*US Law: Constitution: suspension clause; stat: 28 USC § 2254: only if “in custody” and in violation of US Const/laws/treaties.
*RULE: “Custody”: includes mental institution custody; parole and probation.
*RULE: gradual expansion of habeas jur
*RULE: habeas is not just checking for valid jur; as broad as § 2254; any claim of const’l error in st ct. Brown v. Allen (1953).
*NB, Jackson’s concurrence: “We’re not final because we’re infallible, but we’re infallible only because we’re final”
*NB: State judges hate it: fed’ism (fed threat to state sovereignty); Comity (respect for st courts; Finality; Judicial Resources
*RULE: Habeas ct should hear claim of insufficient evidence to convict if raised in st ct. Jackson v. VA (1979).
*RULE: Habeas ct should hear claim of racial discrim in choosing grand jury foreman. Rose v. Mitchell (1979).
*RULE: Habeas ct should hear claim re: Miranda (5A right not to incriminate is not like 4A). Withrow (1993).
*RULE: Habeas ct should not hear claim of 4A violation if fully and fairly litigated below. Stone v. Powell (1976).
*BUT: Fed habeas ct should hear claim of 6A violation if counsel’s failure was 4A. Kimmelman v. Morrison.
*RULE: Habeas ct should not hear claim of actual innocence: no const’l right to new evidence. Herrera v. Collins (1993).
*BUT: Habeas ct should hear claim of act innocence (no other const’l claim) if evidence strong. House v. Bell (2006).
*BUT: SCOTUS might sit in original habeas to hear Herrera claim of actual innocence. Troy Davis.
*RULE: Habeas ct should hear claim of IAC by appellate attorney for failure to raise IAC claim about failure by trial attorney if state doesn’t allow IAC claim on direct appeal. Martinez v. Ryan (2012).
B. Habeas: Teague: If you’re contesting your conviction on habeas, do you get the benefit of a “new rule”?
*RULE: In prison. New SCOTUS case, if it were law while you were on trial, would change outcome. Can you sue on that basis?
If “old rule”: on direct review (conviction not yet final): yes
If “old rule”: on habeas: yes
If “new rule”: on direct review (conviction not yet final): yes
If “new rule”: on habeas: no, unless Teague 1 or 2 applies.
*RULE: Teague 1 & 2: if a new rule is decided after your conviction is final, you don’t get the benefit on habeas review unless:
“Teague 1” (substance): you were punished for conduct that is now constitutionally protected:
Benefit: if new rule renders death penalty inappropriate for children / mentally ill. Penry.
Benefit: if new rule makes sodomy laws no longer valid. Lawrence v. TX.
Benefit: if new rule changes definition of “using a gun” so now you were not using it. Bousley.
Benefit: if new rule renders sentence unconst’l for the crime you committed.
No benefit: if new rule bars a state’s attempt to raise prior convictions (w/r/t double jeopardy). Caspari.
“Teague 2” (procedure): problem w/ “fundamental fairness” of trial and goes to guilt/innocence
Benefit: e.g. Gideon. (And that’s about it.)
1. What is a “new rule”?
*def new rule: breaks ground; result not dictated by precedent; imposes new obligation on state or feds. Teague.
*RULE: Court wants cases to be “new rules”! That way rights are not expanded. But will only create them on direct review.
*Butler v. McKellar (1990): Butler’s conviction becomes final post-Edwards (if prisoner invokes 5A, gotta stop interrogation) but pre-Roberson (gotta stop even if 2d interrogation is on a diff’t topic). Can Butler sue on Habeas and cite Roberson? H: No, Roberson is a new rule, Butler can’t cite it on habeas.
*Chaidez v. U.S.: 1: D’s conviction becomse final. 2: SCOTUS decides Padilla v. KY (effective counsel includes advice about deportation). 3: Can Chaidez sue on habeas and cite Padilla? PROF prediction: it’s a new rule, no benefit.
*RULE: State court discretion: can apply a new SCOTUS case retroactively even if a fed court wouldn’t. Danforth v. MN (2008).
*def retroactivity: whether Teague 1 or 2 applies; whether petitioner can cite on habeas a case decided after conviction final.
*RULE: threshold: SCOTUS will only announce a new rule on direct review, won’t even hear an appeal from habeas if it would create a new rule (because would force it to declare a new rule, then deny it to the party before it).
*BUT: Lockyer: if Teague = 2254(d), maybe not a threshold issue.
*BUT: n.b., new rules apply fully to everyone still on direct review. Griffith (1987). E.g., SCOTUS case decided before final appeal.
C. Habeas: AEDPA
*AEDPA: habeas court can’t grant relief unless the state court conviction was “contrary to, or involved an unreasonable application of, federal law clearly established by SCOTUS” (§ 2254(d)(1)) or was based on an unreasonable determination of the facts (d(2)).
*RULE 1: “contrary to”: If state court decision was opposite of fed law, correct the error. Williams v. Taylor (2000).
*RULE 2: “unreasonable application of law”:
*RULE: RP std: if state court got it a little wrong, we’ll let it slide. Williams v. Taylor (2000).
*CONC: “incorrect” std: if SCOTUS would rule the other way, we’ll look at it and will do so! (Stevens)
*RULE: “unreasonable” depends on rule’s specificity; if general, court has more leeway. Yarborough (2004).
*RULE 3: unreasonable determination of the facts. § 2254(d)(2).
*RULE: important ways AEDPA departs from Teague
Only SCOTUS decisions can be “clearly established”; circuits not enough. But maybe statute or constitutional amendment?
“contrary to” and “unreasonable application” only apply to old rules. Do the Teague exceptions still apply for new rules? AEDPA doesn’t preclude them; if it bars the Teague exceptions, Court could hold 2254(d) unconst’l, b/c suspension clause.
*RULE: fed courts have discretion to treat 2254(d) as a threshold issue or not. Lockyer v. Andrade (2003).
*RULE: If SCOTUS hands down new rule after first appeal but before second appeal, and second appeal is not granted cert, then it’s Teague, not Griffith, and you don’t get benefit of the new rule. Greene v. Fisher (2011 9-0).
*NB: If PA S.Ct. had accepted review, should have based it on Gray even if Gray were new rule, Griffith!!!