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The births Clytemnestra & Helen to Tyndareus and Leda (Last of Zeus's affairs with mortals) 1230



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1232 The births Clytemnestra & Helen to Tyndareus and Leda (Last of Zeus's affairs with mortals)
1230 The birth of Paris. Laius becomes father of Odysseus.

1225-1103 BC The Hellenic Wars



1225 The 7 against Thebes

1224 Theseus captures Thebes and buries the bodies of the seven which were left unburied by Creon.
1223 Eurestheus defeated by Theseus and beheaded by Hyllus the son of Herakles
March 5 1223 Atreus takes the throne of Mycenae. Total solar eclipse over Crete.
1220 Theseus abducts Helen when she is 12 years old and he is 50 and spends 4 years in Tartarus after being forced to flee Athens by Helens brothers
1220 Castor, Polyduces and Idas and Lynceus begin feuding
1216 After several bad harvests Atreus is slain by 7 year old Aeigisthus and Thyestes takes the throne of Mycenae. Indications of serious destruction of houses outside walls of Mycenae c.1200 BC
1215 Agamemnon is restored as king Mycenae by Tyndareus.
1215 The Epigoni attack Thebes. Theban palace destroyed c.1200 BC then reoccupied
1213 Herakles mother Alcmene dies at the age of about 90
1213 The beauty contest. Meneleus marries Helen.
1205 The Heraklids attack the Peloponnese.
1204 After returning to Athens after being freed from Tartatrus by Herakles (probably Hyllus) Theseus is forced to leave.
1204 Theseus is killed.
1201 Hyllus the son of Herakles is slain at the Isthmus of Corinth while fighting in single combat against Echemus Cyclopean defensive Wall built at Isthmus of Corinth c.1220-1200 BC.
1201 Helen is abducted by Paris. Indications of Invasion of Mycenae by people from Central Asia c.1200-1190 BC. Serious destruction at Mycenae c.1200 BC.
1199 First Gathering at Aeolis
1191 Second Gathering at Aeolis. The attempted sacrifice of Iphigenia. Inscriptions bearing the name Iphimedeia found at Knossos
1191 The siege of Troy begins. (Jerome) Troy VIIA destroyed c.1200 BC
Jan 12 1183 Total solar eclipse over Aegean/Anatolia
May 1182 The capture of Troy (Diodorus, Parian Marble, Eusebius/Hellancicus; 12 Thargelion/11 May 1182)
1181-1171 The Odyssey. A massive tidal wave swamps the Aegean and reaches Cyprus in c.1200 BC
1181 Agapenor becomes king of Paphos in Cyprus
1181 The return and murder of Agamemnon (Jerome/Eusebius, Graves; 13 Gamelion/2 February 1181)
April 16 1178 The suitors vie for Penelope Total solar eclipse over Aegean
1177 Odysseus held captive by Calypso
1176 Teucer founds Salamis in Cyprus (Parian Marble)
1174 The vengeance of Orestes against Cytemnestra and Aegistheus
1174-1172 Orestes is pursued by the Erinnyes
1174 Meneleus flees Egypt (Apollodorus E6.29) Ramses III expels Sea-Peoples from Egypt in 1175 BC
1172 Orestes kills Aletes son of Aegistheus grandson of Thyestes after he usurps the throne when Orestes ends his search for Iphigenia
1171 Odysseus returns to Ithaca. Hermes fathers Pan by Penelope
1158 Odysseus is accidentally killed by his son Telegonus
1156 Orestes is told by the Delphi Oracle to move from Mycenae to Arcadia and is killed by a snakebite while building a new settlement.
1156 Tisamenus the son of Orestes rules over the Peloponnese
1151 The Herakilds resume their attacks on Mycenae fifty years on. Indications of serious destruction of houses outside walls of Mycenae c.1150 BC
1151 Autesion expelled from Thebes and defects to the Heraklids.
1151 The Pelasgians and Thracians capture Thebes
1148 Demophon dies in Cyprus when he is thrown off his horse
1130 The Cadmians return to Thebes and expel the Pelasgians who then flee to Athens.
1127 Xanthus the last king of Thebes is killed in a duel with Andropompus or Melanthus who becomes king of Athens.
May 18 1124 Tisamenus the son of Orestes rules over Mycenae at the time of the first Aeolian migration. Penthilus the son of Orestes seizes Lesbos. Total solar eclipse over Aegean
1111 The first Dorian fleet is sunk at Naupactus
1101
The Heraklids defeat Tisamenus the son of Orestes and conquer the Peloponnese. Indications of Invasion of Mycenae by people from Central Asia c. 1100 BC. Attack on Asia Minor by Tiglath-Pileser I king of Assyria in 1110 BC who names the God Herakles in his inscription

1101 BC The last of the five ages of mankind the Iron age



 

The Spartan Archaic Age

1101 In a rigged lottery Eurysthenes and Procles the sons of Aristodemus win Sparta and Cresphontes gets to rule Messenia and Temenus wins the rule of Argos.
1101 The Ionians flee the Spartan onslaught and seek refugee in Athens.

1090 Codrus succeeds Melanthus as king of Athens. The Palasgians are expelled from Athens and flee to Lemnos where they expel the Minyae. These Minyae help Theras colonise the island of Thera named after him.
1069 Medon succeeds Codrus and reduces the archonship to a maximum duration of 10 years. The Athenians found colonies with the Ionians in Caria and other parts of Asia led by Neileus the son of Codrus and Philistus the son of Pasicles

1062 Cresphontes is murdered and the sons of Aristodemus help his youngest son Aeyptus win back the throne

1059 Patreus the son of Preugenes founds city of Patrae in Achaea.
1050 Gras the son of Echelas son of Penthilus occupies Aeolis.

1027 Echestratus removes all the Cynurians of military age, alleging as a reason that freebooters from the Cynurian territory were harrying Argolis.
993 Labotas becomes king of Sparta
977 Sparta makes war against the Argives for annexing the Cynurian territory, which the Spartans had captured, and causing revolts among their subjects the Perioeci.
956-882 Peace in Sparta.

916 Hesiod is famous

880 Homer writes his poems.
881
Charillus is made a ward of Lycurgus.

870 Eumelus writes the history of Corinth
865
Charillus devastates the land of the Argives and helps Archelaus to destroy Aegys then campaigns against Tegea in vain.
860 Lycurgus collects together the works of Homer.

860 Phidon I becomes tyrant of Argos
823
Teleclese conquers and reduces Amyclae, Pharis, and Geranthrae, cities of the Perioeciis
783 Teleclese is murdered by the Messenians in the sanctuary of Artemis

776 The Olympics is revived at Elis in the 10th year of Theopompus

762 The provocation for the first Messenian war occurs when Euaephnus murders the son of Polychares in a dispute over stolen cattle and Polychares takes revenge on the Spartans
756 Androcles is murdered and Antiochus rules Messenia alone but soon dies and his son Euphaes is king.

756 The Spartans attack Ampheia. The first Messenian war starts.

752 Polydorus becomes king of Sparta.
736 The first Messenian war ends

735 Perdikkas flees from Argos to Macedonia and conquers the land
734
Polydorus sends colonists to Italy
723-713
Hippomenes archon of Athens kills his daughters adulterer by yoking him up to his chariot and then locks his daughter up with a horse until she dies

719 Polydorus the king of Sparta is murdered by Polymarchus

716 The reign of the Heraklids over Lydia is ended when Candaules known as Myrsilus to the Greeks is murdered by Gyges because of his wife’s anger
700 The Athenian navy is defeated by the Aegentans who then begin trading with Arcadia

685 The second Messenian war begins
683 Creon is first yearly Archon of Athens

665 The second Messenian war ends

656 Cypsilus subjects Corinth to tyranny
645-560 Spartan wars with Tegea all unsuccessful
632 Battus establishes a Greek colony in Lybia
632 Cylon attempts to subject Athens to tyranny

626 The tyranny in Corinth is continued by Periander
618
Arion is rescued from being drowned by pirates by a Dolphin
615 Phidon becomes tyrant of Argos
593 Solon reforms the Athenian constitution and departs

28 May 585 A total Solar Eclipse predicted by Thales the Milesisan brings an end to the war between the Lydian’s and Medes

570 Solon visits the court of Ahmose II

560 The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi advises Anaxandridus and Ariston to find the bones of Orestes and rebury them to obtain success in their battles. The Spartans win the war with Tegea

 

The Athenian Classical Age



560 Peisistratus seizes power in Athens and begins a 49 year long tyranny under his and his sons rule

546 Cyrus takes Lydia and harshly treats the Ionian and Achaean colonies who fought alongside Croesus
540 Pythagoras teaches mathematics and philosophy

507 Clisthenes leads the people Athens

490 The Persians are defeated at the Battle of Marathon

480 The Battle of Salamis is won by the Greeks and the Athenian Golden Age begins

447 The Parthenon is built
440 Herodotus writes his histories

431 The Peloponnesian War begins

411 Evagoras captures Tyre  

404 The Peloponnesian War ends in defeat for Athens

399 Socrates is sentenced to death

371 The Thebans defeat Sparta and restore the Messenians to their homeland

362 Phillip II becomes king of Macedonia

338 Phillip II conquers Greece

 

The Hellenistic Age



336 Phillip II is assassinated and Alexander III succeeds to the throne and begins his conquest of Persia

332 Alexander conquers Egypt

330 Alexander conquers Persia

323 Alexander dies of malaria in Babylon

321 Seleucus Nikator rules over Syria

305 Ptolemy Soter becomes Pharaoh of Egypt and subdues Palestine

301 Cassander allows the Thebans to return to Thebes
285
The Library of Alexandria is founded by Ptolemy II Philadelphos

279 The Gauls invade northern Greece
278 The Gauls invade Asia-Minor

262 The Septuagint is placed in the Library of Alexandria after Ptolemy II Philadelphos frees the Jews from slavery

236-225 The Spartans under Cleomenes win a decisive victory at Dyme over the Sicyonians under Aratus, who attacked him, and afterwards conclude a peace with the Achaeans and Antigonus king of Macedonia.

223 Antiochus Megas becomes king of Syria

222 Cleomenes breaks his oath and is defeated by the Achaeans under Antigonus.

222 Antigonus hands the rule of Macedonia to Philip, the son of Demetrius who attempts to subdue Greece. The Athenians unite with the barbarians and seek help from Rome.

218 Hannnibal annihilates the Greek colony of Saguntum in Iberia violating a treaty with Rome which results in the Romans declaring war, which lasts 16 years.

198 Antiochus Megas annexes Palestine to the Seleucid Empire and expels all the Egyptians and gives his daughter Cleopatra to Ptolemy and as dowry splits the revenues of Palestine with him.

197 Philip fighting against the Romans under Flamininus is worsted at the place called Dog's Heads.
192
The Spartan monarchy collapses and Sparta falls under Roman influence.

176 Antiochus Epiphanes becomes king of Syria.
170 Antiochus attacks Egypt and then secures Palestine.

168 Perseus the last king of Macedonia is defeated by the Romans.

168 Mattathias rebels against Antiochus who suppresses the rebellion after a year and builds a fortress in Jerusalem. Mattathias is killed and his Judas takes over his position as rebellion leader.

166 Antiochus embarks on a campaign to suppress an new rebellion in Judea. Lysias falls on Judea with 60,000 soldiers.

165 Judas Maccabee gains a limited victory in Jerusalem

164 Antiochus Epiphanes takes Egypt then dies while raiding the temple of Artemis in Persia. Antiochus Eupator succeeds him as king of Syria.

163 No crops are laid in Jerusalem and Judas attacks the citadel fortress. Certain Jews protest. Antiochus Eupator marches against Judas and lays siege to the temple.

163-162 Antiochus calls off the siege to engage Philip as he comes out of Persia. He makes peace with Judas but breaks his word. Meneleus is put to death after 10 years in office and Alcimus is made high priest

162 After reigning two years Antiochus is put to death by Demetrus son of Seleucs who comes out of Rome and takes Tripoli. Ader Nicanor is crushed

161 Bacchidies sent to fight Maccabee

158 Alcimus is high priest 4 years then dies of a stroke after attempting to pull down a sanctuary wall and Judas is made high priest by the people.

156 Judas dies after 3 years as high priest.

152 Alexander the son of Antiochus reigns opposing Demitrius. Jonathan Apphus the brother of Judas plays them both off against each other. Alexander takes Ptolomais. Jonathan is made king of Judea by Alexander.

151 Alexander is given Cleopatra to be his wife.

148 Demetrius dies after a reign of 11 years and Demitrius the son of Demitrius comes from Crete to take his place.

146 Demitrius is now given Cleopatra to be his wife and becomes king. Ptolemy Philometor dies.

146 Macedonia and Achaia are both made provinces of Rome.

144 Simon Thassi becomes high priest and takes three years to level the citadel fortress.

143 Demitrius exempts Judea from Taxation.

142 Simon captures the Gazara citadel. Trypho kills young Antiochus Dionysus son of Alexander who reigns 4 years. Trypho flees.

141 Demitrius marches into Media to make war on Trypho and is captured by Asaces king of the Medes and Persians. Simon makes an alliance with Rome

138 After 3 years Trypho is captured and put to death by Antiochus Euergetes son of Demetrius. Antiochus reigns uneasy at misery brought by Simon

136 Simon is murdered by Ptolemy son of Ababus after reigning 8 years.

135 Antiochus Euergetes (or Sidetes) invades Judea in the first year off of Hyrcanus and takes back Joppa, and the havens, and Gazara, and the springs of Jordan, and the several other cities. Hyrcanus renews the alliance with Rome.

129 Demetrius returns to power

125 Alexander Zebina supported by Ptolemy Physcon (Euergetes) defeats Demetrius in battle. Demetrius flees to Ptolemais then Tyre where he is caught and slain.
123 Alexander Zebina makes a league with Hyrcanus but is defeated in battle by Antiochus Grypos.

121 Antiochus Sidetes dies.

121 Antiochus Grypos brother Antiochus Cyzicenus raises an army and the two continue at war for many years.

116 Hyrcanus takes the temple in Samaria 200 years after it was built and utterly demolishes it.

107 Ptolemy Lathyrus (Soter) takes Cyprus after being ousted from the government of Egypt by Cleopatra his mother

106 Aristobalus reigns in Judea 481 years and 3 months after the Babylonian captivity and makes Judea into a kingdom but dies shortly after.

105 Alexander Janneus rules over Judea.

96 Alexander Janneus besieges Ptolemais and Gaza but lifts the siege fearing intervention by Ptolemy Lathyrus.

96 Alexander tries to dupe Ptolemy with a false alliance but is found out and Ptolemy sets out to lay waste to Judea.

96 Alexander Janneus raises an army of 50 or 80 thousand men to meet Ptolemy but is utterly defeated near Saphoth on the river Jordan.

95 Cleopatra sends troops into Judea and Syria and her son Alexander with a fleet to Phoenicia to go after Ptolemy, but Ptolemy sets off for Egypt and is eventually driven back.

90 Alexander Janneus own people fall out with him and send for Demetrius III Eucerus who defeats him.

88 Mithridates Eupator Dionysus of Pontus rebels against the Romans

87 Demetrius departs out of Judea and besieges his brother Philip at Berea but is captured and sent to Mithridates Sinax in Parthia where he dies.

87 Antiochus Eucerus makes and expedition against Judea and falls to the Arabian king Aretas. Arems is then placed over Celesyria.
87 Mithridates Eupator sends Archeleus to Greece to gain allies and restores Delos and other provinces which had revolted to Athens. Aristion of Athens sides with Archeleus and becomes master of the land. The Achaeans, Spartans and all of Boeotia except Thespiae side with Mithridates against the Romans.
84 Arems attacks Judea and defeats Alexander Janneus but retreats after coming to an agreement.

83 Tigranes, the king of Armenia, takes Syria with five hundred thousand soldiers.

81 Alexander Janneus takes over two dozen cites after warring for three years and dies three years later.

69 Antiochus Asiaticus restores the Seleucids to power.

65 Sextus Caesar and Pompey conquer Syria.

64 The Seleucid empire falls to Rome.

51 Cleopatra rules over Egypt with Ptolemy XIII.

47 Ptolemy XIII is murdered by Cleopatra and Julius Caesar.

44 Julius Caesar is murdered.

30 Cleopatra and Marcus Antonius commit suicide after they are defeated by Octavian.

 

12/13. Major events/people/places/insiders knowledge:



There are several main gods, known as the Olympians that govern certain domains. Each domain represents an area that the Greeks found very important. The Gods were viewed as wrathful and vengeful. They were to be feared and revered. Several myths deal with historical accounts that are factually based and contain many real people and places. Other myths are based on parables, or stories that are meant to teach a moral or lesson. Scientific myth were meant to explain natural occurrences.







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