|Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Master of Science in Information Technology
Advanced Organization of Database
Herminiño C. Lagunzad
In the open-source world, much has been made about the need for a full-featured, robust and reliable database that can handle substantial loads and yet be able to play well with such open-source tools as Perl and PHP. The two main contenders are PostgreSQL and MySQL, but a new arrival in this arena is the Firebird RDBMS. It offers a substantial feature set, a mature code base and a proven track record in its previous incarnation as the Borland InterBase RDBMS. As discussed later in this article, Firebird provides a lot of the features available in commercial databases, including stored procedures, triggers, hot backups (backups while the database is running) and replication. As with many mature products, Firebird carries some amount of legacy baggage, which can be a bit confusing to a new user. So before we plunge into exploring the features this database provides, let us look at some common issues that may confront a new user.
Firebird originally started its life as the Borland InterBase database. As the product reached version 6.0, Borland decided Borland the product was going to be aged out, and so the code was released under an open-source license. Later on, however, Borland apparently had a change of mind about aging out the product. To this day, internally, Borland continues to develop the InterBase database, with the latest version being 7.1. Firebird 1.0 essentially was the open-source code behind InterBase 6.0. As of this writing, the first major development effort of the Firebird branch is Firebird 1.5.
For the new user, Firebird has two confusing aspects. First, the database is available in two flavors; second, various flavors of SQL dialects can be used, each carrying its own implications. Let's first look at the architecture issue and then move on to the SQL dialects as they relate to Firebird SQL.
As noted, the Firebird database comes in two variations, classic server and super server. Classic server is the original architecture behind the database. In the classic architecture, a separate process is spawned off for every connection made to the database, with the help of the inetd or the xinted dæmon. When there are few database connections, classic server uses less resources than does the super server architecture.
The super server architecture has been slated as the future direction in which the Firebird database will develop. It is a multi-threaded, multi-client architecture that requires few resources when additional connections are spawned off. Resource allocation and lock management are much more efficient in the super server architecture, because separate processes do not have to wait for others to finish before they can be addressed. One issue for the programmer to take into consideration when writing against a super server is any user-defined functions, including any external program that interacts with the super server database, needs to be thread safe. For those familiar with Oracle's architecture, an easy way to look at the connections' allocation is that classic is akin to dedicated connections while super server is more like the shared connection allocation system.
Another aspect of this database that might confuse the new user is the three separate dialects of SQL that Firebird offers. Dialects pertain mostly to the date-time format and the precision of a numerical data type. A good rule of thumb: if you are not familiar with the different dialects of Firebird, go with dialect 3. This dialect not only conforms closely to the latest ANSI SQL specification, it also should be familiar to users of Sybase and MySQL. Dialects are set up at runtime and can be changed for the client at connection time or with a set sql dialect command.
Statement of the problem
Firebird itself provides no built-in encryption features.
Does not support Microsoft Visual Basic .net programming language.
Android OS not supported.
Does not have password complexity rules.
Partitioning Methods not supported.
What Author Say
Why Data Encryption is Important?
By: Alertsec Xpress, May 2011
As the technology is upgrading day by day, people are getting more involved to their work and they have very little time for the things which seem negligible at the starting but can be very dangerous in future. In today’s world 99% people are more interested in sending and receiving data through internet and mobile data storage devices. But among those 995 people 90% people do not encrypt their data though they know that the data contains personal information and the chances of data lose or hacking is very high.
Sending data through internet has high chances of getting hacked. Because the number of hackers are increasing in a rapid rate day by day and those hackers are so efficient in their job that they can easily hack the unencrypted data from the internet. And if those hacked data contains any sort of personal information then they can misuse those data, even they can make some criminal offenses by using those data and without doing anything wrong you will become a criminal. At the time of sending data through internet lot of people can easily access your data if your data is not encrypted.
Another importance of data encryption is that is helps to protect your computer from viruses. Though you may think that your computer/ laptop is protected enough because of the anti-virus and router you are using, but remember keeping your data safe from the hackers is not that easy. And if your computer becomes virus affected, then any other computer presents in your office or home can be easily affected by the virus.
Now internet is available in the hostels, cyber cafe, hotels and those connections have no protection. So the data can easily be hacked of accessed by some other person.
And data encryption also helps to protect the data of different mobile data storage devices. As the data storage devices sometimes contain personal or sensible data, so the loss of any storage device can be very harmful for us. Because any one can misuse those data. But we will keep our data encrypted then we will be sure that no one can misuse those data.
These are the main reason behind the data encryption. Data encryption not only keeps our data safe but also helps us to be tension free.
By: Robert Bouchie et al, July 2006
Encryption is the conversion of data into a form, called a ciphertext, that cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form, so it can be understood.
The use of encryption/decryption is as old as the art of communication. In wartime, a cipher, often incorrectly called a code, can be employed to keep the enemy from obtaining the contents of transmissions. (Technically, a code is a means of representing a signal without the intent of keeping it secret; examples are Morse code and ASCII.) Simple ciphers include the substitution of letters for numbers, the rotation of letters in the alphabet, and the "scrambling" of voice signals by inverting the sideband frequencies. More complex ciphers work according to sophisticated computer algorithms that rearrange the data bits in digital signals.
In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal, the correct decryption key is required. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. Alternatively, a computer can be used in an attempt to break the cipher. The more complex the encryption algorithm, the more difficult it becomes to eavesdrop on the communications without access to the key.
Encryption/decryption is especially important in wireless communications. This is because wireless circuits are easier to tap than their hard-wired counterparts. Nevertheless, encryption/decryption is a good idea when carrying out any kind of sensitive transaction, such as a credit-card purchase online, or the discussion of a company secret between different departments in the organization. The stronger the cipher -- that is, the harder it is for unauthorized people to break it -- the better, in general. However, as the strength of encryption/decryption increases, so does the cost.
In recent years, a controversy has arisen over so-called strong encryption. This refers to ciphers that are essentially unbreakable without the decryption keys. While most companies and their customers view it as a means of keeping secrets and minimizing fraud, some governments view strong encryption as a potential vehicle by which terrorists might evade authorities. These governments, including that of the United States, want to set up a key-escrow arrangement. This means everyone who uses a cipher would be required to provide the government with a copy of the key. Decryption keys would be stored in a supposedly secure place, used only by authorities, and used only if backed up by a court order. Opponents of this scheme argue that criminals could hack into the key-escrow database and illegally obtain, steal, or alter the keys. Supporters claim that while this is a possibility, implementing the key escrow scheme would be better than doing nothing to prevent criminals from freely using encryption/decryption.
Why encryption is important to data security?
By: Simon Rice, August 2013
Storing any personal information is inherently risky. By recording it, you risk losing it, and that risks upsetting people, and no-one likes upsetting people. But quite often, if you don’t store personal data, you can’t provide a proper service. And that risks upsetting people too.
This is why, if you are collecting personal information, you must make sure you are looking after it in a safe and secure manner.
In order to do this effectively action must be taken to reduce the risks of inappropriate disclosure. Given that a large amount of data can now be stored on something as small as a Smartphone or tablet PC, there is a real danger that personal information could be compromised should such a device end up being lost or stolen.
Using appropriate encryption can be a simple and effective means to protect personal data in these circumstances, and one which we advise all organizations to take if the loss of the data could cause damage and distress to the individuals affected. However evidence shows that data controllers are still not addressing the problem.
This blog article aims to provide you with a useful insight into how encryption works and the encryption options available to you and your organization to help you keep personal information secure.