Read the article about the effects of low light on people in the far north. For questions 1—6 you must choose which of the paragraphs A—G fit into the numbered gaps. There is one extra paragraph which does not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet.
Clarity in a Cold Climate
Bidge Hanson and his neighbours in the world's most northerly university town spent yesterday pretty much in the dark, again. It may have been one of the shortest days in Britain, but in Tromso, 200 or so miles north of the Arctic Circle, it was yet another day when the sun failed to put in an appearance. Between 21 November and 21 January the Norwegian town and its 60,000 population live life in a permanent night, and in the summer they switch to spending months in perpetual daylight.
For more than a year doctors tracked volunteers, measuring their cognitive performances in tests in both winter and summer, fully expecting the results to support the view that in winter people are prone to suffer a range of negative symptoms, in addition to the depression associated with seasonal affective disorder (SAD).
'We tested 1,000 people on a battery of cognitive tests, including memory, attention, recognition time, memory recall and confuse-ability. We didn't look at depression, we were only interested in cognitive performance. We tested them in summer and in winter, and we were sure that we would be able to pick up the winter deficit that is so often talked about,' he says.
Even on the simplest of the tests — measuring the reaction times to a circle being flashed on a computer screen — the winter performances were better. The reaction times of the volunteers were on average eleven milliseconds quicker in the winter tests. The problem that Dr Brennen and his colleagues now have is explaining what kind of body mechanism could possibly be at work to produce the unexpected phenomenon of superior thinking in winter. It is! at odds with many assumptions about health and the winter. A National Institute of Mental Health survey of 1,500 American ( SAD patients found that more than 90 per cent reported decreased activity in winter, as well as difficulties with work. They also reported extreme fatigue and lack of energy, and an increased need for sleep.
Some suspect that a change in the environment, especially the arrival of long dark nights, affects personality — that when it gets cold and dark man becomes more introverted and more focused on the task in hand.
'One possible explanation is that we are less distracted by other things in winter. There is not so much to look at and therefore a greater opportunity for you to attend to your tasks,' she says.
But just how light works is not clear. 'Although the cause of SAD is not known, research so far suggests that it is triggered by a seasonal disruption in the cycling of the hormone melatonin, which throws the circadian rhythms off balance,' says Professor William Regelson of Virginia University and author of The Melatonin Miracle.
A. 'It is a quite surprising and counter-intuitive finding that requires a lot of thought,' says Professor Anne Farmer of the Institute of Psychiatry in London, who specialises in treating
affective disorders, including SAD
B. 'If you read a lot of the literature on SAD, the biological psychiatrists expect concentration to be worse in winter, that speed of thought and memory will be poor, and that people will feel sluggish. But we found no trace of that. Clearly the belief that people get groggier and more forgetful in the winter months is unfounded. The findings contradict some of the claims found in the literature on SAD.'
С And they may be implicated in the mechanism behind the Tromso results for cognitive performance, because a similar finding of depression and improved or unaffected mental performance is found in one other body cycle.
D. For psychologists, the extremes in this Arctic Circle environ ment made it the perfect place to study the effects of the seasons on the mind and on performance, and to investigate whether there is any foundation for long-held views that in winter, human thinking, memory recall and performance slow down. If the theory was right, any effect would, they figured, be magnified at a latitude of 69 degrees north.
E. For the treatment of the depression associated with SAD, Professor Farmer and an increasing number of doctors are advising using light boxes. It's been found that exposure to bright artificial light can substantially reduce the symptoms of depression by as much as 80 per cent in some patients. Research on people with SAD has also found that their symptoms improve nearer the Equator.
F. SAD which affects between one and 25 per cent of people, depending upon which study is looked at, is accepted as a condition where depression is linked to the arrival of the winter months. But depression and improved cognitive performance are strange bed fellows, so the hunt is now on to find out what could be happening in the brain to produce such a paradox. Investigators are looking at whether light or temperature, or even some other trigger, may be at work.
G. But when measured by cognitive performance, it was found that the people of Tromso were brighter and quicker in the winter months, a result that put a large spanner in the works of those that hold that man is mentally duller and slower in the winter. For Dr Tim Brennen, who led the research and briefly escaped the winter blackness of Tromso University this week to present his findings at the London conference of the British Psychological Society, the results were a big surprise.
(Use of English) 11th grade(a,b,c,d)
For questions 1—15 read the text below and decide which answer А, В or С best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).
English (0) ________first written down in the 6th century. At that time, writers (1)_________use the twenty three letters of the Latin alphabet to write down (2)___________they heard. Because English has sounds that do not exist in Latin, they added letters to represent the forty-four sounds of English. This resulted (3)___________some irregular spelling.
After the Norman invasion of England in 1066, French became the language, spoken by the king and other people in positions of power and influence. Many French words (4) __________introduced and the spelling of many English words changed (5)___________ French patterns. The result was a rich and irregular mix (6) _________spellings. The printing press was (7)__________in the 15th century. Many early printers of English texts spoke (8) ___________ first languages, especially Dutch. They often paid little attention (9)____________how English words were spelled. Sometimes technical decisions were made to give columns of print straight edges. To do (10)__________, letters were taken off the ends of words and sometimes added to words. With time, people became used to (11) ___________words spelled in the same way. Fixed spellings were therefore created (12) ____________the printers' decisions. Spoken English, however, was not fixed. It continued to change, (13)______________it still does. (14)____________that English spelling seems irregular. Words such as although, through and cough, for example all have the same spelling at the end, but are pronounced differently Words such as feet, meat and seize, on the other hand, are spelledifferently but have (15) _____________same sound in the middle.
A.There is no wonder B.It is no wonder С It is not wonder
15. A.- В. а С the
For questions 16—25 read the text and use the words on the I right to form one word that fits in the same numbered spaced in the text. There is an example at the beginning (0). How to Succeed Example: 0. Suggestion
Let me make a (0)_______to help you deal with difficult situations. If, for example, you are taking part in a sports (16)______, meeting someone important, or giving a (17) in front of a large audience, you will probably be quite (18)______, and worry that you will not be as (19)______as you would like to be. What you need to do is to prepare yourself (20) by running through the whole (21) over and over again in your mind, (22) going through every detail. For example, a famous pianist, (23)______for seven years for (24) ________ reasons, could still play magnificently on his release. When asked how he managed to play so well, his (25) was that he had practiced every day in his mind.
For questions 26—35 match a sentence from column A to the relevant reply from column B. Sentence (0) is an example. Example: 0. L
0. Have a good weekend
26. Do you know anyone
who teaches English?
27. Have you fixed your motorbike yet?
28. Do you mind if I have
29. I'm ready!
30. I mean, what exactly are you thinking of?
31. How have you been?
32. I must be off.
33. Keep in touch.
34. Thanks for a lovely evening.
35. Would you mind if I use
A. Not so bad, thanks.
B. Actually, yes. Here you are.
C. Don't let me keep you.
D. Sure, go ahead.
E. Not as such. But I have had a look at it.
F. Er, yes, come to think of it. What's his name — the guy we've met today?
For questions 36—40 complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0).
The knife was too blunt to cut the bread.
The knife wasn't sharp enough to cut the bread.
36. I can't find my shoes.
37. I had to have his door mended.
He had tohis door.
38. I couldn't bear the noise any longer.
I couldn'tthe noise any longer.
39. The train is due now.
40. The return fare is double the single fare.
The return farethe single fare.
For questions 41—60 decide which of the following categories — Historic Events (1), Newspapers and Magazines (2), Writers (3), Scientists and Inventors (4), Streets and Districts (5) — the proper names listed below belong to. Write the number of the category in the first box and the letter A for the USA or В for Great Britain in the second box according to where the name belongs. Note that for people, only the last names are given. The first one is done as an example (0).
Listening 11th grade(a,b,c,d) Task 1.
You will hear 6 speakers. Match each speaker with the definitions A-G below. You can use each statement once only. There is one statement you do not need. You will hear a recording twice.
The speaker likes to hang out with friends.
The speaker’s favourite activity is sending short messages to friends on the phone.
Playing the musical instrument helps to the speaker both to earn money and relax.
The speaker likes looking through glossy brochures more than visiting the real places.
The speaker likes reading as well as sports.
The activities depend on the country the speaker is in.
The speaker spends time riding a horse.
Speaker 1- A
Speaker 2- B
Speaker 3 - C
You will hear a conversation between a customer and a shop assistant. Mark the following statements True, False or Not Stated.
The shop offered discounts on some items of clothes.
1/ True 2/ False 3/ Not stated
Susan bought the dress the next day.
1/ True 2/ False 3/ Not stated
You will hear an interview . In sentences 1-7 choose the correct option 1, 2 or 3. You will hear a recording twice.
Claire says that she gets motivation from:
Claire characterizes herself as work as:
a person who is easy to deal with.
a person who follows advice with easy.
a person who is ready to give advice.
What role did singing play in her life?
It helped her earn her living for some time.
It helped her to go to a stage school.
It helped her to love music.
How does Claire fight with stressful situations?
She has more relaxing tea.
She takes a bath with a cup of tea.
She takes relaxation in a bath.
How health conscious is Claire?
She looks regularly after herself.
She never looks after herself.
She looks after herself during the day.
Claire says that she sees herself as:
a follower of her instincts.
not quite a spiritual person.
an unbeliever in her faith.
According to Claire, it’s better to regret:
experience you have
experience you don’t have
experience you will have.
Writing 11th grade(a,b,c,d)
Participant's ID Number _____________________________________________
Imagine that your school wants to organise a Young Talents' Arts Festival. You need to think of a programme and write it down in the provided space.
•You have to write 100—120 words.
Young Talents' Arts Festival Programme
Invite students from other schools who can sing, dance, act in performances, play musical instruments, etc. Write a letter, describing the festival programme and persuading students to come. You have to write 200—250 words.
In a minutu you will have to speak about entertainment. Please tell us how important it is in your life. How would you comment on the proverb: “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy”. Explain how entertainment could influence your life studies, and work: does it help or distract you from your studies?