Table extinct and Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) avian taxa



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Assumption Rail Dryolimnas cuvieri abbotti

Assumption, Seychelles

1923 (1908–1937)

The taxon was still abundant in 1908 (Fryer 1911), but extinct by 1937 (Taylor and Van Perlo 1998).

LC / EX




Ascension Crake Mundia elpenor

Ascension I, St Helena

1656

The only record comes from 1656. It probably went extinct due to predation by introduced rats (Rattus spp.) (Ashmole 1963).

EX




St Helena Crake Atlantisia podarces

St Helena

1502

The species presumably became extinct soon after the discovery of the island in 1502 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Jamaican Crake Amaurolimnas concolor concolor

Jamaica

1881

The taxon is thought to have declined rapidly following Small Asian Mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) introduction in 1872, and was last recorded in Jamaica in 1881 (Taylor 1996).

LC / EX




Miller's Rail Porzana nigra

Tahiti, French Polynesia

1784

The species is known from illustrations by Miller from 1784 (although these are sometimes considered to refer to Spotless Crake), and it presumably became extinct soon after this (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




St Helena Rail Porzana astrictocarpus

St Helena

1502

The species presumably became extinct soon after the discovery of the island in 1502 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Laysan Rail Porzana palmeri

NW Hawaiian Is, USA

1944

The population on Laysan became extinct between 1923 and 1936. Black rats (Rattus rattus), brought in by wartime activities, exterminated the introduced populations on Sand Island in 1943 and Eastern Island in 1944 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Hawaiian Rail Porzana sandwichensis

Hawaiian Is, USA

1884

The last specimen was collected in 1864, and the last report was in 1884 (or possibly 1893) (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Kosrae Crake Porzana monasa

Kosrae, Micronesia

1853 (1827–1878)

The only two known specimens were collected in 1827–1828. The species declined to extinction over the next half-century following the arrival of rats (Rattus spp.) from missionary and whaling ships in the 1830s and 1840s (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Reunion Gallinule Porphyrio coerulescens

Réunion

1730

Extinct by around 1730. Known only from travellers’ descriptions (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




New Caledonia Gallinule Porphyrio kukwiedei

Grande Terre, New Caledonia

1860

The only historical record of the species is a passage from Verreaux and Des Murs written in 1860, noting the presence of birds the size of turkeys in marshy areas (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Rallidae cont.

White Gallinule Porphyrio albus

Lord Howe I, Australia

1812 (1790–1834)

Not uncommon when discovered in 1790, this species had probably already vanished by the time the island was colonised in 1834 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




North Island Takahe Porphyrio mantelli

North I, New Zealand

1894

The species is known from subfossils from a number of archaeological sites, and from one possible 1894 record (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Tristan Island Cock Gallinula nesiotis nesiotis

Tristan da Cunha, St Helena

1890 (1873–1906)

Reports from the Challenger expedition of 1873 suggest it was extant (Beintema 1972), but villagers contacted on the Valhalla expedition in 1906 said it was no longer present (Nicoll 1906).

VU / EX




Mascarene Coot Fulica newtoni

Mascarenes

1693

Last reported on Réunion by Dubois in 1672, and on Mauritius by Leguat in 1693 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Turnicidae

New Caledonia Buttonquail Turnix varius novaecaledoniae

Grande Terre, New Caledonia

1930 (1912–1947)

The last known individual was taken by Saracin in 1912. Warner's surveys were unsuccessful (Warner 1947), as was more recent fieldwork (Ekstrom et al. 2002), though as neither were comprehensive it is best considered Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

LC / CR(PE)

Haematopodidae

Canary Islands Oystercatcher Haematopus meadewaldoi

E Canary Is, Spain

1945 (1913–1950)

The species was last collected in 1913 and locally reported to have become extinct by the 1940s (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Scolopacidae

Stewart Snipe Coenocorypha aucklandica iredalei

Stewart I, New Zealand

1964

Only two snipe were found after the accidental introduction of black rats (Rattus rattus) onto the subspecies's final refuge on Stewart Island in 1964. Both were taken into captivity but died soon after (Tennyson and Martinson 2006).

NT / EX




Barrier Snipe Coenocorypha aucklandica barrierensis

Little Barrier I, New Zealand

1875 (1870–1880)

The taxon is known only from a specimen collected in 1870 (Piersma et al. 1996). It is thought to have gone extinct during the 1870s (Tennyson and Martinson 2006).

NT / EX




Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis

Americas

1963

The last irrefutable record is of a specimen collected in Barbados in 1963. There have been numerous unconfirmed reports since, especially between 1981 and 2006, and so the species is best considered Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) (BirdLife International 2011).

CR(PE)




White-winged Sandpiper Prosobonia ellisi

Moorea, French Polynesia

1777

Known only from a specimen collected in 1777, the species was presumably was driven to extinction by introduced rats (Rattus spp.) in the late 18th century (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Kiritimati Sandpiper Prosobonia cancellata cancellata

Kiritimati, Kiribati

1831 (1789–1873)

The taxon is only known from its first recording in 1789 (Walters 1993). The first thorough ornithological survey of Kiritimati, in 1873–1875, found none (Streets 1877).

EN / EX




Tahitian Sandpiper Prosobonia leucoptera

Tahiti, French Polynesia

1777

The last specimen, now lost, was taken by Forster and Anderson in 1777 (Greenway 1967).

EX

Alcidae

Great Auk Pinguinus impennis

N Atlantic

1852

The last known pair were killed on Eldey I, Iceland, in 1844, and the last live bird was seen off the Newfoundland Banks in 1852 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Pteroclididae

Fayyum Sandgrouse Pterocles exustus floweri

Fayyum area, Egypt

1995 (1979–1995)

The last sighting was of 10 birds between Isna and Idfu in March 1979 (De Juana 1997) and the species is likely to have gone extinct since. However, further searches are required to confirm this, and the taxon is best considered Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

LC / CR(PE)

Raphidae

Dodo Raphus cucullatus

Mauritius

1662

The species probably went extinct on mainland Mauritius in the early 1930s (Mlíkovský 2004), but the last record is of birds killed on Ile d’Ambre in 1662. These were probably the last individuals of the species (Cheke 2006).

EX




Rodrigues Solitaire Pezophaps solitaria

Rodrigues, Mauritius

1770 (1761–1778)

Pingré was informed of the birds' presence in 1761, but Morel reported in 1778 that they were certainly extinct (Cheke 1987).

EX

Columbidae

St Helena Dove Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos

St Helena

1502

The species presumably became extinct soon after the discovery of the island in 1502 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Reunion Pigeon Columba duboisi

Réunion

1674

The species was described in 1674 and is likely to have gone extinct in the early 1700s (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Madeiran Wood-pigeon Columba palumbus maderensis

Madeira, Portugal

1912 (1900–1924)

The taxon’s extinction is dated as early 20th century by Fuller (2000). None were found in a survey in May 1924 (Meinertzhagen 1925).

LC / EX




Lord Howe Pigeon Columba vitiensis godmanae

Lord Howe I, Australia

1861 (1853–1869)

This subspecies is recognised here contra Dickinson (2003), following Schodde and Mason (1997). It was last recorded in 1853 and almost certainly extinct by 1869 (McAllan et al. 2004).

LC / EX




Bonin Wood-pigeon Columba versicolor

Ogasawara Is, Japan

1889

The species was last recorded in 1889 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Ryukyu Pigeon Columba jouyi

Ryukyu Is, Japan

1936

It was last seen on the Daito Islands in 1936. In the 1960s it was believed to possibly survive on isolated islets, but it there have been no further sightings and it is clearly extinct (Brazil 1991).

EX




Amirante Turtle-dove Nesoenas picturata aldabrana

Amirante Is, Seychelles

1974

Small numbers persisted until at least 1974, but the population has since been swamped through hybridisation with the introduced nominate subspecies (Baptista et al. 1997). It is now considered extinct (Skerrett and Disley 2011).

LC / EX




Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius

N America

1905 (1900–1910)

The last reliable specimen came from Ohio in 1900. A two-year search was carried out beginning in 1910, to determine whether the species was extinct in the wild. It found no evidence for its persistence (Blockstein and Tordoff 1985). The last captive bird died in 1914 in the Cincinnati Zoo (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Socorro Dove Zenaida graysoni

Socorro, Mexico

1972

The last sighting in the wild was in 1972 (BirdLife International 2011).

EW




Liverpool Pigeon Caloenas maculata

Tahiti, French Polynesia

1928 (1783–1928)

The species is only known from the type specimen, collected sometime between 1783 and 1823. It is thought to have come from Tahiti, based on local accounts from 1928 which match the description of the species (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Norfolk Island Ground-dove Gallicolumba norfolciensis

Norfolk Island

1820 (1800–1840)

The species was present in 1800 (Hindwood 1965), but not detected in 1840 (Moore 1985).

EX




Tuamotu Ground-dove Gallicolumba erythroptera pectoralis

S Tuamotu Is, French Polynesia

1961 (1922–1999)

This subspecies is recognised following Gibbs et al. (2001) and contra Dickinson (2003) because the type specimens considered sufficiently distinctive to warrant subspecies status by BirdLife International. In 1922, a specimen was collected at Tuanake and six at Hiti (Holyoak and Thibault 1984). It is treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) because of uncertainty over the taxonomic affinity of some extant birds, but seems to have not been recorded since, including searches in 1999 (Blanvillain et al. 2002).

CR / CR(PE)




Tanna Ground-dove Gallicolumba ferruginea

Tanna, Vanuatu

1774

Known only from Forster's 1774 painting (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Thick-billed Ground-dove Gallicolumba salamonis

Makira, Solomon Islands

1961 (1927–1995)

The species has not been recorded since a specimen was taken in 1927. Surveys, the first of which was in 1995, have been unsuccessful in relocating it (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Choiseul Pigeon Microgoura meeki

Choiseul, Solomon Islands

1904

The species was last recorded in 1904. Reports from the 1940s are not thought to be accurate. It is now considered Extinct (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Columbidae cont.

Hiva Oa Red-moustached Fruit-dove Ptilinopus mercierii tristrami

Hiva Oa, French Polynesia

1922

At least 11 specimens are known, the last of which was collected by the Whitney Expedition in 1922 (Holyoak and Thibault 1984). Reports from Hiva Oa in 1980 were presumably mistaken (Collar et al. 1994).

EX / EX




Nuku Hiva Red-moustached Fruit-dove Ptilinopus mercierii mercierii

Nuku Hiva, French Polynesia

1849 (1836–1922)

The taxon is known only from the type specimen collected during the Venus voyage of 1836–1839, and was not found during the Whitney Expedition of 1922 (Holyoak and Thibault 1984). Its date of extinction is estimated at 1849 (A. Gouniin litt. 2011).

EX / EX




Rodrigues Blue-pigeon Alectroenas rodericana

Rodrigues, Mauritius

1726

It was last recorded by Tafforet in 1726 (Cheke 1987).

EX




Mauritius Blue-pigeon Alectroenas nitidissima

Mauritius

1835 (1832–1837)

It was reported to still be present by Desjardins (1832), but was extinct by the mid-1930s (Cheke 1987).

EX




Negros Spotted Imperial-pigeon Ducula carola nigrorum

Visayas, Philippines

1970 (1950–1991)

The taxon was reported as common on Negros as recently as the 1950s (Ripley and Rabor 1956). However, it was not found in surveys of the island in 1991 (Brooks et al. 1992, Evans et al. 1993). It is likely to also be extinct on Siquijor (BirdLife International 2011), but further surveys are required to confirm this and so it is best treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

VU / CR(PE)




Norfolk Island Pigeon Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea

Norfolk Island

1904 (1900–1908)

It was last recorded in 1900 (Schodde et al. 1983), and not seen in a 1908 survey (Hull 1909).

NT / EX

Psittacidae

Norfolk Island Kaka Nestor productus

Norfolk Island

1870

The species went extinct in the wild in the mid-19th century on Norfolk Island, although it may have persisted a little longer on nearby Phillip Island. The last recorded living bird was in captivity in London in 1851(Garnett et al. 2011). It was not recorded on searches of the island in 1908 (Hull 1909).

EX




Siquijor Hanging-parrot Loriculus philippensis siquijorensis

Siquijor, Philippines

1950 (1900–2000)

The taxon disappeared during the 20th century (Fuller 2000). Claims from the early 1990s suggest it may survive although they are probably more likely to refer to a different race introduced by the pet trade. This slight uncertainty means it is better considered Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

LC / CR(PE)




Rodrigues Parrot Necropsittacus rodericanus

Rodrigues, Mauritius

1761

Last reported in 1763 based on observations from 1761, the species was presumably hunted to extinction soon after (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Sangihe Red-and-blue Lory Eos histrio histrio

Sangihe Is, Indonesia

1999 (1985–1999)

Was 'very uncommon' in 1985 (Nash 1993). There were many local reports in the mid-1990s, but by 1999 locals thought it gone from the last remaining site and 10 months’ worth of fieldwork had failed to find it (BirdLife International 2001). The race is now thought to be probably extinct (BirdLife International 2011), but is best treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) as some uncertainty remains.

EN / CR(PE)




Raiatea Parakeet Cyanoramphus ulietanus

Raiatea, French Polynesia

1773

Known from two specimens collected in 1773 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Macquarie Parakeet Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae erythrotis

Macquarie I, Australia

1892 (1890–1894)

In 1894 no birds had been reported for two years. The last definitive record seems to be an observation in 1890 (Taylor 1979). Surveys by Hamilton (1894) found none.

VU / EX




Lord Howe Parakeet Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae subflavescens

Lord Howe I, Australia

1870 (1869–1887)

One pair was collected in 1869. Consensus is that the taxon went extinct around 1870 (Hindwood 1940) and it was not recorded in surveys in 1887 (Etheridge 1888) or subsequently.

VU / EX
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