Complete the following definitions with the words and phrases below



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Programming languages
Complete the following definitions with the words and phrases below
the various parts of the program may occur in programs language binary numbers a given problem


  1. algorithm

The step-by-step specification of how to reach the solution to ………………………….

  1. flowchart

A diagram representing the logical sequence between ……………………………

  1. coding

The translation of logical steps into a programming …………………………………

  1. machine code

The basic instructions understood by computers. the processor operates on codes which consist of

……………………………..



  1. debugging

The techniques of detecting, diagnosing and correcting errors (or ‘bugs’) which

………………………



Read the text and find answers to these questions.


  1. Do computers understand human languages? 

  2. What are the differences between low-level and high-level languages? 

  3. What is an assembler? 

  4. What is the function of compilers? 

  5. What do you understand by the terms source program and object program? 

  6. In the future, could computers be programmed in Spanish, French or Japanese? 




Unfortunately computers cannot understand ordinary spoken English or any other natural language. The only language they can understand directly is machine code. This consists of 1s and 0s (binary codes) that are processed by the CPU.

However machine code as a means of communication is very difficult to write. For this reason, we use symbolic languages that are easier to understand. Then, by using a special program, these languages can be translated into machine code. For example, the so-called assembly languages use abbreviations such as ADD, SUB, MPY to represent instructions. These mnemonic codes are like labels easily associated with the items to which they refer.

Basic languages, where the program is similar to the machine code version, are known as low-level languages. In these languages, each instruction is equivalent to a single machine code instruction, and the program is converted into machine code by a special program called assembler. These languages are still quite complex and restricted to particular machines.

To make the programs easier to write and to overcome the problem of intercommunication between different types of machines, higher-level languages were designed such as BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN or Pascal. These are all problem-oriented rather than machine-oriented. Programs written in one of these languages (known as source programs) are converted into low-level language by means of a compiler (generating the object program). On compilation, each statement in a high-level program is generally translated into many machine code instruction.

People communicate instructions to the computer in symbolic languages and the easier this communication can be made the wider the application of computers will be. Scientists are already working on Artificial Intelligence and the next generation of computers may be able to understand human languages


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Instructions are written in a high-level language (e.g. Pascal, BASIC, COBOL, Ada, C, Lisp). This is known as source program

Compiler


Compilers translate the original code into a lower-level language or machine code so the CPU can understand it.

Instructions are compiled and packaged into a program. The software is ready to run on the computer.


ook at the groups of words and decide what part of the speech each one is. Then complete the sentences with the correct word
.

compile compiler compilation

  1. Programs written in a high-level language require  or translation into machine code.

  2. A  generates several low-level instructions for each source language statement.

  3. Programmers usually  their programs to create an object program, and diagnose possible errors.

program programmers programming programmable

  1. Most computer  make a plan of the program before they write it. This plan is called flowchart.

  2. A computer  is a set of instructions that tells a computer what to do.

  3. C
    In the word debug the prefic de- is used. This prefix means to reverse an action. What do the following words mean?
    defrost –declassify – decode – decompose – decentralize
    onverting an algorithm into a sequence of instructions in a programming language is called 

bug debug debugger debugging

  1. New programs need  to make them work properly.

  2. Any error or malfunction of a computer program is known as a 

  3. The best compilers usually include an integrated  which detects syntax errors

More verbs 


Look at these pairs of examples and decide where there is an ‘important’ change in meaning.


  1. I remember shutting down the computer before I left the room. 

  2. Please remember to buy the new program. 




  1. They stopped to look at the flowchart. 

  2. They stopped looking at the flowchart. 




  1. I like studying C language. 

  2. I like to study C language in the evenings. 




  1. It has started raining. 

  2. It has started to rain.




  1. He needs to work harder. 

  2. This hard disk needs repairing. 



How a program is produced

Put the paragraphs in the right orfer to make up the text

_____A______

First of all you have to understand exactly what the problem is, and define it clearly. This means you have to decide in a general way how to solve a problem.


___________

Then you transfer the steps in the flowchart into instructions written in a computer language. You usually write these in a high-level language like BASIC or Pascal. You have to then use something called a compiler which translates the instructions into machine code, which is the only language understood by the processor.




___________

The next step is to decide an algorithm, which is a step-by-step plan of instructions used to solve a problem. You do this in a flowchart. You use special symbols to show how the computer works through your program – where it makes decisions, where it starts and ends, and thinks like that.




_____________

And then last of all you have to write instructions explaining to people how to use it. A great program is not much use unless people know how to use it.



____________

Once you have written your program, you have to test it with sample data to see if there are any bugs or errors. Usually there are, so the programs has to be cleared of them or ‘debugged’.





Number the steps in producing a program in the order they are explained in the text.
Provide documentation of the program. 

Understand the problem and plan the solution. 

Test and correct the program. 

Make a flowchart of the program. 



Write the instructions in coded form and compile the program. 


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