Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Ward, Justine (Bayard Cutting)

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Ward, Justine (Bayard Cutting)

(b Morristown, NJ, 7 Aug 1879; d Washington DC, 27 Nov 1975). American music educationist. She studied music with Hermann Hans Wetzler in New York (1895–1901). Inspired by the Moto Proprio (1903) of Pius X she converted to Catholicism and dedicated her energies to the reform of Church music. In 1910 she met Thomas E. Shields, from the Catholic University of America, who invited her to write music texts for use in Catholic schools. She devised a curriculum later known as the Ward Method using Chevé number notation and Shields's progressive educational philosophies. It focusses on pupils' aural skills as much as technical ability, and is taught using folksongs, standard hymnody and Gregorian chant. A series of teaching books were published (1914–23).

In 1920, at a Gregorian Congress at St Patrick's Cathedral in New York, thousands of children trained in the Ward Method sang chant under the direction of Dom André Mocquereau of Solesmes, with whom Ward then studied (1921–9). The Ward Method spread throughout the 1920s, 30s and 40s largely fuelled by the Caecilian and liturgical movements' efforts to restore chant to the liturgy. The disuse of chant after the Second Vatican Council and the social changes of the 1960s, however, led to its decline. Theodore Marier and an international board of Ward teachers began republishing revised texts in 1976.


G.M. Steinschulte: Die Ward-Bewegung: Studien zur Realizierung der Kirchenmusikreform Papst Pius X. in der erste Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts (Regensburg, 1979)

P. Combe: Justine Ward and Solesmes (Washington DC, 1987)

R.R. Bunbury: Justine Ward and the Genesis of the Ward Method (diss., U. of Massachusetts, 2000)


Ward, Robert (Eugene)

(b Cleveland, 13 Sept 1917; d Wooster, OH, 8 June 1994). American composer. He studied with Howard Hanson and Bernard Rogers at the Eastman School of Music and began postgraduate study with Frederick Jacobi at the Juilliard School. After serving as an army band director during World War II, he both graduated from and gained a teaching position at Juilliard. He left in 1956 to become executive vice-president and managing editor of Galaxy Music Corporation and Highgate Press, posts he held until 1967 when he was appointed chancellor of the North Carolina School of the Arts; in 1975 he stepped down from that position to become a professor. From 1978 until his retirement in 1987, he taught at Duke University.

Even as a student, Ward had no difficulty securing performances for his compositions. By the time he and his Juilliard colleague Bernard Stambler wrote their first opera, he was already well known for his orchestral works. Pantaloon (1955, retitled He who gets Slapped, 1959) was well received, leading to a commission from the New York City Opera for The Crucible (1961), the work on which his reputation almost entirely rests. None of his later operns was able to duplicate its success. His compositional language derives largely from Hindemith, but also shows the considerable influence of Gershwin. In the operas he modifies this basic style to incorporate references to appropriate local colour, such as the imitations of 17th-century hymnody that appear in The Crucible. The operas, as well as many shorter vocal works, reflect a concern for social and political issues.


Ops: He who gets Slapped (3, B. Stambler, after L.N. Andreyev), 1955, as Pantaloon, New York, 17 May 1956, rev. 1973; The Crucible (4, Stambler, after A. Miller), 1961, New York, 26 Oct 1961; The Lady from Colorado (2, Stambler, after H. Croy), 1964, Central City, CO, 3 July 1964, rev. as The Lady Kate, 1994; Claudia Legare (4, Stambler, after H. Ibsen: Hedda Gabler), 1973, Minneapolis, 14 April 1973, rev. 1978; Minutes till Midnight (3, D. Lang, Ward), 1978, Miami, 4 June 1982; Abelard and Heloise (prol, 3, J. Hartman), 1981, Charlotte, NC, 19 Feb 1982, rev. 1983; Roman Fever (1, R. Brunyate, after E. Wharton), 1993, Durham, NC, 9 June 1993

Orch: 5 syms.: 1941, 1947, 1950, 1958, 1976; Slow Music, 1938; Ode, 1939; Adagio and Allegro, 1944; Jubilation, ov., 1945; Concert Piece, 1947–8; Jonathan and the Gingery Snare (B. Stambler), nar, orch, 1949; Night Music, small orch, 1949; Euphony, 1954; Fantasia, chorus, brass, timp, 1956; Prairie Ov., band, 1957; Divertimento, 1960; Hymn and Celebration, 1962, rev. 1966; Night Fantasy, band, 1962; Invocation and Toccata, 1963–6; Festive Ode, 1966; Fiesta Processional, band, 1966; Antiphony, band, 1967; Pf Conc., 1968; Concertino, str, 1973; The Promised Land, 1974; 4 Abstractions, band, 1977; Sonic Structure, 1980; Dialogues, vn, vc, orch, 1983 [arr. pf trio, 1984]; Sax Conc., 1984, rev. 1987; Festival Triptych, 1986; Dialogue on the Tides of Time, vn/vc, orch/pf, 1987; Vn Conc., 1993

Choruses, songs, chbr music, kbd pieces


Principal publishers: Associated, Galaxy, Highgate


A. Kozinn: ‘ American Eclectic’, ON, xlvi/20 (1981–2), 24–8, 43

K. Kreitner: Robert Ward: a Bio-Bibliography (New York, 1988) [incl. annotated work-list, discography, perf. details]

R.H. Kornick: Recent American Opera: a Production Guide (New York, 1991), 316–22


Ward-Steinman, David

(b Alexandria, LA, 6 Nov 1936). American composer. He studied at Florida State University (BM 1957) and the Univeristy of Illinois (MM 1958, DMA 1961). His teachers included John Boda, Wallingford Riegger, Darius Milhaud, Milton Babbitt, Nadia Boulanger and Burrill Phillips. In 1961 he joined the faculty at San Diego State University. Among his many awards are prizes from the National Federation of Music Clubs and the Ford Foundation, the Bearns Prize (Columbia University) and a Fulbright Senior Scholar Award. He has held residencies in Australia at the Victorian Centre for the Arts and La Trobe University, Melbourne.

Ward-Steinman has written music for a wide variety of ensembles and instruments. His style, characterized by upbeat and optimistic writing, is thoroughly American in outlook, exhibiting a clarity and accessibility that is strongly influenced by his experience as a jazz improviser. He is especially fond of ‘tightly-written’ music, in which a work grows out of a few initial notes. Intersections II: Borobudur (1989), for example, is constructed almost entirely out of four pitches. A number of works for keyboard contrast inside-the-piano sounds with traditional piano writing. The six movements of the third piano sonata, Prisms and Reflections (1995–6), alternate between the sound sources of the piano strings and the piano keyboard. Child’s Play (1968) for bassoon and piano uses similar techniques in an accompanimental mode. He has also composed for synthesizer and other electro-acoustic media. His works for chorus and orchestra include the oratorio Song of Moses (1963–4).


(selective list)

Stage: Western Orpheus (ballet, R. Carter), 1964; These Three (ballet, E. Loring), 1966; Rituals, dancers, musicians, 1971; Tamar (mixed-media music drama, W.J. Adams, after R. Jeffers), 1970–7; incid music for TV and theatre

Orch: Sym., 1959; Conc. grosso, jazz combo, chbr orch, 1960; Prelude and Toccata, 1962; Conc. no.2, chbr orch, 1960–2; Vc Conc., 1964–6; Jazz Tangents, band, 1967; Antares, 1971; Arcturus, orch, synth, 1972; Raga for Winds, 1972; Scorpio, band, 1976; Bishop’s Gambit, 1979; Olympics Ov., 1984; Moiré, pf, chbr orch, 1985; Cinnabar Conc., va, chbr orch, 1991–3; Double Conc., 2vn, orch, 1994–5

Vocal: Pss of Rejoicing, unacc. chorus, 1960; Frags. from Sappho (trans. M. Barnard), S, fl, cl, pf, 1962–5; Song of Moses (orat), 1963–4; Tale of Issoumbochi (S. Lucas, after Jap. trad.), S, nar, fl, cl, perc, vc, 1968; And in these Times (Christmas cant., D. Worth), 6 solo vv, nar, mixed chorus, wind ens, 1979–81; Of Wind and Water (W.C. Williams and others), suite, chorus, pf, perc, 1981–2; And Waken Green (Worth), song cycle, medium v, pf, 1983; Voices from the Gallery, S, T, Bar, pf, 1990

Chbr and solo inst: Pf Sonata, 1956–7; 3 Songs, cl, pf, 1957; Brass Qnt, 1959; Improvisations on a Theme of Milhaud, pf, 1960; Duo, vc, pf, 1964–5; Child’s Play, bn, pf, 1968; Montage, ww qnt, 1968; Putney Three, ww qnt, prepared pf, synth/tape, 1971; Sonata, prepared pf, 1972; The Tracker (B. Childs), cl, prepared pf, tape, 1976; Brancusi’s Brass Beds (Brass Qnt no.2), 2 tpt, hn, trbn, tuba, 1976; Golden Apples, a sax, pf, 1981; Intersections II: Borobudur, prepared pf, perc, 1989; Night Winds, ww qnt, 1993; Pf Sonata no.3 (Prisms and Reflections), 1995–6

El-ac and mixed-media: Now-music, 1967; Kaleidoscope, videotape, film, tape, synth, dancers, musicians, 1971; Vega, synth, tape, 1971; Nova, film, synth, tape, 1972; Toccata, synth, slide projections, 1978; Intersections, synth, tape, 1982

Principal publishers: Galaxy, Leyerle, Marks, MJQ, Music Guild



O. Daniel: ‘David Ward-Steinman’, BMI: the Many Worlds of Music (1970), June, 10

‘Composer of Note: David Ward-Steinman’, Living Music, i/3 (1983–4), 1 only

D. Ward-Steinman: Toward a Comparative Structural Theory of the Arts (San Diego, 1989)


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