9th May 1950 the schuman declaration



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- 'It is no longer possible for any thinking European to take a Machiavellian pleasure in the misfortunes of his neighbour; we are all united, for better or for worse, in a community of destiny.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 43.


SOLIDARITY


- 'Over and above the institutions, and reflecting a deeply held aspiration in our peoples, the European idea, the spirit of solidarity and community, has taken root.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 16-17.

- 'Our borders in Europe must become much less of a barrier to the exchange of ideas, persons and goods. A sense of solidarity among nations will triumph over outmoded forms of nationalism.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe'. [For Europe] Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 23.

- 'This Europe is not directed against anyone; it has no designs of aggression, no egotistical or imperialist nature, either internally or with regard to other countries. It will remain accessible to those wishing to join.

Its raison d’être is solidarity and international cooperation, a rational organisation of the world of which it must form an essential part.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 25.


- 'It is necessary for everyone to share this conviction of needing one another, regardless of the status and power we possess.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 26-27.


- 'After two world wars we have come to realise that the best guarantee for nations no longer lies in our splendid isolation, nor in our own strength, no matter how powerful we are, but in solidarity between nations, guided by the same spirit and ready to carry out common tasks, in the common interest.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 30.


- [Borders] 'retain their raison d'être if they are capable of changing their role to become more of a mental construct. Instead of being barriers which separate they must become contact points where material and cultural exchanges are organised and developed; they will define the particular tasks for each country, its particular responsibilities and initiatives, when faced with all the problems affecting borders and even continents, so enabling all countries to show solidarity towards each other.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 34.


- 'Over and above being a military or economic alliance, Europe must be a cultural community in the highest sense.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 35.


- 'We do not, nor shall we ever deny our country or forget the duties which we owe it. But above each homeland we recognise with increasing clarity the existence of a common good, superior to the national interest, a good in which the individual interests of our countries will meet and merge.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 38.

- 'The law of solidarity between nations imposes itself on contemporary consciousness. We feel solidarity towards one a nother in our keeping of the peace, our defence against aggression, the fight against poverty, our respect for the treaties and in safeguarding justice and human dignity.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 38.


- 'We must bring people to accept European solutions, by fighting against not only any pretensions to hegemony or belief in superiority but also against any narrow-mindedness in political nationalism, any autarchic protectionism or cultural isolationism. All these tendencies which we have inherited from our past must be replaced by the concept of solidarity – a conviction that our real interest consists in each of us recognising and accepting that in practice we are all interdependent. Egotism will longer reward us.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 47.


- 'The surest way of protecting ourselves from the hazards of war and servitude is our collective cohesion in all matters economic, political and military. The close cooperation which will be established within the European communities which have already been created will encourage us to consider everything in terms of shared interest and responsibility. We will become accustomed to taking not only a strictly national point of view. [...] It will be necessary to begin with the national line but then place it within a framework in which all the national view-points will complement and perfect each other.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 149.


- 'Europeans will be saved to the extent that they are aware of their solidarity before a mutual threat.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 184.


- 'A real community assumes, at the least, a number of particular affinities. Countries do not join together unless they feel they have something in common and that must be, at the least, mutual trust. Likewise there must also be shared interests, without which there would be coexistence but not co-operation. In order to understand each other and build a close union, it is not necessary to give up our differences completely, but we must be sure that there are enough common links and ideas. Serving mankind is a duty demanded of us equal to that of national loyalty'.
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 196.


- 'Europe will not happen overnight, or as part of some grand design; it will come about in practical steps, building on a sense of common purpose.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. Appendix: The Declaration of 9 May

1950.



EQUALITY


- 'Europe will not be a sphere of influence to be exploited for the purposes of political, military, economic or any other type of domination. But in order to exist in reality it must be governed by the principle of equal rights and duties for all the countries involved.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 24-25.


- 'The European Community will not be made in the image of an empire or a holy alliance; it will be based on democratic equality, transposed to the arena of international relations.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 47.


- 'We cannot pretend that European integration is not an immense and arduous task, or that it has ever been attempted b efore. It requires a complete change in the relationships between European states, in particular between France and Germany. But this task is being undertaken together, on an absolutely equal basis, in mutual respect and trust, after a generation’s experience of intense suffering and hatred.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 106.

- 'It was up to her [France] to take the initiative and show a readiness to trust its neighbour, not by a platonic or conditional declaration but by the explicit offer of permanent cooperation in an area of such vital importance. In other words, France was proposing to deal with Germany on an equal footing.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 106-107.


PEACE


- 'Europe’s strength is its ability to contribute effectively and without delay, to the needs of mankind, in response to new aspirations among its nations. It is an enterprise for peace.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 25-26.


- 'War and its devastation, like the victory which brought liberation, have been collective enterprises. If we wish peace to be a lasting victory over war, it must be achieved together by all the nations, including those which yesterday were fighting each other and which are again in danger of falling into bloody rivalries.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 43-44.


- 'Yes, what is needed is something other than texts and words, something other than the stain of the crime that is war, something more than reminders of its horror and misery. War must be deprived of its raison d’être and the temptation to wage it removed. We must reach the point where no one, not even the least scrupulous of governments, has an interest in waging it. I will go further: we wish to remove the means of preparing for war, of taking the risk. The worst of gamblers will in future be rendered incapable of carrying out an attack. In place of the nationalism of old and of a defensive and suspicious independence, we shall join together the interests, decisions and destinies of this new community of previously rival states.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 45.

- 'So long as there is room for revenge, the hazards of war will reappear. A detailed settlement drawn up in private between conquerors and conquered may temporarily appease a territorial claim or conflict of prestige. But in itself it will never be sufficient to establish lasting peace. In the past there have been many attempts to stabilise political situations in regions of Europe by multilateral peace treaties.[…] We have gone from one disappointment to another because we failed to give these pseudo ententes something more than a somewhat artificial legal status, i.e. a common task and a new hope, capable of overcoming the past. This leads us today to look for a common agreement, a form of peace which is not just an elimination of war but a blueprint for the future.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 108-109.


- 'But these approaches based on economics have also highlighted immediate advantages in the political arena. Concluding a lasting, monitored union in the area of coal and steel in effect prevents any of the countries involved not only from waging war against the others but even from preparing to do so, since one cannot go to war without free use of the energy and metals essential for such an undertaking.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 164.


- 'The contribution which an organised and living Europe can bring to civilisation is indispensable to the maintenance of peaceful relations. […] A united Europe was not achieved and we had war.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. Appendix: The Declaration of 9 May

1950.



- 'By pooling basic production and by instituting a new High Authority, whose decisions will bind France, Germany and other member countries, this proposal will lead to the realisation of the first concrete foundation of a European federation indispensable to the preservation of peace.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. Appendix: The Declaration of 9 May

1950.
INSTITUTIONS



- 'The democratic law of the majority, freely accepted in accordance with established conditions and procedures, limited to the essential concerns of common interest, will certainly be less humiliating than decisions imposed by the strongest.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 25.


CHRISTIAN VALUES


- 'Here we are, then, constrained by experience, after so many failures of diplomacy or the generosity of certain individuals such as Aristide Briand, facing the terrible threats to mankind from the dizzying progress of proud science, here we are returning to the Christian law of a noble yet humble fraternity. And by a paradox which would surprise us if we were not Christians – unconsciously Christian perhaps – we hold out our hand to our enemies of yesterday, not simply in order to forgive them but to build tomorrow’s Europe together.’
Source: Robert Schuman ‘Pour l’Europe’ [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 44.


- 'This new policy is based on solidarity and building trust. It constitutes an act of faith, not like that of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in the human kindness so cruelly denied for the last two centuries, but an act of faith in the good sense of nations at last persuaded that their salvation lies in entente and cooperation, so solidly cemented together that none of the governments involved could separate them. Let this concept of a reconciled, united and strong Europe become the slogan for the younger generations wishing to serve a mankind at last delivered from hatred and fear and which, after such long rifts, will teach us once more the concept of Christian fraternity. '
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 45-46.


- 'Europe is the implementation of a universal democracy in the Christian sense.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 53.


- 'Democracy owes its existence to Christianity. It was born the day when man was brought to recognise the dignity of the human being in his temporal life, in individual freedom, in respect for each other’s rights and by the practice of brotherly love towards all. Never before Christ had such ideas been expressed. Thus democracy is linked to Christianity, both in terms of doctrine and ideology. It took shape with it, gradually, after much trial and error, sometimes falling into serious mistakes and barbarism along the way.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 56-57.
- 'Christianity teaches the natural equality of all men, who are children of the same God, redeemed by the same Christ, without distinction of race, colour, class or profession. It makes us recognise the dignity of work which it is the obligation of us all to accept. It recognises the primacy of the inner values which alone lend nobility to man. The universal law of love and charity makes all people our neighbours, since when all social relationships in the Christian world have been based on this law.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 57-58.

- 'I agree with Bergson that "democracy is essentially evangelical in that its source is love".'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p.70.


- 'The implementation of this vast programme for a universal democracy in the Christian sense finds its fulfilment in the building of Europe.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 77.


- 'The Coal and Steel Community, Euratom and the Common Market, with the free circulation of goods, capital and persons, are institutions which are already profoundly and definitively changing relationships between associate states; in a certain sense they are becoming divisions, provinces of a single unit. And this unit cannot and must not remain a purely economic and technical enterprise: it requires a soul, an awareness of its historical affinities and its present and future responsibilities, a political will to serve the same human ideal.'
Source: Robert Schuman 'Pour l'Europe' [For Europe]. Editions Nagel, Paris 1963. p. 77-78.


'Europe will be in difficulties for a very long time. Besides it's a fundamental error to think that one can make progress without difficulties.'

[What has to be done?]

'Continue, continue, continue...'

Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978.Part Two,

Chapter 21, p.513, 3rd paragraph.

In charge of publication : Pascal FONTAINE

Drafted by : Pascal FONTAINE and Leatitia DESCOIN, stagiaire

OR : FR


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1 Jean Monnet, Memoirs, (trad. R. Mayne): London, etc., William Collins and Son Ltd, 1976, p. 323.


2 The European Commission is also subordinated to the vote of investiture by the European Parliament.

3 Jean Monnet, op. cit., pp. 330 et seq.

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