1. 1 Purpose and Scope of unimarc 7 2 Format Maintenance 7


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Field Definition

This field contains fixed-length coded data applicable to records of materials in any media.


Mandatory. Not repeatable.


 Indicator 1:  blank (not defined)

 Indicator 2:  blank (not defined)


$a General Processing Data

All data entered in $a is identified by character position within the subfield. Conventionally the character positions are numbered from 0 to 35. The character positions defined must appear in the subfield. Not repeatable.

Name of Data Element Number of Characters Character Positions

Date Entered on File (Mandatory) 8 0 7

Type of Publication Date 1 8

Publication Date 1 4 9 12

Publication Date 2 4 13 16

Target Audience Code 3 17 19

Government Publication Code 1 20

Modified Record Code 1 21

Language of Cataloguing (Mandatory) 3 22 24

Transliteration Code 1 25

Character Set (Mandatory) 4 26 29

Additional Character Set 4 30 33

Script of Title 2 34 35

Notes on Field Contents

$a/0-7 Date entered on file

Eight numeric characters in ISO standard form (ISO 8601-1988) for dates: YYYY MMDD where YYYY represents the year, MM the month with leading 0 if necessary and DD the day of the month with leading 0 if necessary.

The date will usually be the date when the record was originally created and entered into machine-readable form, to give some idea of the age of the record. A record corrected because of errors in keying or editing will not have a change of date. On exchange, the record should also retain its original date.

EX 1: Character positions 0-7: 19671005

The record was originally entered into a machine-readable data file on 5th October 1967.

$a/8-16  Type of Publication Date; Publication Dates 1 and 2

A one-character code indicates the type of date according to eleven categories which take into account the issuing status of the item being recorded. This code defines the types of dates which appear in Publication Date 1 (character positions 9-12) and Publication Date 2 (character position 13-16). These dates are always entered as a four character representation of the year.

Note: It may not be possible always to provide blanks as required for dates from source formats where any digit has been supplied as an approximation in a corresponding field.

Related field: the date of publication is also entered in field 210, Publication, Distribution, etc.; the date of coverage if different from the date of publication may be entered in field 122 Time Period of Item Content (see EX 4 in field 122)

a  =  currently published continuing resource

Publication date 1 contains the beginning year of publication or coverage if coverage differs from publication (EX 1). If the beginning date is uncertain, any unknown digit may contain a blank (EX 2).

Publication date 2 contains 9999.

b  =  continuing resource no longer being published

Publication date 1 contains the beginning year of publication or coverage if coverage differs from publication. If the beginning date is uncertain, any unknown digit may contain a blank.

Publication date 2 contains the year publication ceased (EX 3). For works known to have ceased but whose final date is uncertain, any unknown digit may contain a blank. (EX 4)

c  =  continuing resource of unknown status

A continuing resource about which it is not known whether publication is continuing or whether publication has ceased (EX 5).

Publication date 1 contains the beginning year of publication or coverage if coverage differs from publication. If the beginning date is uncertain, any unknown digit may contain a blank.

Publication date 2 contains four blanks.

d  =  monograph complete when issued, or issued within one calendar year

A monograph published in one volume/part or in a number of volumes/parts all published at one time or with the same date of publication, i.e. published within the same calendar year (EX 6-9). If the date is uncertain use code 'f'. If the monograph was published over a span use code 'g'.

Publication date 1 contains the date of publication.

Publication date 2 contains blanks.

e  =  reproduction of a document

The item being catalogued is a reproduction, i.e. a reprint, facsimile, reissue, etc. but not a new edition (EX 10). If the reproduction is of a continuing resource, or if either the original or the reproduction was published over a span of years, the beginning year of reproduction and publication are used (EX 11).

Publication date 1 contains the date of publication of the reproduction.

Publication date 2 contains the date of publication of the original.

If either date is uncertain and cannot be expressed as a single year, any digit may be replaced by a blank (EX 12).

f  =  monograph, date of publication uncertain.

Publication date 1 contains the earliest possible date of publication.

Publication date 2 contains the latest possible date of publication (EX 13-16).

g  =  monograph whose publication continues for more than a year

Publication date 1 contains the beginning year of publication (EX 17-19). If the beginning year of publication is uncertain, any unknown digit may be replaced by a blank.

Publication date 2 contains the date of final publication (EX 17) or 9999 if publication is still in progress (EX 18). If the final date of publication is uncertain, the unknown digits contain blanks (EX 19).

h  =  monograph with both actual and copyright/privilege date

The item's date of publication differs from the copyright/privilege date quoted in the item (EX 20). If the date of publication is unknown, use 'd' (EX 8). Privilege is defined as a monopoly granted by a government body to an author or a bookseller for an edition over a fixed period of time.

Publication date 1 contains the date of publication.

Publication date 2 contains the copyright/privilege date.

i  =  monograph with both release/issue date and production date

Used for films, music, etc. when there is a gap between the production/recording of an item and its distribution/release (EX 21).

Publication date 1 contains the release/issue date.

Publication date 2 contains the production date.

j  =  document with detailed date of publication

Use when it is considered important to record the month (and possibly day) of publication (EX 22).

Publication date 1 contains the year of publication.

Publication date 2 contains the detailed date in the form "MMDD", with month and day right-justified with zero fill. If the day positions are not used, they hold blanks (EX 23).

k  =  monograph published in a certain year and printed in a different year

Most commonly found in antiquarian materials (EX 24, 25).

Publication date 1 contains the year of publication.

Publication date 2 contains the year of printing

u  =  date(s) of publication unknown

Use when no date at all can be assigned to the item (EX 26, 27).

Publication date 1 contains blanks.

Publication date 2 contains blanks.

EX 1: a19599999
A continuing resource was first published in 1959 and is still being published.

EX 2: a192#9999

A continuing resource was first published at a date somewhere between 1922 and 1925 and is still being published.

EX 3: bl8101860

A continuing resource began in 1810 and finished in 1860.

EX 4: b1890191#

A continuing resource began in 1890 and finished somewhere between 1910 and 1915.

EX 5: c1980####

A continuing resource began in 1980; but issues are no longer arriving and the publisher cannot be traced.

EX 6: d1750####

An item actually or probably published in 1750. The date may be recorded in subfield 210$d variously as 1750, [1750] or [1750?].

EX 7: d1972####

A monograph was published in three volumes in 1972.

EX 8: d1972####

An item where only the copyright date is known. Code 'h' is therefore not used.

EX 9: d1995####

An item with a publication date of 1416 according to the Muslim calendar, known to have been published in 1995 C.E.

EX 10: e19681952

A document originally published in 1952 was reprinted in 1968.

EX 11: e19561835

A continuing resource published from 1835 to 1914 was reprinted in 1956-1958.

EX 12: e1983183#

A book originally published in the 1830s (date uncertain) was reprinted in 1983.

EX 13: f19621966

A monograph has no date of publication but its contents reveal it was published no earlier than 1962 and it was acquired in 1966. It is assumed it was published between 1962 and 1966.

EX 14: f17801789

A monograph believed to have been published in the 1780s; the date is given in subfield 210$a as [178-?].

EX 15: f19941995

An item with an imprint date of 5755 according to the Jewish calendar; the precise year C.E. has not been determined; but it must be either 1994 or 1995.

EX 16: f####1510

The item was published in or before 1510.

EX 17: g19751976

A monograph was published in 3 volumes in 1975 and 1976.

EX 18: g19839999

A monograph is to be published in 5 volumes, the first in 1983 and the rest at future dates. The record is an open-ended record since the bibliographic details of the as yet unpublished volumes are not known.

EX 19: g1962196#

A monograph began publication in 1962. The date of the final volume is uncertain, but is believed to be 1968 or 1969.

EX 20: h19851983

A document published in 1985 has 1983 as copyright date.

EX 21: i19501943

A film made in 1943 but not released until 1950.

EX 22: j19850412

A technical report published 12 April 1985.

EX 23: j198511##

A report published in November 1985. The day of publication is not known or is considered unimportant.

EX 24: k15861587

210 ##$aRomae$cex officina Bartholomaei Grassi$d1586$eRomae$gapud Iacobum Ruffinellum$h1587
A document published in 1586 and printed in 1587.

EX 25: k15221521

210 ##$a[Milano]$capud fratres de Lignano ad signum Angeli$d1522 $eMediolani$gapud Iohannem Angelum Scinzenzeler$h1521 die XXX mensis Iulii.
A document published in 1522 and printed in 1521

EX 26: u########

200 1#$aViola Springs Limestone$bObject
300 ##$aMid-Ordovician
The item is a rock. Character positions 9-16 cannot be coded for a date range of 478 to 458 million years; so code 'u' is assigned.

EX 27: u########

210 ##$aParisii$cGourm$d[s.d.]
The record is the result of unedited retrospective conversion; it is not possible to derive even approximate dates from the data in the source file.

$a/17-19  Target Audience Code

There are three positions for target audience codes and they should be entered from left to right, any unused positions being filled with blanks.

a  =  juvenile, general

Use instead of b, c, d or e when these codes have not been used or cannot be used.

b  =  pre-primary, ages 0-5

c  =  primary, ages 5-10

d  =  children, ages 9-14

e  =  young adult, ages 14-20

k  =  adult, serious

m  =  adult, general

u  =  unknown

$a/20 Government Publication

A one-character code indicates whether the record is for a government publication or not and the level of government issuing the publication. A government publication is defined as one issued or financed by a government agency. Academic institutions are not to be regarded as government agencies.

a  =  federal/national

Sovereign states and territories with some measure of self-government, for example having their own legislature.

b  =  state/province

An administrative subdivision at one level below the federal or national level, having some measure of internal self-government and legislative control, though with no responsibility for external affairs, e.g. provinces of Canada, Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany.

c  =  county/department

A middle-level administrative subdivision, generally without any legislature, e.g. départements in France, counties in the United Kingdom.

d  =  local (municipal, etc.)

An administrative unit at the lowest level of jurisdiction, e.g. a city, town, or village.

e  =  multi-local (interstate departments, etc. below the national level)

Any administrative unit below the national level combining or crossing more than one jurisdiction, e.g. a joint computer unit which is shared by a number of municipal authorities or a transport authority that crosses several municipalities.

f  =  intergovernmental

International organisations and their agencies, e.g. those entities which are capable of making treaties with sovereign states such as the International Monetary Fund or the United Nations.

g  =  government in exile or clandestine

A non-official government such as the government of France in exile from 1941-1944.

h  =  level not determined

Used when the record is for a government publication but the level of government cannot be determined from the information at hand.

u  =  unknown

Used when it is impossible to determine whether the work is a government publication.

y  =  not a government publication

This code is entered in all cases when the document is not a government publication.

z  =  other government level

Used when the record is for a government publication at a particular level of government but this level does not fit into any of categories a-g.

$a/21 Modified Record Code

This one-character code indicates whether the character set available is sufficient to transcribe the data as found on the item. Due to limitations of the machine character set, the transcription may have to be modified to accommodate, for example, special scripts (i.e. by transliteration) or special mathematical formulae, e.g. a Greek letter or other notation written out in full. A record would not be considered modified, however, if the title page cannot be transcribed because it contains symbols or pictures which obviously would be found in no other character set.

0  =  unmodified record

1  =  modified record

$a/22-24  Language of Cataloguing (Mandatory)

A three-character code indicating the language used in cataloguing. For the list of codes see Appendix A. If a source record is completely multi-lingual, i.e. all information not from the title page is repeated in more than one language, it is recommended that a separate UNIMARC record should be produced, as required, for each language.

UNIMARC has no mechanism to denote the language of individual fields throughout the format.

$a/25 Transliteration Code

UNIMARC assumes the utilisation of international standards. However, in the area of conversion of scripts, international standards are not yet completely adequate, and other schemes may be used. This code indicates whether or not an ISO transliteration scheme is used in the record.

a  =  ISO transliteration scheme

b  =  other

c  =  multiple transliterations: ISO or other schemes

y  =  no transliteration scheme used

$a/26-29  Character Sets (Mandatory)

Two two-character codes designating the principal graphic character sets used in communication of the record. Positions 26-27 designate the G0 set and positions 28-29 designate the Gl set. If a Gl set is not needed, positions 28-29 contain blanks. For further explanation of character coding see Appendix J. The following two-character codes are to be used. They will be augmented as required.

01  =  ISO 646, IRV version (basic Latin set)

02  =  ISO Registration # 37 (basic Cyrillic set)

03  =  ISO 5426 (extended Latin set)

04  =  ISO 5427 (extended Cyrillic set)

05  =  ISO 5428 (Greek set)

06  =  ISO 6438 (African coded character set)

07  =  ISO 10586 (Georgian set)

08  =  ISO 8957 (Hebrew set) Table 1

09  =  ISO 8957 (Hebrew set) Table 2

10  =  [Reserved]

11  = ISO 5426-2 (Latin characters used in minor European languages and obsolete typography)

50  =  ISO 10646 Level 3 (Unicode, UTF-8)

Note that ISO 10646 contains all necessary characters. When positions 26-27 contain '50' this will be used for the C0, C1 and all G sets. Positions 28-33 will contain blanks.

$a/30-33 Additional Character Sets

Two two-character codes indicate up to two additional graphic character sets used in communication of the record. The two-character codes specified for character positions 26-29 are used. Positions 30-31 designate the G2 set and positions 32-33 designate the G3 set. If no additional character sets are needed the bytes contain blanks.

$a/34-35 Script of Title

A code indicating the script of the title used as the title proper. This refers to the script in the source item, not the character set of the record.

The following codes are recommended for use in UNIMARC. ISO codes have been developed in ISO 15924, but are not yet implemented in UNIMARC.

ba  =  Latin

ca  =  Cyrillic

da  =  Japanese – script unspecified

db  =  Japanese – kanji

dc  =  Japanese – kana

ea  =  Chinese

fa  =  Arabic

ga  =  Greek

ha  =  Hebrew

ia  =  Thai

ja  =  Devanagari

ka  =  Korean

la  =  Tamil

ma  =  Georgian

mb  =  Armenian

zz  =  Other

The script code is optional if the script is the usual one relating to the language found in field 101 $g or in the absence of subfield $g, $a.

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