, orch, 1965; 3 chansons violées, 1v + vn, 1973, rev. 1981; Beethoven: Sacré? - Sacré Beethoven!, spkrs, vv, insts, 1977; Noch weisst du nicht, wess' Kind du bist, tango collage [after Beethoven], 1v ad lib, vn, pf, 1977 (1979); Patchwork an der Wäscheleine (C. Ives), scenic collage, 1979; Chansons ricochets (madrigal comedy, Rabelais), 5vv, 1980; Lamentoroso (Rabelais), 1v, 6 cl, 1984; Harmonie mit schräger Dämpfung (P. Klee), 1 female v + vn, 1990; Rondeau (Tango) (Rabelais), 1 female v + vn, 1990; On Cheating the Fiddler (D. Parker), 1v + vn, 1993; Der Herr von Doppelmoppel (K. Schwitters, Rabelais), Bar, B-Bar, 1994; Laut Käfig (haiku), cycle S, hp, 1995–7, arr. S, gui; … allerhand und fuss-und mund … (Rabelais, Goethe, H. Heine, Klee), 16vv, 1999

Chbr and solo inst: Sonata, ob, 1961; 3 Sätze, ob, hp, pf, 1963; Diversions, pf, 9 str, 1964, arr. pf, str orch, 1965; Nachspiel, 2 pf, 1966; Ad libitum, 1/2 fl, 1969; 3 Klavierstücke, 1969; Paraphrase, fl, pf/elec org, 1969; Exécution ajournée I, 13 insts, 1970; Str Qt ‘Exécution ajournée II’, 1970–71; Claustrophonie, 6 insts, 1973, film version 1979; Der Fliessbandmusiker, cl, 1973; Tarantella, vn, 1980; D'(hommage oder: Freu(n)de, nicht …, trbn, 1984–5; schlagZEITschlag, 4 perc, 1990–91, rev. 1996; Flûte alors! ou Suites des Grimaces de Pallas Athenae, fl, cl, 1993

Other: Kunststücke die Zeit tot zu schlagen, 1972

Principal publishers: Gerig, Guilys, Hiebner, Schott


J. Häusler: ‘Jürg Wyttenbach’, SMz, cvi (1966), 151–4

D.-F. Rauss: ‘Jürg Wyttenach: Instrumentales Theater und Szenische Aktion’, Schweizer TheaterJb, vl (1983), 182–202 [interview]

S. Schibli, ed.: Jürg Wyttenbach: ein Portrait im Spiegel eigener und fremder Texte (Zürich and Berne, 1994) [incl. work-list, list of writings, discography]



(fl early 15th century). English composer, known only from the ascription to him of a three-part setting of Sancta Maria Virgo intercede in GB-Cpc 314, p.3, a fragment also containing works by Dunstaple.


Wyzewa [Wyzewski], Théodore [Teodor] de

(b Kalusik, 12 Sept 1862; d Paris, 15 April 1917). French musicologist and writer of Polish descent and Russian birth. He went to France with his family in 1869 and was educated at Beauvais, Paris, and the University of Nancy, where he took the licence ès lettres (1882), before settling in Paris. There he founded the Revue wagnérienne (1884–8) with Edouard Dujardin, and the Société Mozart (1901) with Adolphe Boschot and Georges de Saint-Foix. He began his career as a journalist with articles on the socialist movement outside France for Le Figaro and was later its music critic. In 1890 he became a contributor (mostly on music, contemporary literature and philosophy) for the Revue des deux mondes and Le temps; he also wrote for Art moderne, Echo de Paris, Le correspondant, Gazette des beaux-arts, Revue bleue, Revue indépendante and Mercure de France. He was an extremely erudite and cultured man, a friend of Mallarmé, Laforgue and Renoir, and a gifted Latinist with a knowledge of French, German, English, Russian, Polish, Dutch and Italian. His major works on music are the collection of articles, Beethoven et Wagner (Paris, 1898, 2/1914), and with Saint-Foix the first two volumes of W.A. Mozart: sa vie musicale et son oeuvre (Paris, 1912, 2/1936). After Wyzewa’s death Saint-Foix wrote the three final volumes alone (Paris, 1936–46). In addition to writing several articles on Mozart (particularly his youth), on Haydn’s development and on Wagnerian literature in France, Wyzewa published a collection of Clementi’s piano works with a detailed historical preface.


L. de La Laurencie: Obituary, RdM, i (1917–19), 19–20

P. Delsemme: Teodor de Wyzewa et le cosmopolitisme littéraire en France à l’époque du symbolisme (Brussels, 1967)

N. di Girolamo: Teodor de Wyzewa: dal simbolismo al tradizionalismo (1885–87) (Bologna, 1969)

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