Samuel Morse accomplished something that is rarely accomplished: he achieved fame and success in two widely differing areas. 16. his youth he studied art, and after graduation from Yale University he, in 1811, went on to London, 17. his early artistic endeavors met with acclaim. In London he was awarded the gold medal of the Adelphi Art Society for a clay figure of Hercules, and his paintings The Dying Hercules and The Judgment of Jupiter were selected for exhibition by the Royal Academy. Later in life, after returning to America, Morse became known 18. his portraits. His portraits of the Marquis de Lafayette are on exhibit in the New York City Hall and the New York Public library.
In addition to his artistic accomplishment, Morse is also known for his work developing the telegraph and 19. is known as Morse Code. He first had the idea of trying to develop the telegraph in 1832, on board a ship returning to America from Europe. It took eleven long years of ridicule by his associates, disinterest by the public, and a shortage of funds before Congress finally allocated $30,000 to Morse for his project. With these funds, Morse hung a telegraph line from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, and on May 24, 1844, a message in the dots and dashes of Morse Code was successfully20..
16. (A) Though (B) Through
(C) Thorough (D) Throughout
17. (A) as
18. (A) as (B) for
(C) to (D) with
19. (A) one (B) what
(C) which (D) ×
20. (A) transmitted
Our deepest folly is the notion 21. we are in charge of the place, that we own it and can somehow run it. We are beginning to treat the earth 22. a sort of domesticated household pet, living in an environment 23. by us, part kitchen garden, part park, part zoo. It is an idea we must rid ourselves 24. soon, for it is not so. It is the other way around. We are not separate beings. We are a living part of the earth owned and operated by the earth, probably specialized for functions on its behalf that we have not 25. glimpsed.
21. (A) as (B) that
(C) what (D) which
22. (A) as
(C) to be
23. (A) invent (B) inventing
(C) invented (D) to invent
24. (A) by
25. (A) already
Historically, some very successful societies 26. for millennia with enormous inequalities in the 27. of economic resources─ancient Egypt, imperial Rome, classical China, the Incas, the Aztecs. But all those societies had political and social ideologies that were congruent with their economic realities. None believed in equality in any sense whatsoever─not theoretically, not politically, not socially, not economically. In ancient Egypt and Rome the official ideology 28. a very unequal sharing of power and economic rewards. Large fractions of the population were slaves in ancient Rome and the official ideology held that slavery was good for those 29. a slave mentality. Ancient environments made slavery seem fair to both great thinkers, such as Aristotle, 30. the slaves who were brought up in those societies. The political sphere and the economic sphere believed in congruent inequalities.
26. (A) exist
(B) are existing
(C) have existed
(D) will exist
For several decades, the fast-food industry in the United States 31. phenomenal growth. Fast-food restaurants began in the early 50s; today there is one fast-food restaurant for every 685 people in the country. Experts estimate, 32. , that more people worldwide eat at McDonald's daily than live in Australia and New Zealand. McDonald's sells burgers 33. 140 per second. The expansion and big earnings of these restaurants are in large part 34.changes in the life styles of Americans.
One of the reasons for the growth is related to the fact 35. in the United States, more than seven out of ten women 36. 25 to 54 now work outside the home. Nearly 80% of them are employed full-time. There is more money to spend in eating out and 37. time to prepare meals. And 38. reason is related to the huge increase in the 1970s and 80s in the number of people living alone. Singles 39. working mothers and their families find eating at fast-food restaurants quick, easy, and inexpensive. An additional factor is the increase in the use of the automobile on the freeway for commuting, shopping, and recreation. The McDonald's or Burger King at a freeway exit is a familiar landmark that 40. consistent quality and service.
(A) has experienced (B) aged (C) due to (D) represents (E) another
(F) at the rate of (G) as well as (H) for example (I) that (J) less
The historical origins of the ice cream that young and old alike adore are shrouded in mystery. Before this popular dessert was invented, Marco Polo had returned from the Orient with a recipe for sherbet. Hundreds of years earlier, the Roman emperor Nero had snow and ice rushed to Rome from the mountains by special teams and runners. He flavored the ice with fruit juices. Ice cream like the modern variety were probably invented in Italy, and it quickly became an expensive treat for the very rich. King Charles I of England bragged of his secret recipe for ice cream; Henry Ⅱ of France served a different flavor to his court each day for a month to mark his marriage. In America, Thomas Jefferson also bragged of his secret flavors. George Washington, according to a merchant's books, spent almost $200 on ice cream in 1790. And Dolly Madison served ice cream at her husband's Second Inaugural at the White House. It was pointedly evident that the cream was from the president's cows; the fruit, from the White House garden. Not until the nineteenth century, when ice could be kept because of the use of insulated icehouse and a hand-cranked ice-cream freezer was invented, were the lower classes able to afford ice cream.
41. The purpose of this paragraph is to .
(A) prove that ice cream came from the Orient
(B) discuss the history of ice cream in America
(C) discuss the history of ice cream
(D) compare ice cream and sherbet
42. We can conclude from the paragraph that .
(A) Nero got his idea for ice and fruit juices from the Orient
(B) many famous people tried to make the public believe that they could make ice cream that no
one else could
(C) ice cream is no longer popular in France and England
(D) ice cream making was refined in Italy after being introduced in the Orient
43. The paragraph suggests that .
(A) the lower classes could enjoy ice cream in the late nineteenth century because they could make
it instead of buying it
(B) after the lower classes could afford ice cream, the rich lost interest in the treat
(C) ice cream was introduced in America before it was known in France or England
(D) sherbet and ice cream are exactly the same thing
Only in recent years have we come to understand the complex process which we call photosynthesis─the process by which solar energy is converted into chemical energy, the energy of food. It has been known for a long time this was the essential process in plant life and plant growth, but the chemistry and physics of this photosynthetic process has just begun to be unraveled.
Someday, I suspect, as our supplies of coal and oil and other fuels get scarcer or more expensive, and as our demands for additional sources of energy increase, we may become more dependent on solar energy. The energy of the sun is almost unlimited. It is also something we can depend on─for the next few billion years, at least. If we could only find ways of converting it more efficiently into more useful forms, it would be an enormous boon to mankind.
Photosynthesis may be the key to this, because in this process solar energy is converted into chemical energy. We may be able to develop methods whereby this process takes place more efficiently and on a larger scale, so that we can use the products of photosynthesis for fuel as well as for food.
44. How long has man come to understand photosynthesis?
(A) In a century.
(B) In recent years.
(C) At least billion years.
(D) From now on.
45. Which one of the following items brings about photosynthesis?
46. Which of the following answers is incorrect concerning the role played by the products coming from photosynthesis?
(B) Source of energy.
47. The title of this essay may well be called?
(B) The World in the Future
(C) The Importance of the Plants
(D) Energy And Food Crisis
Money destroys friendships, marriages, and family unity. Money, which in itself has essentially no value, exerts more power over human lives than any other single commodity. It brings out the best and the worst in people. An elderly woman is mugged and beaten by two youths for less than a dollar, while across town a couple on unemployment take in a runaway teenager and feed him because he has even less than they do.
The strange and illogical things that people do with and for money fill the newspapers and bring a smile to the lips of millions of readers, whose own money behavior is almost as strange. In the United States, for example, it is estimated that there are approximately eight million compulsive gamblers, men and women whose primary purpose in life is to bet money. On the other side are the millions of compulsive savers, who are compelled to save money with the same vengeance that compulsive gamblers are driven to bet it. In the same class are the millions of compulsive bargain hunters, who drive miles out of their way to save two cents on a gallon of gasoline, or who buy potato peelers by the dozen because they are on sale at half price, or who haunt swap meets and garage sales buying anything that is cheap, even though they have no use for it.
To most people, perhaps, the lure of money seems to be a natural phenomenon. They have become so indoctrinated with the idea that having money is important that they no longer question why. They are unaware that perhaps what they are truly seeking is an increase in self-respect, or security, or freedom, or love, or power. While they may not be aware of what it is they truly want from life, they feel sure that money will provide it for them.
48. Why are most people lured by money?
(A) Because they never thought much about money.
(B) Because they intend to be destroyed.
(C) Because they think that money can provide what they are seeking in life.
(D) Because they have self-respect.
49. What is the primary purpose in life for compulsive gamblers?
(A) To bring a smile to the lips of millions of readers.
(B) To save money.
(C) To bet money.
(D) To earn a living.
50. What is the motivation for compulsive bargain hunters to buy things?
(A) To buy things which are useless.
(B) To save money.
(C) To spend as much as they can.
(D) To compete with gamblers.
51. Why do compulsive bargain buyers buy potato peelers by the dozen?
(A) Because they need them.
(B) Because they have to drive miles out of their way.
(C) Because they think that they are bargains.
(D) Because potato peelers are useful.
You cross paths with someone while leaving your home. You stub your toe on a rock. A certain type of bird cries in the twilight. You have a reoccurring dream. Simple, innocuous events for many. But for certain people, these would be viewed as signs, omens, or messages from the spirit world.
Superstitions persist everywhere in the world. In spite of living under years of official atheism, a surprising number of people in China and in republics of the former Soviet Union still cling to superstitions. In the Western world, many consult their horoscope, dread Friday the 13th, and avoid black cats. Some people of the Far North view the northern lights as an omen of war and pestilence. In Japan, tunnel workers believe that it brings bad luck if a woman enters a tunnel before it is finished. Superstitions also flourish in organized sport. One volleyball player attributed a winning streak to his wearing black socks instead of white ones.
Superstitions are sometimes esteemed as part of a cultural heritage, or they may be considered a trivial curiosity-adding spice to life. But many superstitions basically stem from a fear of spirits of the dead or of spirits of any sort. Events are interpreted as attempts by these spirits to contact the living with a threat, a warning, or a blessing.
Superstitions are also closely associated with healing and medicine. Many people in the developing countries may seek cures or try to take preventive measures by turning to ancestral customs, spiritism, and superstitions. They also feel more comfortable dealing with a witch doctor who knows their customs and speaks their dialect than a medical doctor.
Superstitions vary immensely throughout the world, and their propagation depends on local folklore, legends, and circumstances. But the common denominator is the belief that someone, or something, from the invisible spirit world needs to be appeased.
52. Which of the following is generally viewed as a sign of bad luck in Japan, according to the reading?
(A) A volleyball player wearing black socks.
(B) A certain type of birds crying in the night.
(C) A birthday party held on Friday the 13th.
(D) A woman entering an unfinished tunnel.
53. What may be one cause of superstitions?
(A) Seeking cures for a certain disease.
(B) Drinking some spirits to avoid getting sick.
(C) Obtaining a winning streak in a tournament.
(D) Placing curses on dead relatives.
54. Which of the following statements is true, according to the reading?
(A) Folklore and legends do not help spread superstitions.
(B) Without exception, superstitions are the pride of a nation.
(C) Circumstances may lead people to believe in witch doctors.
(D) Superstitions persist because they are innocuous events.
55. According to the reading, which country or area used to discourage or prohibit religious activities?
(A) The Far North.
(D) Former Soviet Union.
56. According to the reading, which of the following statements is NOT true?
(A) Many superstitions are formed because of a fear of the dead.
(B) Superstitions do not exist in the West anymore.
(C) Superstitions may be viewed as a kind of cultural heritage.
(D) Superstitions and medical care are closely related, especially in developing countries.