9th May 1950 the schuman declaration



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IV. THE IDEAS OF JEAN MONNET AND ROBERT SCHUMAN
QUOTATIONS: JEAN MONNET

EQUALITY/NON DISCRIMINATION

- 'The fault layed in the Treay of Versailles: it was based on discrimination. From the moment I first began to be concerned with public affairs I have always realized that equality is absolutely essential in relations between nations, as it is between people. A peace based on inequality could have no good results.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Dubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part One, Chapter 4, p. 97, 2nd paragraph.


- 'If the countries of Europe once more protect themselves against each other, it will once more be necessary to build up vast armies. Some countries, under the future peace treaty, will be able to do so; to others it will forbidden. We experienced such discrimination in 1919; we know the results. Alliances will be concluded between European countries, we know how much they are worth. [...] Europe will be reborn yet again under the shadow of fear.
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 9 p. 222, 2nd paragraph.

- 'Peace can be founded only on equality. We failed in 1919 because we introduced discrimination and a sense of superiority.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 11 p. 284, 2nd paragraph. Meeting with R.Schuman.
- 'A solution which would put French industry on the same footing as German industry, while freeing the latter from the discrimination born of defeat would restore the economic and political preconditions for the mutual understanding so vital to Europe. It could, in fact, become the germ of European unity.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 12 p. 292-293, last paragraph.


- 'If the problem of sovereignty were approached with no desire to dominate or to take revenge, if on the contrary the victors and the vanquished agreed to exercise joint sovereignty over part of their joint resources, then, a solid link would be forged between them, the way would be wide open for further collective action, and a great example would be given to the other nations of Europe.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 12 p. 293,

2nd paragraph.




- 'The spirit of domination has been the cause of the world's greatest ills, and the Community is an attempt to overcome it.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday&Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 14 p. 354,

3rd paragraph. Meeting with K.Adenauer, April, 4 1951.




- 'It cannot all be done at once: it is gradually that we shall achieve this organization. But already it is essential to make a start. It is not a question of solving political problems which, as in the past, divide the forces that seek domination or superiority. Its is a question of inducing civilization to make fresher progress, by beginning to change the form of the relationship between countries and applying the principle of equality between peoples and between countries.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 20 p. 487,

3rd paragraph. Notes, August, 22 1966.




- ‘To start unifying Europe five years after the last war, it was essential for everyone to understand that there were no longer the victors and the defeated, but only equal partners under a common law.’
Source: ‘Europe-America: a necessary partnership for peace’ Speech by Jean Monnet at the award ceremony for the

‘Freedom prize’, New York, 23 January 1963. Centre for European Research, Lausanne, April 1963




- ‘The common market was not set up simply to establish a better system of trade in goods, nor to create a new power. Our main objective was, and still is, to create a unified Europe and remove the spirit of domination from relations between countries and their peoples, which has several times brought the world close to destruction.’
Source: ‘Europe-America: a necessary partnership for peace’ Speech by Jean Monnet at the award ceremony for the ‘Freedom prize’, New York, 23 January 1963. Centre for European Research, Lausanne, April 1963

PEACE


- 'There will be no peace in Europe if States re-establish themselves on the basis of national sovereignty, with that this implies by way of prestige policies and economic protectionism.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 9, p. 222,

2nd paragraph. Note written for the Committee of National Liberation in Algiers on August 5, 1943.




- 'Coal and steel were at once the key to economic power and the raw materials for forging weapons of war. This double role gave them immense symbolic significance, now largely forgotten, but comparable at the time to that of nuclear energy today. To pool them across frontiers would reduce their malign prestige and turn them instead into a guarantee of peace.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 12 p. 293,

3rd paragraph.




- 'The best contribution one can make to civilization is to allow men to develop their potential within communities freely chosen and built'.
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 14, p. 356,

4th paragraph



- 'Like all political systems, the Community cannot prevent problems arising; but it offers a framework and a means for solving them peacefully. This is a fundamental change by comparison with the past - the very recent past.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 15, p. 390,

1st paragraph.




- ‘Today, peace is not only a matter of treaties or commitments. It depends essentially on creating conditions which, though they may not change human nature, guide people’s behaviour towards each other in a peaceful direction. This is one of the essential consequences of the transformation of Europe which is our Community’s aim. By achieving unity, by restoring vitality to Europe, by creating new conditions which will last, the Europeans are contributing to peace.’
Source: Jean Monnet, ‘Pointers for a method, thoughts on the construction of Europe’, Fayard 1996, p. 106. Speech, Washington, 30 April 1952


- ‘Making Europe is making peace.’
Source: Jean Monnet, ‘Pointers for a method, thoughts on the construction of Europe’, Fayard 1996, p. 108. Speech, Aix-la-Chapelle, 17 May 1953


- ‘The United States of Europe are not only the great hope but also the urgent need of our era, because they will bring about the full development of each of our peoples and the consolidation of peace.’
Source: Jean Monnet, ‘Pointers for a method, thoughts on the construction of Europe’, Fayard 1996, p. 108.

WORKING FOR MANKIND


- 'We are not forming coalitions between States, but union among people.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Introduction.

- 'The countries of Europe are too small to give their peoples the prosperity that is now attainable and therefore necessary. They need wider markets... To enjoy the prosperity and social pogress that are essential, the States of Europe must form a federation or a 'European entity' which will make them a single economic unit.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 9, p. 222,

2nd paragraph.




- 'We want to put Franco-German relations on an entirely new footing. We want to turn what divided France from Germany, that is the industries of war, into a common asset, which will also be European. In this way, Europe will rediscover the leading role which she used to play in the wold and which she lost because she was divided. Europe's unity will not put an end to her diversity, quite the reverse. That rich diversity will benefit civilization and influence the evolution of powers like America itself.

The aim of the French proposal, tehrefore, is essentially political. It even has an aspect which might be called moral.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 12, p. 309-

310, last paragraph. Meeting with K.Adenauer, 1950.




- 'Men who are placed in new practical circumstances, or subjected to a new set of obligations, adapt their behaviour and become different. If the new context is better, they themselves become better: that is the whole rationale of the European Community, and the process of civilization itself.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 15, p. 389-

390, last paragraph.




- 'Major psychological changes, which some seek through violent revolution, can be achieved very peacefully if men's minds can be directed towards the point where their interests converge. That point always exists: but it takes trouble to find it.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 15, p. 392,

1st paragraph.



- 'Our Community is not a coal and steel poducers' association: it is the beginning of Europe. The beginning of Europe was a political conception; but even more, it was a moral idea.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 15, p. 392,

1st and 2nd paragraphs.




- 'When I think that Frenchmen, Germans, Belgians, Dutchmen, Italians, and Luxembourgers are obeying the same rules and, by doing so, are now seeing their common problems in the same light; when i reflect that this will fundamentally change their behaviour one to another - then I tell myself that definitive pogress is being made in relations among the countries and people of Europe.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 15, p. 393,

2nd paragraph. Speech at the Assembly of the ECSC, 1954.




- 'Our countries have become too small for the present-day world, for the scale of modern technology and of America and Russia today, or China and India tomorrow. The union of European peoples in the United States of Europe is the way to raise their standard of living and preserve peace. It is the great hope and opportunity of our time.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 15, p. 399-

400, last paragraph. Meeting with the members of the High Authority of the ECSC on November, 9 1954.




- 'It must be understood that the Common Market is a process of change - not only economic change, but psychological change as well.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 18, p. 460,

1st paragraph. Meeting with a newspaperman, July 1963.




- 'What we had achieved in Europe, against all expectations, ought equally to be possible wherever men were still thinking in terms of domination and hoping to settle their dispute by force. I was convinced that the union of Europe was not only important for the Europeans themselves: it was valuable as an example for others, and this was a further reason for bringing it about.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 21, p. 511,

1st paragraph.




- ‘The greatest danger that Europe runs is the impoverishment of the individual, through being unable to apply to his daily life and his security the means that progress would allow him to apply. If he cannot do so, it is because the conditions under which we live, the conditions in which the countries of Europe live, prevent him.’
Source: Jean Monnet, ‘Pointers for a method, thoughts on the construction of Europe’, Fayard 1996, pp. 82-83

INSTITUTIONS/SUPRANATIONALITY/GENERAL INTEREST


- 'All too often I have come up against the limits of mere co-ordination: it makes for discussion, but not decision. In circumstances where union is necessary, it fails to change relations between men and between countries. It is the expression of national power, not a means of transforming it: that way, unity will never be achieved.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part One, Chapter 1, p. 35, 1st

paragraph.




- 'Co-operation between nations will grow from their getting to know each other better, and from interpenatration between their constituent elements and those of their neighbours. It is therefore important to make both Goverments and peoples know each other better, so that they come to see the poblems that face them not from the viewpoint of their own interests, but in the light of the general interest. Without a doubt, the selfishness of men and of nations is most often caused by inadequate understanding of the problem in hand, each tending to see only that aspect of it which affects his immediate interests.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part One, Chapter 4, p.83,

3rd paragraph.




- 'Bringing Governments together, getting national officials to co-operate, is well-intentionned enough; but the method breaks down as soon as national interests conflict, unless there is an independent political body that can take a common view of the problem and arrive at a common decision.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part One, Chapter 4, p. 87, 1st

paragraph.


- 'The veto was at once the cause and the symbol of this inability to go beyond national self-interest. But it was no more than the expression of much deeper deadlocks, often unacknowledged.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part One, Chapter 4, p. 97,

2nd paragraph.




- 'It would be a mistake to ask more than that of a system which entailed no delegation of sovereignty. Very soon, OEEC had become simply technical machinery; but it outlived the Marshall Plan because it provided a mass of information which everyone found useful. I realized that neither this organization, with its headquarters at the Château de la Muette in Paris, nor the parlimentary meetings in Strasbourg that resulted from the Hague Congress, would ever give concrete expression to European unity. Amid these vast groupings of countries, the common interest was too indistinct, and common disciplines were too lax. A start would have to be made by doing something both more practical and more ambitious. National sovereignty would have to be tackled more boldly and on a narrower front.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 11, p. 273-

274.



- 'I had already learned this from my experience at the League of Nations; but apparently no one remembered the vetos that had blocked all our efforts to find peaceful solutions to the conflicts set off by Japan, Italy, and Germany. The United Nations Organization had the same inbuilt flaw, and so had the Council of Europe. [...] The international assemblies gave themselves the appearance of democratic bodies, publicly expressing their people's will: what was less obvious was that even their unanimous resolutions were nullified, behind their backs, by a Committee or Council of Government representatives, any one of whom could prevent all the others from acting as they wished.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 11, p. 281,

3rd paragraph




- 'Nothing is possible without men: nothing is lasting without institutions.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 12, p. 304-

305.


- 'The Schuman proposals are revolutionary or they are nothing. Co-operation between nations, while essential, cannot alone meet our problem. What must be sought is a fusion of the interests of the European peoples and not merely another affort to maintain an equilibrium of those interests through additional machinery for negotiation.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 12, p. 316,

1st paragraph.




- 'Since these institutions were set up, the Europe we want to bequeath to our children has begun to be a living reality.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 15, p. 383,

3rd paragraph.




- 'Europe, that is, would be built by the same process as each of our national States by establishing among nations a new relationship comparable to that which exists among the citizens of any democratic country: equality, oganized by common institutions.' [...]'The union of Europe cannot be based on goodwill alone. Rules are needed. The tragic events we have lived through and are still witnessing may have made us wiser. But men pass away; others will take our place. We cannot bequeath them our personal experience. That will die with us. But we can leave them institutions. The life of institutions is longer than that of men: if they are well built, they can accumulate and hand on the wisdom of succeeding generations.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 15, p. 383-

384, last paragraph. Speech at the Assembly of the ESCC, 1952.




- 'If Europe has been pulled in many different directions by people with contrasting ideas of her destiny, I regard that as a great waste of time and effort, but no denial of the need to unite. It was simply that ideas and methods differed; and as always, reality had the last word. Today, I believe, reality is having the last word again - and it closely ressembles the first, written in 1950. What it spells is the delegation of sovereignty and the joint exercice of the new and larger sovereignty thus created. I cannot see that in twenty-five years anything else has been invented as a means of uniting Europe, despite all the temptations to desert that path.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 17, p. 432,

1st paragraph.


- 'The search for common interest, [...] by no means excludes taking account of the other's point of view; but it must no turn into haggling. We held fast to our method, which consists in determining what is good for all the Community countries as a whole, then taking the measure of the particular efforts which will have to make - but without vainly seeking, as in the past, a meticulous balance of advantage.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 17, p. 435,

2nd paragraph.




- 'There's a fundamental difference between the Community, which is a way of uniting peoples, and the Free Trade Area, which is symply a commercial arrangement. Our institutions take an overall view and propose common policies; the Free Trade Area poject is an attempt to solve particular poblems without putting them in the context of colective action.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 18, p. 449,

2nd paragraph. Meeting with L.Herhard, January 1969.




- 'To persuade people to talk together is the most one can do to serve the cause of peace. But for this a number of conditions must be fulfilled, all equally important. One is that the talks be conducted in a spirit of equality, and that no one should come to the table with the desire to score off somebody else. That means abandoning the supposed privileges of sovereignty and the sharp weapon of veto. The second condition is that everyone should talk about the same thing; the third, finally, is that everyone should seek the interest which is common to them all. This method does not come naturally to people who meet to deal with poblems that have arisen precisely because of the conflicting interests of nation-States. They have to be induced to understand the method and apply it. Experience has taught me that for this purpose goodwill is not enough, and that a certain moral power has to be imposed on everyone - the power of rules laid down by common institutions which are greater than individuals and are respected by States. Those institutions are designed to promote unity - complete unity where there is likness, and harmony where differences still exist.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part Two, Chapter 19, p. 474-

475, last paragraph.



SOLIDARITY


- 'Even where solidarity is obviously essential, it still does not come naturally. It needs organization. That organiszation is never complete.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part One, Chapter 7, p.176,

last paragraph.



MUTUAL CONFIDENCE

- [Mutual confidence] 'grows up naturally between men who take a common view of the problem to be solved. When the problem becomes the same for everyone, and they all have the same concern to solve it, then differences and suspicions disappear, and friendship very often takes their places.'
Source: Jean Monnet 'Mémoirs'. Doubleday & Company, INC. Garden City, New York. 1978. Part One, Chapter 3, p.76,

last paragraph



QUOTATIONS: ROBERT SCHUMAN

FRATERNITY


- 'For many years we have suffered from an ideological demarcation line which is splitting Europe apart. It was imposed by violence. Let it be wiped out in freedom!'

[...]

'We consider all those who wish to join us in our re-formed community to be an integral part of this living entity of Europe. We pay homage to their courage and loyalty and also to their suffering and sacrifices. We owe them the example of a united and fraternal Europe.'

[...]

'The European community must create an atmosphere of mutual understanding which respects the particular characteristics of each party; it will form the solid basis of a fruitful and peaceful co-operation. In this way a new, prosperous and independent Europe will come about. Our duty is to be ready for it.'
Source: Robert Schuman Revue France-Forum No. 52, November 1963.


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