Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D



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See Alvarez Letter 1999.

1051 FCC Announces Winning Bidders in the Auction of 1,020 Licenses to Provide 900 MHz SMR in Major Trading Areas: Down Payments due April 22, 1996, FCC Form 600s due April 29, 1996, Public Notice, 11 FCC Rcd 18599 (WTB 1996).

1052 Id.

1053 See Correction to Public Notice DA 96-586, FCC Announces Winning Bidders in the Auction of 1020 Licenses to Provide 900 MHz SMR in Major Trading Areas, Public Notice, 11 FCC Rcd 18637 (WTB 1996).

1054 See Multi-Radio Service Auction Closes, Public Notice, 17 FCC Rcd 1446 (WTB 2002).

1055 See 800 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) Service General Category (851-854 MHz) and Upper Band (861-865 MHz) Auction Closes; Winning Bidders Announced, Public Notice, 15 FCC Rcd 17162 (WTB 2000).

1056 See 800 MHz SMR Service Lower 80 Channels Auction Closes; Winning Bidders Announced, Public Notice, 16 FCC Rcd 1736 (WTB 2000).

1057 See generally 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210.

1058 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS codes 517210.

1059 Amendment of Part 22 of the Commission’s Rules to Benefit the Consumers of Air-Ground Telecommunications Services, Biennial Regulatory Review—Amendment of Parts 1, 22, and 90 of the Commission’s Rules, Amendment of Parts 1 and 22 of the Commission’s Rules to Adopt Competitive Bidding Rules for Commercial and General Aviation Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service, WT Docket Nos. 03-103, 05-42, Order on Reconsideration and Report and Order, 20 FCC Rcd 19663 ¶¶ 2842 (2005).

1060 Id.

1061 See Letter from Hector V. Barreto, Administrator, SBA, to Gary D. Michaels, Deputy Chief, Auctions and Spectrum Access Division, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, FCC (filed Sept. 19, 2005).

1062 The service is defined in section 22.99 of the Commission’s Rules, 47 C.F.R. § 22.99.

1063 BETRS is defined in sections 22.757 and 22.759 of the Commission’s Rules, 47 C.F.R. §§ 22.757 and 22.759.

1064 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210.

1065 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.


1066 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210.

1067 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.


1068 See 47 C.F.R. Part 101, Subparts C and I.

1069 See id. Subparts C and H.

1070 Auxiliary Microwave Service is governed by Part 74 of Title 47 of the Commission’s Rules. See 47 C.F.R. Part 74. Available to licensees of broadcast stations and to broadcast and cable network entities, broadcast auxiliary microwave stations are used for relaying broadcast television signals from the studio to the transmitter, or between two points such as a main studio and an auxiliary studio. The service also includes mobile TV pickups, which relay signals from a remote location back to the studio.

1071 See 47 C.F.R. Part 101, Subpart L.

1072 See id. Subpart G.

1073 See id.

1074 See 47 C.F.R. §§ 101.533, 101.1017.

1075 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210.

1076 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.


1077 This service is governed by Subpart I of Part 22 of the Commission’s Rules. See 47 C.F.R. §§ 22.1001-22.1037.

1078 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210.

1079 Id.

1080 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.


1081 See Amendment of the Commission’s Rules Regarding the 37.0-38.6 GHz and 38.6-40.0 GHz Bands, ET Docket No. 95-183, PP Docket No. 93-253, Report and Order, 12 FCC Rcd 18600 (1998).

1082 Id.

1083 See Letter to Kathleen O’Brien Ham, Chief, Auctions and Industry Analysis Division, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, FCC, from Aida Alvarez, Administrator, SBA (Feb. 4, 1998).

1084 Amendment of Parts 21 and 74 of the Commission’s Rules with Regard to Filing Procedures in the Multipoint Distribution Service and in the Instructional Television Fixed Service and Implementation of Section 309(j) of the Communications Act—Competitive Bidding, MM Docket No. 94-131, PP Docket No. 93-253, Report and Order, 10 FCC Rcd 9589, 9593 ¶ 7 (1995).

1085 47 C.F.R. § 21.961(b)(1).

1086 47 U.S.C. § 309(j). Hundreds of stations were licensed to incumbent MDS licensees prior to implementation of Section 309(j) of the Communications Act of 1934, 47 U.S.C. § 309(j). For these pre-auction licenses, the applicable standard is SBA’s small business size standard of 1500 or fewer employees.

1087 Auction of Broadband Radio Service (BRS) Licenses, Scheduled for October 27, 2009, Notice and Filing Requirements, Minimum Opening Bids, Upfront Payments, and Other Procedures for Auction 86, Public Notice, 24 FCC Rcd 8277 (2009).

1088 Id. at 8296.

1089 Auction of Broadband Radio Service Licenses Closes, Winning Bidders Announced for Auction 86, Down Payments Due November 23, 2009, Final Payments Due December 8, 2009, Ten-Day Petition to Deny Period, Public Notice, 24 FCC Rcd 13572 (2009).

1090 The term “small entity” within SBREFA applies to small organizations (nonprofits) and to small governmental jurisdictions (cities, counties, towns, townships, villages, school districts, and special districts with populations of less than 50,000). 5 U.S.C. §§ 601(4)–(6). We do not collect annual revenue data on EBS licensees.

1091 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 517110 Wired Telecommunications Carriers, (partial definition), www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND517110.HTM#N517110.

1092 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210.

1093 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.


1094 The Commission has held two LMDS auctions: Auction 17 and Auction 23. Auction No. 17, the first LMDS auction, began on February 18, 1998, and closed on March 25, 1998. (104 bidders won 864 licenses.) Auction No. 23, the LMDS re-auction, began on April 27, 1999, and closed on May 12, 1999. (40 bidders won 161 licenses.)

1095 See LMDS Order, 12 FCC Rcd at 12545.

1096 Id.

1097 See Letter to Daniel Phythyon, Chief, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau (FCC) from A. Alvarez, Administrator, SBA (January 6, 1998).

1098 Implementation of Section 309(j) of the Communications Act – Competitive Bidding, PP Docket No. 93-253, Fourth Report and Order, 9 FCC Rcd 2330 (1994).

1099 Amendment of Part 95 of the Commission’s Rules to Provide Regulatory Flexibility in the 218-219 MHz Service, WT Docket No. 98-169, Report and Order and Memorandum Opinion and Order, 15 FCC Rcd 1497 (1999) (“ 218-219 MHz Report and Order and Memorandum Opinion and Order”).

1100 Id.

1101 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210.

1102 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.


1103 Teligent acquired the DEMS licenses of FirstMark, the only licensee other than TRW in the 24 GHz band whose license has been modified to require relocation to the 24 GHz band.

1104 Amendments to Parts 1, 2, 87 and 101 of the Commission’s Rules to License Fixed Services at 24 GHz, WT Docket No. 99-327, Report and Order, 15 FCC Rcd 16934, 16967 ¶ 77 (2000); see also 47 C.F.R. § 101.538(a)(2).

1105 Id.; see also 47 C.F.R. § 101.538(a)(1).

1106 See Letter to Margaret W. Wiener, Deputy Chief, Auctions and Industry Analysis Division, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, FCC, from Gary M. Jackson, Assistant Administrator, SBA (July 28, 2000).

1107 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517410.

1108 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517919.

1109 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 517410 Satellite Telecommunications.

1110 See http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=900&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ4&-_lang=en.

1111 See http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=900&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ4&-_lang=en.

1112 http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=517919&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search.

1113 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=900&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ4&-_lang=en.

1114http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=900&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ4&-_lang=en.

1115 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 517110 Wired Telecommunications Carriers, (partial definition), http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND517110.HTM#N517110 (last visited Oct. 21, 2009).

1116 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.


1117 47 C.F.R. § 76.901(e). The Commission determined that this size standard equates approximately to a size standard of $100 million or less in annual revenues. Implementation of Sections of the 1992 Cable Act: Rate Regulation, Sixth Report and Order and Eleventh Order on Reconsideration, 10 FCC Rcd 7393, 7408 (1995).

1118 These data are derived from: R.R. Bowker, Broadcasting & Cable Yearbook 2006, Top 25 Cable/Satellite Operators, pages A-8 & C-2 (data current as of June 30, 2005); Warren Communications News, Television & Cable Factbook 2006, Ownership of Cable Systems in the United States, pages D-1805 to D-1857.

1119 47 C.F.R. § 76.901(c).

1120 Warren Communications News, Television & Cable Factbook 2008, U.S. Cable Systems by Subscriber Size, page F-2 (data current as of Oct. 2007). The data do not include 851 systems for which classifying data were not available.

1121 47 U.S.C. § 543(m)(2); see 47 C.F.R. § 76.901(f) & nn. 1–3.

1122 47 C.F.R. § 76.901(f); see, FCC Announces New Subscriber Count for the Definition of Small Cable Operator, Public Notice, 16 FCC Rcd 2225 (Cable Services Bureau 2001).

1123 See Broadcasting & Cable Yearbook 2006, at A-8, C-2 (Harry A. Jessell ed., 2005) (data current as of June 30, 2005); Television & Cable Factbook 2006, at D-805 to D-1857 (Albert Warren ed., 2005).

1124 The Commission does receive such information on a case-by-case basis if a cable operator appeals a local franchise authority’s finding that the operator does not qualify as a small cable operator pursuant to § 76.901(f) of the Commission’s rules. See 47 C.F.R. § 76.909(b).

1125 See 47 U.S.C. § 573.

1126 47 U.S.C. § 571(a)(3)-(4). See 13th Annual Report, 24 FCC Rcd at 606, ¶ 135.

1127 See 47 U.S.C. § 573.

1128 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 517110 Wired Telecommunications Carriers, http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND517110.HTM#N517110.

1129 See http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-geo_id=&-_skip=600&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1130 A list of OVS certifications may be found at http://www.fcc.gov/mb/ovs/csovscer.html.

1131 See 13th Annual Report, 24 FCC Rcd at 606-07 ¶ 135.  BSPs are newer firms that are building state-of-the-art, facilities-based networks to provide video, voice, and data services over a single network. 

1132 See http://www.fcc.gov/mb/ovs/csovscer.html (current as of February 2007).

1133 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 519130 (establishing a $500,000 revenue ceiling).

1134 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 519190 (establishing a $6.5 million revenue ceiling).

1135 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 517110 Wired Telecommunications Carriers, http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND517110.HTM#N517110.

1136 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517110.

1137 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, “517919 All Other Telecommunications,” http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND517919.HTM#N517919.

1138 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517919 (updated for inflation in 2008).

1139 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Subject Series: Information, “Establishment and Firm Size,” NAICS code 5171103 (rel. Nov. 19, 2010) (employment size). The data show only two categories within the whole: the categories for 1-4 employees and for 5-9 employees.

1140 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Subject Series: Information, “Establishment and Firm Size,” NAICS code 5179191 (rel. Nov. 19, 2010) (receipts size).

1141 http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=519130&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search

1142 http://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/Size_Standards_Table.pdf.

1143 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=1000&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1144 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, “518210 Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services”; http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND518210.HTM#N518210.

1145 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 518210.

1146 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=1000&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ4&-_lang=en .

1147 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=1000&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ4&-_lang=en.

1148 U.S. Census Bureau, “2002 NAICS Definitions: 519190 All Other Information Services”; http://www.census.gov/epcd/naics02/def/NDEF519.HTM.

1149 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 519190. See also http://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/Size_Standards_Table.pdf

1150 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=1200&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ4&-_lang=en.

1151 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=1100&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ4&-_lang=en.

1152 47 U.S.C. 618(a)(5)(B).

1153 See 47 U.S.C. § 617(g).

1154 5 U.S.C. § 603(c)(1)-(c)(4).

1155 13 C.F.R. §§ 121.101 – 121.201.

1156 13 C.F.R. § 121.105(a)(1).

1157 13 C.F.R. § 121.103(a)(1).

1158 13 C.F.R. § 121.103(a)(2).

1159 13 C.F.R. § 121.107.

1160 13 C.F.R. § 121.107.

1161 See accompanying Report and Order at Section III.A.5.

1162 47 U.S.C. § 255(e).

1163 United States Access Board, Draft Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Standards and Guidelines, (March 2010), (“Access Board Draft Guidelines”), http://www.access-board.gov/sec508/refresh/draft-rule.pdf.

1164 See Part 1193 of the Access Board Rules, 36 C.F.R. Part 1193.

1165 See 5 U.S.C. § 603. The RFA, see 5 U.S.C. §§ 601-12, has been amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (SBREFA), Pub. L. No. 104-121, 110 Stat. 857 (1996).

1166 See 5 U.S.C. § 603(a).

1167 Id.

1168 Pub. L. No. 111-260, § 104.

1169 See 47 U.S.C. § 617.

1170 See 47 U.S.C. § 618.

1171 See 13 C.F.R. § 121.201.

1172 See 13 C.F.R. § 121.201.

1173 13 C.F.R. § 121.106 (describing how number of employees is calculated); 13 C.F.R. § 121.104 (describing how annual receipts is calculated).

1174 North American Industry Classification System; Revision for 2012, 76 Fed. Reg. 51240 (Aug. 17, 2011) (“NAICS Final Decision”).

1175 This is not a comprehensive list of the primary industries and associated SBA size standards of every possible manufacturer of ACS equipment or provider of ACS. This list is merely representative of some primary industries in which entities that manufacture ACS equipment or provide ACS may be primarily engaged. It is ultimately up to an entity seeking the temporary exemption to make a determination regarding their primary industry, and justify such determination in any enforcement proceeding.

1176 The definitions for each NAICS industry classification can be found by entering the six digit NAICS code in the “2007 NAICS Search” function available at the NAICS homepage, http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/index.html. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget has revised NAICS for 2012, however, the codes and industry categories listed herein are unchanged. OMB anticipates releasing a 2012 NAICS United States Manual or supplement in January 2012. See NAICS Final Decision, 76 Fed. Reg. at 51240.

1177 See 13 C.F.R. § 121.201 for a full listing of SBA size standards by six-digit NAICS industry code. The standards listed in this column establish the maximum size an entity in the given NAICS industry may be to qualify as a small business concern.

1178 See accompanying Report and Order at Section III.A.

1179 See accompanying Report and Order at Section III.A.

1180 See accompanying Report and Order at Section III.A.5.

1181 See 156 Cong. Rec. H7168, H7176 (2010) (statement of Rep. Burgess) (“This bill recognizes that some small businesses and fledgling entrepreneurs may not be able to bear the financial burden of these new requirements, so there is the possibility of exemptions for small businesses.”). See also Report and Order at Section III.C.3.

1182 47 U.S.C. § 543(m)(2).

1183 See 47 U.S.C. § 619(a); see also House Report at 27 (“The Committee also intends that the service provider and the manufacturer are each only subject to these provisions with respect to a browser that such service provider or manufacturer directs or specifies to be included in the device.”).

1184 5 U.S.C. § 604(a)(3).

1185 5 U.S.C. § 601(6).

1186 5 U.S.C. § 601(3) (incorporating by reference the definition of “small business concern” in the Small Business Act, 15 U.S.C. § 632). Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. § 601(3), the statutory definition of a small business applies “unless an agency, after consultation with the Office of Advocacy of the Small Business Administration and after opportunity for public comment, establishes one or more definitions of such term which are appropriate to the activities of the agency and publishes such definition(s) in the Federal Register.” 5 U.S.C. § 601(3).

118715 U.S.C. § 632.


1188 See 5 U.S.C. §§ 601(3)–(6).

1189 See SBA, Office of Advocacy, “Frequently Asked Questions,” http://web.sba.gov/faqs (last visited May 6, 2011) (figures are from 2009).

1190 5 U.S.C. § 601(4).

1191 Independent Sector, The New Nonprofit Almanac & Desk Reference (2010).

1192 5 U.S.C. § 601(5).

1193 U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2011, Table 427 (2007).

1194 The 2007 U.S Census data for small governmental organizations are not presented based on the size of the population in each such organization. There were 89,476 small governmental organizations in 2007. If we assume that county, municipal, township and school district organizations are more likely than larger governmental organizations to have populations of 50,000 or less, the total of these organizations is 52,125. If we make the same assumption about special districts, and also assume that special districts are different from county, municipal, township, and school districts, in 2007 there were 37,381 special districts. Therefore, of the 89,476 small governmental organizations documented in 2007, as many as 89,506 may be considered small under the applicable standard. This data may overestimate the number of such organizations that has a population of 50,000 or less. U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States 2011, Tables 427, 426 (data cited therein are from 2007).

1195 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 334111 Electronic Computer Manufacturing, http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=334111&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search.

1196 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 334210 Telephone Apparatus Manufacturing, http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND334210.HTM.

1197 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 334111 Electronic Computer Manufacturing, http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=334111&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search.

1198 13 C.F.R. 121.201, NAICS Code 334111.

1199 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=300&-ds_name=EC0731I1&-_lang=en

1200 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 334210 Telephone Apparatus Manufacturing, http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND334210.HTM.

1201 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS Code 334210.

1202 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, 2007 Economic Census, Industry Series, Industry Statistics by Employment Size, NAICS code 334210 (rel. Nov. 16, 2010); http://factfinder.census.gov.

1203 Id.

1204 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 334220 Radio and Television Broadcasting and Wireless Communications Equipment, http://www.census.gov/econ/industry/def/d334220.htm.

1205 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 334111 Electronic Computer Manufacturing, http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=334111&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search.

1206 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 334210 Telephone Apparatus Manufacturing, http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND334210.HTM.

1207 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-geo_id=&-_skip=300&-ds_name=EC0731I1&-_lang=en.

1208 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 334111 Electronic Computer Manufacturing, http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=334111&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search.

1209 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS Code 334111.

1210 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=300&-ds_name=EC0731I1&-_lang=en.

1211 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 334210 Telephone Apparatus Manufacturing, http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND334210.HTM.

1212 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS Code 334210.

1213 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, 2007 Economic Census, Industry Series, Industry Statistics by Employment Size, NAICS code 334111 (rel. Nov. 16, 2010); http://factfinder.census.gov.

1214 Id.

1215 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 334290 Other communications equipment manufacturing, http://www.census.gov/econ/industry/def/d334290.htm.

1216 13 C.F.R. 121.201, NAICS Code 334220.

1217 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=300&-ds_name=EC0731I1&-_lang=en.

1218 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 517110 Wired Telecommunications Carriers, http://www.census.gov/econ/industry/def/d517110.htm.

1219 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS Code 517110.

1220 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=600&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1221 Id. As noted in para. 21 above with regard to the distinction between manufacturers of equipment used to provide interconnected VoIP and manufactures of equipment to provide non-interconnected VoIP, our estimates of the number of the number of providers of non-interconnected VoIP (and the number of small entities within that group) are likely overstated because we could not draw in the data a distinction between such providers and those that provide interconnected VoIP. However, in the absence of more accurate data, we present these figures to provide as thorough an analysis of the impact on small entities as we can at this time.

1222 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 517919 All Other Telecommunications, http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=517919&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search.

1223 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS Code 517919.

1224 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=900&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ4&-_lang=en.

1225 See discussion supra note 57, regarding possible overestimation of firms and small entities providing non-interconnected VoIP services.

1226 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 517210 Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (Except Satellite), http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND517210.HTM#N517210.

1227 U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 NAICS Definitions, 517211 Paging, http://www.census.gov/epcd/naics02/def/NDEF517.HTM.; U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 NAICS Definitions, “517212 Cellular and Other Wireless Telecommunications”; http://www.census.gov/epcd/naics02/def/NDEF517.HTM.

1228 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210 (2007 NAICS). The now-superseded, pre-2007 C.F.R. citations were 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS codes 517211 and 517212 (referring to the 2002 NAICS).

1229 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.


1230 See Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1231 Id.

1232 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS Code 517110.

1233 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, 2007 Economic Census, Industry Series, Industry Statistics by Employment Size, NAICS code 517110 (rel. Nov. 19, 2010); http://factfinder.census.gov.

1234 Id.

1235 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 519130 Internet Publishing and Broadcasting and Web Search Portals, http://www.naics.com/censusfiles/ND519130.HTM.

1236 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS Code 519130.

1237 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, 2007 Economic Census, Industry Series, Industry Statistics by Employment Size, NAICS code 519130 (rel. Nov. 19, 2010); http://factfinder.census.gov.

1238 Id.

1239 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definition, 518210 Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services, http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch.

1240 13 C.F.R. § 121.201; NAICS Code 518210.

1241 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=800&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ1&-_lang=en.

1242 Id.

1243 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS Code 517919.

1244 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=900&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ4&-_lang=en.

1245 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 517210.

1246 Id.

1247 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (Except Satellites) http://www.census.gov/econ/industry/def/d517210.htm.

1248 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, 2007 Economic Census, Industry Series, Industry Statistics by Employment Size, NAICS code 517210 (rel. Nov. 19, 2010); http://factfinder.census.gov.

1249 Id.

1250 47 C.F.R. § 90.814(b)(1).

1251 Id.

1252 See Letter from Aida Alvarez, Administrator, Small Business Administration, to Thomas Sugrue, Chief, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, Federal Communications Commission, dated August 10, 1999.

1253 See Correction to Public Notice DA 96-586, FCC Announces Winning Bidders in the Auction of 1020 Licenses to Provide 900 MHz SMR in Major Trading Areas, Public Notice, 18 FCC Rcd 18367 (WTB 1996).

1254 See Multi-Radio Service Auction Closes, Public Notice, 17 FCC Rcd 1446 (WTB 2002).

1255 See Service Rules for Advanced Wireless Services in the 1.7 GHz and 2.1 GHz Bands, Report and Order, 18 FCC Rcd 25,162, App. B (2003), modified by Service Rules for Advanced Wireless Services In the 1.7 GHz and 2.1 GHz Bands, Order on Reconsideration, 20 FCC Rcd 14,058, App. C (2005).

1256 See Auction of Advanced Wireless Services Licenses Scheduled for June 29, 2006; Notice and Filing Requirements, Minimum Opening Bids, Upfront Payments and Other Procedures for Auction No. 66, AU Docket No. 06-30, Public Notice, 21 FCC Rcd 4562 (2006) (“Auction 66 Procedures Public Notice”).

1257 See Auction of Advanced Wireless Services Licenses Closes; Winning Bidders Announced for Auction No. 66, Public Notice, 21 FCC Rcd 10,521 (2006) (“Auction 66 Closing Public Notice”).

1258 See id.

1259 See AWS-1 and Broadband PCS Procedures Public Notice, 23 FCC Rcd at 7499. Auction 78 also included an auction of broadband PCS licenses.

1260 See Auction of AWS-1 and Broadband PCS Licenses Closes, Winning Bidders Announced for Auction 78, Down Payments Due September 9, 2008, FCC Forms 601 and 602 Due September 9, 2008, Final Payments Due September 23, 2008, Ten-Day Petition to Deny Period, Public Notice, 23 FCC Rcd 12,749 (2008).

1261 Service Rules for Advanced Wireless Services in the 1915–1920 MHz, 1995–2000 MHz, 2020–2025 MHz and 2175–2180 MHz Bands et al., Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 19 FCC Rcd 19,263, App. B (2005); Service Rules for Advanced Wireless Services in the 2155–2175 MHz Band, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 22 FCC Rcd 17,035, App. (2007); Service Rules for Advanced Wireless Services in the 2155-2175 MHz Band, Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 23 FCC Rcd 9859, App. B (2008).

1262 Service Rules for the 746-764 MHz Bands, and Revisions to Part 27 of the Commission’s Rules, Second Report and Order, 15 FCC Rcd 5299 (2000). Service rules were amended in 2007, but no changes were made to small business size categories. See Service Rules for the 698-746, 747-762 and 777-792 MHz Bands, WT Docket No. 06-150, Revision of the Commission’s Rules to Ensure Compatibility with Enhanced 911 Emergency Calling Systems, CC Docket No. 94-102, Section 68.4(a) of the Commission’s Rules Governing Hearing Aid-Compatible Telephones, WT Docket No. 01-309, Biennial Regulatory Review – Amendment of Parts 1, 22, 24, 27, and 90 to Streamline and Harmonize Various Rules Affecting Wireless Radio Services, WT Docket 03-264, Former Nextel Communications, Inc. Upper 700 MHz Guard Band Licenses and Revisions to Part 27 of the Commission’s Rules, WT Docket No. 06-169, Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band, PS Docket No. 06-229, Development of Operational, Technical and Spectrum Requirements for Meeting Federal, State and Local Public Safety Communications Requirements Through the Year 2010, WT Docket No. 96-86, Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 22 FCC Rcd 8064 (2007).

1263 Id. at 5343 ¶ 108.

1264 Id.

1265 Id. at 5343 ¶ 108 n.246 (for the 746-764 MHz and 776-704 MHz bands, the Commission is exempt from 15 U.S.C. § 632, which requires Federal agencies to obtain Small Business Administration approval before adopting small business size standards).

1266 See 700 MHz Guard Bands Auction Closes: Winning Bidders Announced, Public Notice, 15 FCC Rcd 18026 (2000).

1267 See 700 MHz Guard Bands Auction Closes: Winning Bidders Announced, Public Notice, 16 FCC Rcd 4590 (WTB 2001).

1268 700 MHz Second Report and Order, 22 FCC Rcd 15289.

1269 See Auction of 700 MHz Band Licenses Closes, Public Notice, 23 FCC Rcd 4572 (WTB 2008).

1270 See Reallocation and Service Rules for the 698746 MHz Spectrum Band (Television Channels 5259), Report and Order, 17 FCC Rcd 1022 (2002) (“Channels 5259 Report and Order”).

1271 See id., 17 FCC Rcd at 1087–88 ¶ 172.

1272 See id.

1273 See id., 17 FCC Rcd at 1088 ¶ 173.

1274 See Alvarez Letter 1998.

1275 See Lower 700 MHz Band Auction Closes, Public Notice, 17 FCC Rcd 17,272 (2002).

1276 See Lower 700 MHz Band Auction Closes, Public Notice, 18 FCC Rcd 11,873 (2003).

1277 See id.

1278 700 MHz Second Report and Order, Second Report and Order, 22 FCC Rcd 15,289, 15,359 n.434 (2007).

1279 See Auction of 700 MHz Band Licenses Closes, Public Notice, 23 FCC Rcd 4572 (2008).

1280 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1281 See Amendments to Parts 1, 2, 27 and 90 of the Commission’s Rules to License Services in the 216-220 MHz, 1390-1395 MHz, 1427-1429 MHz, 1429-1432 MHz, 1432-1435 MHz, 1670-1675 MHz, and 2385-2390 MHz Government Transfer Bands, Report and Order, 17 FCC Rcd 9980 (2002).

1282 See Reallocation of the 216-220 MHz, 1390-1395 MHz, 1427-1429 MHz, 1429-1432 MHz, 1432-1435 MHz, 1670-1675 MHz, and 2385-2390 MHz Government Transfer Bands, WT Docket No. 02-8, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 17 FCC Rcd 2500, 2550-51 ¶¶ 144-146 (2002). To be consistent with the size standard of “very small business” proposed for the 1427-1432 MHz band for those entities with average gross revenues for the three preceding years not exceeding $3 million, the Service Rules Notice proposed to use the terms “entrepreneur” and “small business” to define entities with average gross revenues for the three preceding years not exceeding $40 million and $15 million, respectively. Because the Commission is not adopting small business size standards for the 1427-1432 MHz band, it instead uses the terms “small business” and “very small business” to define entities with average gross revenues for the three preceding years not exceeding $40 million and $15 million, respectively.

1283 See Letter from Hector V. Barreto, Administrator, Small Business Administration, to Margaret W. Wiener, Chief, Auctions and Industry Analysis Division, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, Federal Communications Commission, dated Jan. 18, 2002.

1284 Such bidding credits are codified for the unpaired 1390-1392 MHz, paired 1392-1395 MHz, and the paired 1432-1435 MHz bands in 47 C.F.R. § 27.807. Such bidding credits are codified for the unpaired 1670-1675 MHz band in 47 C.F.R. § 27.906.

1285 In the Part 1 Third Report and Order, the Commission adopted a standard schedule of bidding credits, the levels of which were developed based on its auction experience. Part 1 Third Report and Order, 13 FCC Rcd at 403-04 ¶ 47; see also 47 C.F.R. § 1.2110(f)(2).

1286 See Service Rules Notice, 17 FCC Rcd at 2550-51 ¶ 145.

1287 See, e.g., Revision of Part 22 and Part 90 of the Commission’s Rules to Facilitate Future Development of Paging Systems; Implementation of Section 309(j) of the Communications Act -- Competitive Bidding, WT Docket No. 96-18, PR Docket No. 93-253, Memorandum Opinion and Order on Reconsideration and Third Report and Order, 14 FCC Rcd 10030, 10091 ¶ 112 (1999).

1288 47 U.S.C. § 309(j)(3)(B), (4)(C)-(D). The Commission will also not adopt special preferences for entities owned by minorities or women, and rural telephone companies. The Commission did not receive any comments on this issue, and it does not have an adequate record to support such special provisions under the current standards of judicial review. See Adarand Constructors v. Peña, 515 U.S. 200 (1995) (requiring a strict scrutiny standard of review for government mandated race-conscious measures); United States v. Virginia, 518 U.S. 515 (1996) (applying an intermediate standard of review to a state program based on gender classification).

1289 U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 NAICS Definitions, 334220 Radio and Television Broadcasting and Wireless Communications Equipment Manufacturing, http://www.census.gov/epcd/naics02/def/NDEF334.HTM#N3342.

1290 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 334220.

1291 The NAICS Code for this service is 334220. See 13 C.F.R 121/201. See also http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=500&-ds_name=EC0744SSSZ1&-_lang=en.

1292 The NAICS Code for this service 334220. See 13 C.F.R 121/201. See also http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=500&-ds_name=EC0744SSSZ1&-_lang=en.

1293 http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=443112&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search.

1294 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 443112.

1295 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=500&-ds_name=EC0744SSSZ1&-_lang=en.

1296 Id.

1297 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517110.

1298 See Trends in Telephone Service, Federal Communications Commission, Wireline Competition Bureau, Industry Analysis and Technology Division at Table 5.3 (Sept. 2010) (Trends in Telephone Service).

1299 See id.

1300 See http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-geo_id=&-_skip=600&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1301 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517110.

1302 See http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-geo_id=&-_skip=600&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1303 See Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1304 Id.

1305 Id.

1306 Id.

1307 Id.

1308 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517110.

1309 See http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-geo_id=&-_skip=600&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1310 See Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1311 Id.

1312 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517110.

1313 See http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-geo_id=&-_skip=600&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1314 Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1315 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517911.

1316 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=800&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1317 See Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1318 Id.

1319 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517911.

1320 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=800&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1321 Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1322 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517110.

1323 See http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-geo_id=&-_skip=600&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1324 Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1325 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517911.

1326 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=800&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1327 See Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1328 Id.

1329 We include all toll-free number subscribers in this category, including those for 888 numbers.

1330 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517911.

1331 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=800&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1332 Trends in Telephone Service, at tbls. 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7.

1333 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 NAICS Definitions, 517210 Wireless Telecommunications Categories (Except Satellite), http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND517210.HTM#N517210.

1334 U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 NAICS Definitions, 517211 Paging, http://www.census.gov/epcd/naics02/def/NDEF517.HTM.; U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 NAICS Definitions, “517212 Cellular and Other Wireless Telecommunications”; http://www.census.gov/epcd/naics02/def/NDEF517.HTM.

1335 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210 (2007 NAICS). The now-superseded, pre-2007 C.F.R. citations were 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS codes 517211 and 517212 (referring to the 2002 NAICS).

1336 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.


1337 See Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1338 Id.

1339 Amendment of the Commission’s Rules to Establish Part 27, the Wireless Communications Service (WCS), GN Docket No. 96-228, Report and Order, 12 FCC Rcd 10785, 10879 ¶ 194 (1997).

1340 See Letter from Aida Alvarez, Administrator, SBA, to Amy Zoslov, Chief, Auctions and Industry Analysis Division, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, FCC (filed Dec. 2, 1998) (Alvarez Letter 1998).

1341 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.


1342 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210.

1343http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en In this specific category, there were 248 firms that operated for the entire year in 2007. Of that number 247 operated with fewer than 100 employees and one (1) operated with more than 1000 employees. Based on this classification and the associated size standard, the majority of paging firms must be considered small.

1344 See Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1345 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210.

1346 Id.

1347 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.


1348 Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1349 Id.

1350 See Trends in Telephone Service, at tbl. 5.3.

1351 See id.

1352 See Amendment of Parts 20 and 24 of the Commission’s Rules – Broadband PCS Competitive Bidding and the Commercial Mobile Radio Service Spectrum Cap; Amendment of the Commission’s Cellular/PCS Cross-Ownership Rule, WT Docket No. 96-59, GN Docket No. 90-314, Report and Order, 11 FCC Rcd 7824, 7850–52 ¶¶ 57–60 (1996) (“PCS Report and Order”); see also 47 C.F.R. § 24.720(b).

1353 See PCS Report and Order, 11 FCC Rcd at 7852 ¶ 60.

1354 See Alvarez Letter 1998.

1355 See Broadband PCS, D, E and F Block Auction Closes, Public Notice, Doc. No. 89838 (rel. Jan. 14, 1997).

1356 See C, D, E, and F Block Broadband PCS Auction Closes, Public Notice, 14 FCC Rcd 6688 (WTB 1999). Before Auction No. 22, the Commission established a very small standard for the C Block to match the standard used for F Block. Amendment of the Commission’s Rules Regarding Installment Payment Financing for Personal Communications Services (PCS) Licensees, WT Docket No. 97-82, Fourth Report and Order, 13 FCC Rcd 15743, 15768 ¶ 46 (1998).

1357 See C and F Block Broadband PCS Auction Closes; Winning Bidders Announced, Public Notice, 16 FCC Rcd 2339 (2001).

1358 See Broadband PCS Spectrum Auction Closes; Winning Bidders Announced for Auction No. 58, Public Notice, 20 FCC Rcd 3703 (2005).

1359 See Auction of Broadband PCS Spectrum Licenses Closes; Winning Bidders Announced for Auction No. 71, Public Notice, 22 FCC Rcd 9247 (2007).

1360 Id.

1361 See Auction of AWS-1 and Broadband PCS Licenses Closes; Winning Bidders Announced for Auction 78, Public Notice, 23 FCC Rcd 12749 (WTB 2008).

1362 Id.

1363 Amendment of the Commission’s Rules to Establish New Personal Communications Services, Narrowband PCS, GEN Docket No. 90-314, ET Docket No. 92-100, PP Docket No. 93-253, Second Report and Order and Second Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 15 FCC Rcd 10456 (2000) (“Narrowband PCS Second Report and Order”).

1364 See Letter to Amy Zoslov, Chief, Auctions and Industry Analysis Division, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, FCC, from Aida Alvarez, Administrator, SBA (Dec. 2, 1998).

1365 See Narrowband PCS Auction Closes, Public Notice, 16 FCC Rcd 18663 (WTB 2001).

1366 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS code 517210 (2007 NAICS). The now-superseded, pre-2007 C.F.R. citations were 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, NAICS codes 517211 and 517212 (referring to the 2002 NAICS).

1367 U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Sector 51, 2007 NAICS code 517210 (rel. Oct. 20, 2009), http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IBQTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=&-fds_name=EC0700A1&-_skip=700&-ds_name=EC0751SSSZ5&-_lang=en.

1368 Amendment of Part 90 of the Commission’s Rules to Provide For the Use of the 220-222 MHz Band by the Private Land Mobile Radio Service, Third Report and Order, 12 FCC Rcd 10943, 11068 70 ¶¶ 291 295 (1997).

1369 Id. at 11068 ¶ 291.

1370 Id.

1371 See Letter to Daniel Phythyon, Chief, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, Federal Communications Commission, from Aida Alvarez, Administrator, Small Business Administration, dated January 6, 1998 (Alvarez to Phythyon Letter 1998).

1372 See generally 220 MHz Service Auction Closes, Public Notice, 14 FCC Rcd 605 (WTB 1998).

1373 See FCC Announces It is Prepared to Grant 654 Phase II 220 MHz Licenses After Final Payment is Made, Public Notice, 14 FCC Rcd 1085 (WTB 1999).

1374 See Phase II 220 MHz Service Spectrum Auction Closes, Public Notice, 14 FCC Rcd 11218 (WTB 1999).

1375 See Multi-Radio Service Auction Closes, Public Notice, 17 FCC Rcd 1446 (WTB 2002).

1376 See Auction of Phase II 220 MHz Service Spectrum Scheduled for June 20, 2007, Notice and Filing Requirements, Minimum Opening Bids, Upfront Payments and Other Procedures for Auction 72, Public Notice, 22 FCC Rcd 3404 (2007).

1377 See Auction of Phase II 220 MHz Service Spectrum Licenses Closes, Winning Bidders Announced for Auction 72, Down Payments due July 18, 2007, FCC Forms 601 and 602 due July 18, 2007, Final Payments due August 1, 2007, Ten-Day Petition to Deny Period, Public Notice, 22 FCC Rcd 11573 (2007).

1378 47 C.F.R. §§ 90.810, 90.814(b), 90.912.

1379 Id.

1380
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