This chapter provides a brief overview of structural geology and tectonics. A review of the Earth’s geologic history as it relates to structural geology and tectonics is given. Types of faulting and the structures that result from these fault motions are also discussed.
Structural geology & tectonics - motions & processes that build Earth’s crust
Types of Motions:
Rigid body motion - transportation, no change in size or shape; no permanent imprint
Deformation - motion that changes size and/or shape
Structural geology scale - submicroscopic to regional
Tectonics Scale - regional to global
Continuum Mechanics- describes the motion of material bodies of continuous matter, taking into account the body’s deformability. Includes kinematics and mechanics.
Structural geology, tectonics and the use of models
-3D interpretations of structures in Earth
-based on: mapping, geophysical data
-examples: geological maps, vertical cross sections
-prescribe motions that could have carried system from undeformed→deformed state
-not concerned with why, how or physical properties of the system
-assess validity by comparing observed motions w/ model
- models motions as the consequence of their relationship with forces and material properties.