Desk review yemen



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Child Labor

Overview/Issue


The emergency and the potential loss of livelihoods, breadwinners and access to education, and when families are displaced and separated, children become particularly vulnerable to child labor and WFCL.

Number of children affected


56.25% of a total of 32 surveyors of an assessment carried out in Abyan end of April, directly observed ‘many people begging in the street’.82 No information is available on the percentage of children among them.

Capacities


No information available.

Response to date


No information available.

Gaps


No information available.

Unaccompanied and separated children

Overview/Issue


The ongoing conflict and population displacement is likely to cause separation of children from their parents and families, which exposes boys and girls to increase risk of violence, abuse, exploitation and neglect. Unaccompanied and separated children are for example at increased risk of trafficking.

There is little data on unaccompanied and separated children, but different assessment indicate whether whole families fled or only women and children:

A rapid assessment carried out in Al Jawf reports that the approximately 1,250 families having entered the area were mainly comprised of women and children.83

An assessment in Abyan showed that nearly 50% of the displaced left with the whole family. 45% of respondents said that women and children left, but some men stayed behind.84

86.7% of respondents of a rapid assessment in Aden, fled their homes, of which 76.7% fled with the whole family. 10% of the respondents said that only women and children had fled.85

An assessment in Amran showed that caregivers spoke about the unstable psychological status of children, due to, among other, the fear of losing their mother and father.86


Number of children affected


In Abyan Governorate, 81.25% of respondents reported that there a serious problem in their community because people have been separated from family members.87 12.5% said there was no such problem and 6.25% answered that they didn’t know. Unfortunately is it not clear, who got separated. 78.13% reported that it is a problem that unaccompanied children, orphans, widows, elderly people, people who are sick or disabled do not get enough help. The percentage of each category of persons in need is not known.

An assessment in Amran Governorate indicated that there are three families that have a child/children missing. But more than 40 families are taking care of children who were not part of their families before the displacement.88

Since the beginning of April, 941 unaccompanied minors (of a total of 5,161) have returned from Yemen to Ethiopia having transited through Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, and Sudan.89

Capacities


No information available.

Response to date


Prevention and life-saving messages reach hundreds of thousands of IDPs and community members. The messages focus, among other, on avoiding family separation.90

Gaps


No information available.

Justice for children

Overview/Issue


Humanitarian situations often increase the possibility of children coming into contact with the justice system as alleged offenders, victims or witnesses, or in a combination of these roles.

The many armed checkpoints are presenting a danger in this regard.


Number of children affected


9 boys were detained by Ansar Allah as they reportedly conducted “law enforcement operations”. 6 other incidents of detention by Ansar Allah were also verified involving 6 boys, 4 of whom were detained for their alleged association with Islah (the Muslim Brotherhood-linked party), and 1 because of his father’s association with Islah.91

No further information is available.


Capacities


No information available.

Response to date


No information available.

Gaps


No information available.

Annex I: Abbreviations


AQAP Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula

CBO Community based organization

CFS Child friendly space

CP Child protection

CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child

ERW Explosive remnants of war

FGM/C Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting

GBV Gender based violence

GDP Gross domestic product

GNI Gross national income

HIV Human immunodeficiency virus

ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross

IDP Internally displaced people

INGO International Non-Government Organization

LGBTI Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex

MOSAL Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour

MoU Memorandum of Understanding

MRM Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism

NGO Non-Government Organization

OCHA Office for the CO-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs

UNDP United Nations Development Program

UNFPA United Nations Population Fund

UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner’s Refugee Commission

UNICEF United Children’s Fund

UNMAS United Nations Mine Action Service

UXO Unexploded ordnance

WFCL Worst forms of child labor


Annex II: Timeline92


Facing popular protests, a secessionist movement in the south, a spiraling security crisis, and a deep fracturing of political factions, Yemen’s political elite acceded to the Gulf initiative in 2011, which established a caretaker transitional government. The agreement signed in Riyadh stipulated a two-year transitional period and created a National Dialogue Conference (NDC) as a forum to solve the country’s political problems.93
2014

January - National Dialogue Conference winds up after ten months of deliberation, agreeing a document on which the new constitution will be based.


February - Presidential panel gives approval for Yemen to become a federation of six regions as part of its political transition.
July - Tribesmen blow up the country's largest oil pipeline, disrupting supplies from the interior to a Red Sea export terminal.
August - President Hadi sacks his cabinet and overturns a controversial fuel price rise following two weeks of anti-government protests in which Houthi rebels are heavily involved.
September - Houthi rebels take control of the capital Sanaa. The UN brokers a peace deal according to which the Houthis agree to withdraw their fighters from cities they have seized once a new national unity government has been formed.
2015

January - The Houthis reject the draft of a new constitution proposed by the government. They seize state TV and clash with troops in the capital, in what the government describes as a coup attempt.


President Hadi and his government resign in protest at the takeover of the capital by Houthi rebels. He later rescinds his resignation.
February - Houthi rebels say that they are seizing power and that a transitional five-member presidential council will replace President Hadi. UN Security Council denounces Houthi move, demands they negotiate power-sharing agreement under Gulf Cooperation Council aegis.
President Hadi flees house arrest in Sanaa, escapes to Aden.
March - Islamic State carries out its first major attacks in Yemen - two suicide bombings targeting Shia mosques in Sanaa in which 137 people are killed.
Houthi rebels start to advance towards southern Yemen. President Hadi flees from Aden.
A Saudi-led coalition of Arab states launches heavy air strikes against Shia Houthi rebel targets and imposes a naval blockade.
June – With more than 21.1 million people, over 80 percent of Yemen's population, who need some form of humanitarian assistance, the UN activates the IASC system-wide level 3 emergency response for Yemen for six month.
July – A UN brokered fire pause does not materialize as fighting and airstrikes continue.

1 For child protection, this includes: Al Bena'a, Association for Developing Persons with Special Needs, Charitable Society for Social Welfare, Yemen Red Crescent Society, Yemeni Women Union.

2 For child protection, this includes: Adventist Development and Relief Agency, Danish Demining Group, Danish Refugee Council, INTERSOS, Islamic Relief Yemen, Safe the Children.

3 For child protection especially MOSAL.

4 For child protection, this includes: Al Bena'a, Association for Developing Persons with Special Needs, Charitable Society for Social Welfare, Yemen Red Crescent Society, Yemeni Women Union

5 For child protection, this includes: Adventist Development and Relief Agency, Danish Demining Group, Danish Refugee Council, INTERSOS, Islamic Relief Yemen, Safe the Children

6 These parties to the conflict have been in the SC’s report annexes for at least five years and are therefore considered persistent perpetrators.


1 UNICEF and the Republic of Yemen, Situation Analysis of Children in Yemen, 2014: www.unicef.org/mena/MENA-Situation_Analysis_report_-_English_Final(1).pdf

2 Human Rights Watch, World Report 2015 - Yemen: www.refworld.org/docid/54cf836e15.html

3 UNICEF and the Republic of Yemen, op. cit.

4 Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the report submitted by Yemen under article 8, Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict, 2014: http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/Countries.aspx?CountryCode=YEM&Lang=EN

5 CNN, UNICEF: 279 children die in 10 weeks of violence in Yemen, June 2015: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/06/16/middleeast/yemen-child-deaths-in-conflict/

6 Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the 4th periodic report of Yemen, 2014: http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/Countries.aspx?CountryCode=YEM&Lang=EN

7 Human Rights Watch, op. cit.

8 CPWG Country Profile Yemen, 2015.

9 UNICEF and the Republic of Yemen, op. cit.

10 UNICEF, In Yemen, one girl fights back against the practice of early marriage, March 2014: www.unicef.org/infobycountry/yemen_72918.html

11 CRC, Concluding observations 4th periodic report, op. cit.

12 Girls not Brides, Yemen’s chance to set 18 as the minimum age of marriage: www.girlsnotbrides.org/yemens-chance-to-set-18-as-the-minimum-age-of-marriage-says-human-rights-watch/

13 UNICEF and the Republic of Yemen, op. cit.

14 Al Jazeera, Saudis warned over marrying 'unidentified' Yemen women, August 2015: www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/08/saudis-warned-marrying-unidentified-yemen-women-150806110721916.html

15 Sexual violence in conflict, Report of the Secretary-General, A/67/792–S/2013/149, March 2013: http://www.refworld.org/docid/5167bd0f4.html

16 CRC, Concluding observations article 8, op. cit.

17 UNICEF and the Republic of Yemen, op. cit.

18 Ibid.

19 Ibid.

20 WHO Mental Health Atlas Yemen Profile, 2011: www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/atlas/profiles/yem_mh_profile.pdf

21 See: http://sfd-yemen.org/uploads/issues/health%20english-20121015-132757.pdf

22 American Psychological Association, Psychology in Yemen, 2008: www.apa.org/international/pi/2008/05/yemen.aspx

23 Ibid.

24 Information based on the on the report of the Secretary-General to the Security Council (A/69/926–S/2015/409) issued on 5 June 2015: https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/countries/yemen

25 Human Rights Watch, op. cit.

26 Report of the Secretary-General to the Security Council, op. cit.

27 CRC, Concluding observations article 8, op. cit.

28 Ibid.

29 See: http://watchlist.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/Yemen-conclusions.pdf

30 CPWG Country Profile Yemen, 2015.

31 UNICEF and the Republic of Yemen, op. cit.

32 U.S. Department of State, Office to monitor and combat trafficking in persons, 2014 Trafficking in Persons Report, Yemen Country Narrative: www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2014/226849.htm

33 Ibid.

34 CRC, Concluding observations 4th periodic report, op. cit.

35 IOM, IOM Aids Ethiopian Minors to Return from Tanzania and Yemen, February 2015: www.iom.int/news/iom-aids-ethiopian-minors-return-tanzania-and-yemen

36 UNICEF Yemen SitRep, February 2015: www.unicef.org/mena/MENA-UNICEF_Yemen_SitRep_February_2015.pdf

37 UNICEF Yemen SitRep, December 2014: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNICEF%20Yemen%20SitRep%20Dec2014.pdf

38 Al Jazeera, Yemen unyielding on child executions, 2013: www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2013/03/20133485144413946.html

39 CRIN, Inhuman sentencing of child offenders in Yemen, 2012: http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CCPR/Shared%20Documents/YEM/INT_CCPR_NGO_YEM_104_10334_E.pdf

40 CRC, Concluding observations 4th periodic report, op. cit.

41 UNICEF and the Republic of Yemen, op. cit.

42 Humanitarian Response Plan, June 2015: www.humanitarianresponse.info/en/system/files/documents/files/yem_hrp_190615_final.pdf

43 IASC Emergency Directors Group, IASC L3 Response Activation Background and Benchmarks, Yemen, 6 July 2015; and, OCHA, Yemen: Presence of Humanitarian Actors (as of 02 June 2015): www.humanitarianresponse.info/en/system/files/documents/files/3w_operational_presence_03june2015_1735.pdf

44 Deborah Clifton, Gender equality in the 2015 Yemen conflict, June 2015.

45 Humanitarian Response Plan, op. cit.

46 UNICEF and the Republic of Yemen, op. cit.

47 Deborah Clifton, op. cit.

48 CRC, Concluding observations 4th periodic report, op. cit.

49 UNICEF and the Republic of Yemen, op. cit.

50 Ibid.

51 Save the Children Multi-Sector Rapid Needs Assessment, Amran Governorate, April 2015.

52 IASC L3 Response Activation, op. cit. ; OCHA, Yemen 3W, op. cit.

53 Human Rights Watch, Yemen: Saudi-Led Airstrikes Used Cluster Munitions, May 2015: www.hrw.org/news/2015/05/03/yemen-saudi-led-airstrikes-used-cluster-munitions

54 MSF, Yemen: War Crimes and Severe Shortages, July 2015: www.msf.org/article/yemen-war-crimes-and-severe-shortages

55 UNICEF SitRep, 24 June – 7 July 2015: www.unicef.org/mena/UNICEF_Yemen_Crisis_SitRep_-_24_June_to_7_July_2015(2).pdf

56 UNHCR, Aden Governorate Multi Cluster Rapid Assessment as of 6 June 2015

57 Ibid.

58 Ibid.

59 Ibid.

60 Abyan Rapid Multi-Cluster Assessment, Direct Observation Initial Results.

61 UNICEF SitRep, 17 – 23 June 2015: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNICEF%20Yemen%20Crisis%20SitRep%20-%2017-23June2015.pdf

62 UNICEF, Humanitarian Action for Children: www.unicef.org/appeals/yemen.html

63 Save the Children, op. cit.

64 UNHCR, op. cit.

65 Save the Children, op. cit.

66 CARE, It’s time to focus on child marriage in emergencies, June 2015: http://insights.careinternational.org.uk/development-blog/humanitarian-emergencies/it-s-time-to-focus-on-child-marriage-in-emergencies

67 UNHCR, op. cit.

68 Yemen: Humanitarian Emergency, SitRep No. 14, 6 July 2015: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/OCHA%20Yemen%20Situation%20Report%20No.%2014%20-issued%20on%207%20July%202015.pdf

69 Abyan Rapid Multi-Cluster Assessment, Initial Automated Report, April 2015.

70 NRC and ADRA MIRA for Sa’ada and Amran IDPs in Bani Al-Hareth, May 2015.

71 Initial findings of the Rapid Multi-Cluster Assessment in Sadah Governorate: 21-23 April 2015

72 Save the Children Multi-Sector Rapid Needs Assessment, Amran Governorate, April 2015.

73 UNICEF SitRep, 17 – 23 June 2015, op. cit.

74 UNICEF, Humanitarian Action for Children: www.unicef.org/appeals/yemen.html

75 Save the Children, op. cit.

76 Human Rights Watch, Yemen: Houthis Send Children Into Battle, May 2015: www.hrw.org/news/2015/05/12/yemen-houthis-send-children-battle

77 Human Rights Watch, Yemen: Houthis Send Children Into Battle, op.

78 Save the Children, op. cit.

79 Human Rights Watch, Kids Are Paying the Price for Yemen’s War, June 2015: www.hrw.org/news/2015/06/11/kids-are-paying-price-yemens-war

80 Abyan Rapid Multi-Cluster Assessment, Direct Observation Initial Results.

81 UNICEF SitRep, 17 – 23 June 2015, op. cit.

82 Ibid.

83 ACTED, Rapid needs assessment in Al Jawf, May 2015.

84 Abyan, Initial Automated Report, op. cit.

85 UNHCR, op. cit.

86 Save the Children, op. cit.

87 Abyan, Initial Automated Report, op. cit.

88 Save the Children, op. cit.

89 Yemen crisis IOM regional response: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/IOM%20Yemen%20Crisis%20Sitrep%2018%20June%202015%20%2311.pdf

90 UNICEF SitRep, 17 – 23 June 2015, op. cit.

91 Report of the Secretary-General to the Security Council, op. cit.

92 BBC Yemen profile – Timeline, June 2015: www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14704951

93 Middle East Institute, Yemen’s National Dialogue, 2014: www.mei.edu/content/yemens-national-dialogue

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