Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56



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Warren, Joseph


(b London, 20 March 1804; d Bexley, Kent, 8 March 1881). English organist and writer on music. In 1834 he became organist of St Mary’s (Roman Catholic) Chapel, Chelsea, and composed some masses for its service. Between 1840 and 1860 he published many instruction books for organ, reed organ, concertina and church singing.

Warren was a careful and thorough editor of earlier English music: his edition of Boyce’s Cathedral Music, for example, included new biographies of the composers with exhaustive lists of their works. Such scholarship was facilitated by the large and valuable library he collected during his life, including the partbooks from which he edited Hilton’s Ayres or Fa Las, many unique sale catalogues, and autograph manuscripts of Purcell, A. Scarlatti, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. The fruits of his research appeared often in the early Musical World.


EDITIONS


A Selection of Cathedral Chants by the Old English Masters (London, 1840)

J. Hilton jr: Ayres or Fa Las (London, 1844)

L. van Beethoven: Christ at the Mount of Olives (London, 1844)

G.A. Rossini: Stabat mater (London, 1844)

W. Boyce: Cathedral Music (London, 1849)

Warren’s Psalmody: a Collection of Psalms and Hymn Tunes in Score (London, 1853)

BIBLIOGRAPHY


DNB (H. Davey)

Catalogue of the Valuable Musical and General Library, Autographs, Manuscripts, etc. of the late Joseph Warren [Puttrick and Simpson 2008] (London, 1881) [copy at U. of Virginia]

A.H. King: Some British Collectors of Music c.1600–1960 (Cambridge, 1963)

W.H. HUSK/BRUCE CARR


Warren [Warenoff], Leonard


(b New York, 21 April 1911; d New York, 4 March 1960). American baritone. After formal study with Sidney Dietch he entered the Metropolitan Opera Auditions of the Air and won a contract for 1938. Following further study in Italy, he made his stage début with the Metropolitan in 1939, as Paolo in Simon Boccanegra; his last complete performance in the house, 21 years later, was as Simon himself.

During his career, which was dominated by New York engagements, Warren won special acclaim in the great Verdi roles and as Barnaba (La Gioconda), Scarpia and Tonio. His voice was huge, smooth, superbly controlled and marked by special freedom in the top range (which extended to the tenor’s high C). Foreign engagements took him to Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires (1942), Mexico City (1948), La Scala (1953) and the USSR (1958). His recorded legacy is an important one, and includes distinguished performances in Il trovatore, Rigoletto, La traviata, Un ballo in maschera and Macbeth. He was also an accomplished recitalist, as a live recording from Moscow confirms. He died on the stage of the Metropolitan while singing Don Carlo in La forza del destino.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


GV (L. Riemens; S. Smolian)

P.L. Miller: ‘Leonard Warren 1911–1960’, Opera, xi (1960), 397

S. Milnes: ‘The Warren Legacy’, ON, xxxix/18 (1974–5), 26–7

MARTIN BERNHEIMER, DENNIS K. McINTIRE


Warren, Raymond (Henry Charles)


(b Weston-super-Mare, 7 Nov 1928). English composer. He read mathematics at Cambridge before turning to music, which he studied with Robin Orr (1949–52); later he studied with Tippett (1952–4) and Berkeley (1958). In 1955 he went to Queen’s University, Belfast, as a lecturer, becoming professor of composition in 1966; he was composer-in-residence with the Ulster Orchestra (1966–72). He held the professorship of music at Bristol University from 1972 until his retirement in 1994.

Warren sees himself as a ‘community composer’ in that he is stimulated by the strengths of the particular forces at his disposal. He contributed greatly to the musical life of both the university and the wider community in Belfast and then in Bristol; many of his works have been written for local performance, most notably his opera In the Beginning (1982), in which he brings together 15 youth groups. His works are distinguished by an elegant simplicity of material and by an appealing and vocally derived melodic style. While he has written in a fully serial idiom in the Five Bagatelles (1967) and the Symphony no.2 (1969), he has much more frequently employed harmonic techniques derived from serial procedures, for instance in his use of rotating sets of notes in the Symphony no.3 (1995) and In my Childhood (1998) to create harmonic fields which articulate the larger structures. Recurring structural devices include heterophony and canon; examples of his fascination with bell changes can be found in A Star Shone over Bristol (1973), the String Quartet no.2 (1975) and the Violin Sonata (1993). Warren returns to themes of childhood and old age in such vocal works as Songs of Old Age (1968), Golden Rings (1987) and In my Childhood, while his extensive body of religious music concentrates on the sufferings of Christ and on divine involvement in human suffering. With his two cycles for speaker and piano he aims to integrate the spoken word into a musical structure. His writings on music include Opera Workshop: Studies in Understanding and Interpretation (Aldershot, 1995).


WORKS


(selective list)

Stage: The Lady of Ephesus (chbr op, 1, Warren), 1959; Finn and the Black Hag (children’s op, 2, J. McNeill), 1959; Graduation Ode (op, 3, McNeill), 1963; Let My People Go (children’s church op, 2), 1972; St Patrick (children’s church op, 2, D. Selwyn), 1979; In the Beginning (children’s church op, 2, Bible and J. Milton), 1982; incid music

Orch: Nocturne, 1964; Sym. no.1, 1965; Vn Conc., 1966; Processions, ov., 1967; Seaside Sketches, 1968; Sym. no.2, 1969; Wexford Bells, 1970; Bridgwater Fair, ov., 1980; Sym. no.3 ‘Pictures with Angels’, 1995

Chbr and solo inst: Pf Sonata no.1, 1952; Canonic Variations, pf, 1960; Scherzo on a Belfast Street Song, pf trio, 1963; Str Qt no.1, 1965; 5 Bagatelles, pf, 1967; A Lough Neagh Sequence (S. Heaney), 7 poems, spkr, pf, 1970; Triptych, vn, 1971; Duo concertante, vc, pf, 1972; Prelude and Scherzo on a Theme of Stravinsky, wind ens, 1974; Str Qt no.2, 1975; Pf Sonata no.2, 1977; Str Qt no.3, 1977; A Little Organ Mass, org, 1980; The Sound of Time (C. Tomlinson), 6 poems, spkr, pf, 1984; Burnt Norton Sketches, pf trio, 1985; Exchanges, ob, pf, 1986; Sonata, vn, pf, 1993

Unacc. choral: The Death of Orpheus (J. Read), 1953; 4 Irish Madrigals (W.B. Yeats), 1959; There is a Time (Bible), double chorus, 1970; Salvator mundi, 1976; Atlantis (Tomlinson), 1985; Golden Rings (trad.), 1987; The Starlight Night (G.M. Hopkins), double chorus, 1990; Celtic Blessings (trad.), 1996

Choral with acc.: The Annunciation, chorus, org, 1955; The Strife is O’er, chorus, org, 1960; The Passion (7 solo vv)/(2 solo vv, chorus), chbr orch, 1962; Songs of Unity, solo vv, chorus, orch, 1968; A Star Shone over Bristol (cant.), S, chorus, orch, 1973; Madrigals in Time of War, chorus, fl, 1974; Leave us not Comfortless (cant., J. Kirkup, Bible), chorus, org, 1977; Continuing Cities (orat), 3 solo vv, chorus, orch, 1989; Now Welcome Somer, chorus, 2 pf, 1997

Solo vocal: Spring 1948 (P. Dehn), 5 songs, T, pf, 1956; Drop Drop Slow Tears (J. Fletcher), C solo, fl, pf, 1960; The Pity of Love (Yeats), 6 songs, 1v, gui, 1966; Song for St Cecilia’s Day (W.H. Auden), T, fl, va, gui, 1967; Songs of Old Age (Yeats), 8 songs, Bar, pf, 1968; In my Childhood (L. MacNeice), 5 songs, S, small orch, 1998

Principal publisher: Novello

BIBLIOGRAPHY


B. Ramsey: ‘Raymond Warren’, MT, cv (1964), 578–9

C. Acton: ‘The Music of Raymond Warren’, MT, cx (1969), 1031–3

IAN STEPHENS




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