11th Grade Semester Two Unit Three: The Great Depression / New Deal



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11th Grade Semester Two

Unit Three: The Great Depression / New Deal


Stage 1: Desired Outcomes

Topic / Unit Title: The Great Depression/New Deal

  • How does economic crisis impact society?

NYS Content Standards

Standard 2: Key 2

Standard 2: Key 3

Standard 2: Key 4

Common Core Skills

  • RH 1, 3, 6, 7, 8,

  • W 3, 4, 5

  • SL 1, 4, 6

  • L 1, 2, 4




Understandings:

  • Define: Great Depression, under production, under consumption, distribution of wealth, Stock market crash of 1929, buying on margin, Dust Bowl, unemployment, Black Tuesday and Black Thursday, New Deal Programs, CCC, AAA, WPA, Social Security, Securities Exchanges Commission, FDIC, relief, recovery, reform, immediate relief, Keynesian Economics, laissez faire, hoovervilles, priming the pump, rugged individualism, Scheter Poultry v U.S. court packing

  • Identify and explain the basic causes of the Great Depression.

  • Explain how the policies of the federal government contributed to the onset of the Great Depression.

  • Assess the impact of the stock market crash of 1929 on the economy.

  • Evaluate whether the Great Depression had to occur.

  • Identify and explain the basic effects of the Great Depression on different groups in society: African Americans, elderly, children, middle class, poor, rural farmers, unemployed.

  • Describe the actions taken by Hoover to deal with the growing Depression.

  • Assess the extent to which Hoover should have been blamed for the Great Depression.

  • Identify and explain the basic beliefs FDR and Hoover had on the Great Depression

  • Explain the policies FDR and Hoover proposed in order to aid Americans out of the Depression

  • Assess whether FDR or Hoover is more suitable to become President in 1932 and evaluate why

  • Describe the economic conditions in the United States when Roosevelt took office.

  • Analyze F.D.R.’s style of leadership during the first 100 days.

  • List and explain the relief, recovery, and reform measures of the New Deal.

  • Construct a plan to deal with the problems caused by the Depression.

  • Evaluate whether or not Roosevelt’s New Deal was an effective response to the problems of the Great Depression.

  • Describe Roosevelt’s “Court-packing” proposals and the opposition to these proposals.

  • Assess whether or not the New Deal was unconstitutional and evaluate whether or not the New Deal programs undermined the principles of “Separation of Powers” and “Checks and Balances.”

Essential Questions:


  • What contributed to the Great Depression?

  • How should leaders respond to economic crisis?

  • How were various American groups affected by the Great Depression?

  • Was the New Deal successful in its attempts to solve the problems of the Great Depression?

  • Was FDR a hero or tyrant?




Stage 2: Assessments and Tasks

Common Core Literacy Task

  • Analyze documents and statistical and mathematical data on the causes of Great Depression

  • Create posters describing a cause of the Great Depression. Students must use key words.

  • Prepare four written arguments for a debate on “Were the New Deal programs good or bad for the US?” Use evidence to support each argument.

  • DBQ Essay: New Deal




Performance Task(s) – Other Evidence

  • Discussion on strategies that should be used to solve the problems of the Great Depression

  • Comparison of the Great Depression to economic problems in present day society

  • Media literacy: compare and contrast the life of James Broderick as depicted in the film Cinderella Man.

  • Participate in discussion/debate on if FDR’s New Deal programs were good for American society




Accommodations: Scaffolds and Differentiation

Content


  • Modify primary source texts (variety, complexity, length)

  • Incorporate alternative materials (visual, video, audio, internet)

  • Provide supplementary resources for supports

  • Group with a purpose

Process


  • Model skills, task and/or product

  • Utilize graphic organizers / note taking template

  • Provide individual or group intervention and support

  • Re-enforce vocabulary / concept development

  • Provide choice / variety of activities or tasks

  • Group with a purpose

Product

  • Assign specific, purposeful assessments to individuals or groups

  • Allow students to choose from a variety of assessments

  • Provide scaffolds / supports (outlines, templates, models)

  • Provide extension activities to expand thinking or understanding

  • Group with a purpose

How will students reflect upon and self-assess their learning?

  • Exit tickets

  • Template reflection

  • DBQ Essay Rubric

  • Voting Ballot Template—FDR or Hoove




Stage 3: Learning Plan


AIM: Was the Great Depression of the 1930s inevitable?

  • Identify and explain the basic causes of the Great Depression.

  • Explain how the policies of the federal government contributed to the onset of the Great Depression.

  • Assess the impact of the stock market crash of 1929 on the economy.

  • Evaluate whether the Great Depression had to occur.

  • ACTIVITY: Evaluate the different causes of the Great Depression and explain how this caused a Depression. Students pick one of the causes of the Great Depression and draw about it. Students are required to use key words that fit the cause chosen.


AIM: Who is the best candidate to handle the problems of the Great Depression?

  • Identify and explain the basic effects of the Great Depression on different groups in society: African Americans, elderly, children, middle class, poor, rural farmers, unemployed.

  • Describe the actions taken by Hoover to deal with the growing Depression.

  • Assess the extent to which Hoover should have been blamed for the Great Depression.

  • Identify and explain the basic beliefs FDR and Hoover had on the Great Depression

  • Explain the policies FDR and Hoover proposed in order to aid Americans out of the Depression

  • Assess whether FDR or Hoover is more suitable to become President in 1932 and evaluate why

  • ACTIVITY: Students analyze stations and answers questions. Students then evaluate the presidential campaigns of Hoover and FDR and use writing template to answer the aim. Students are required appropriate key words in their argument and explanation.


AIM: Was the New Deal an effective response to the Great Depression?

  • Describe the economic conditions in the United States when Roosevelt took office.

  • Analyze FDR’s style of leadership during the first 100 days.

  • List and explain the relief, recovery, and reform measures of the New Deal.

  • Construct a plan to deal with the problems caused by the Depression.

  • ACTIVITY: Students choose a New Deal mural and create it for the modern day using magazines. Students are to explain the program chosen and use appropriate key words.


AIM: Was the New Deal helpful to all Americans?

  • Evaluate whether or not Roosevelt’s New Deal was an effective response to the problems of the Great Depression.

  • Describe Roosevelt’s “Court-packing” proposals and the opposition to these proposals.

  • Assess whether or not the New Deal was unconstitutional and evaluate whether or not the New Deal programs undermined the principles of “Separation of Powers” and “Checks and Balances.”

  • ACTIVITY: Assess report card about FDR’s New Deal programs. Analyze data as well as the constitutionality of FDR’s presidency and the rulings of the Supreme Court case.


AIM: Was FDR’s New Deal Program was positive or negative for America.

  • Students use regents documents to assess the pros of cons of the New Deal

  • Students are to write argumentative texts based on the documents presented as well as use outside information to support their answer.

  • ACTIVITY: Students answer document-based questions and write essay evaluating if the New Deal was positive or negative for America. (Students can use essay template for guidance if necessary).







Teacher Reflection for Future Planning

  • Evaluate exit tickets and response to questions during discussion.

  • Explore test results and essay writing skills on class exam to shape future writing lessons/assignments.




Regents Essays

January 2013

Theme: Government (Congressional Legislation)

Throughout the United States history, Congress has passed legislation to address important political, social or economic issues. These laws have often had a significant impact on American society.


Task: Select two laws passed by the United States congress and for each

  • Discuss the historical circumstances that led to the passage of the law

  • Discuss the impacts of the law on American society

You may use any federal law that was intended to address and important issue from your study of United States history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include:



Embargo Act (1807) Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)

Indian Removal Act (1830) Social Security Act (1935)

Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) GI Bill/Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (1944)

Interstate Commerce Act (1887) Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)

August 2008

Theme: Government Role in Economy

Throughout history, the United States government has taken various actions to address problems with the nation’s economy.


Task: Choose two actions that addressed a problem with the nation’s economy and for each

  • Discuss the historical circumstances that led to the action

  • Discuss the impact of this action on the economic action of the United States


You may use any example from your study of United States history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include assumption of Revolutionary War debts, building the transcontinental railroad, passage of tariff laws, passage of the Interstate Commerce Act, creation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, adoption of the Social Security system, passage of federal minimum wage laws, Reagan Era tax cuts, and ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Multiple Choice

Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the photograph below and on your knowledge of social studies.


1 What was the main reason for the emergence of “Hoovervilles” like the one shown in

the photograph?

(1) Many Americans had lost jobs during the Great Depression.

(2) Thousands of homes had been destroyed by the effects of the Dust Bowl.

(3) Housing projects could not keep up with the demand for homes needed by the poor.

(4) Preparations for World War II had created a shortage of building materials.


2 The New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt attempted to address the problem shown in the photograph by

(1) expanding the armed services

(2) using the police to evict “Hooverville” residents

(3) delivering food, water, and medical supplies to residents

(4) providing jobs and home loans to American workers

3 During the early 1930s, the main goal of the Bonus Army was to pressure the Hoover administration to

(1) strengthen the nation’s defenses

(2) end the military draft

(3) bring American troops home from overseas

(4) support the early payment of money promised to veterans


4 Opponents of the New Deal criticized President Franklin D. Roosevelt for

(1) expanding the role and size of the federal government

(2) permitting banks to operate without government regulation

(3) weakening the executive branch

(4) reducing spending to balance the budget

Base your answers to questions 5 and 6 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.

...2. We propose to limit the amount any one man can earn in one year or inherit to $1 million to the person. 3. Now, by limiting the size of the fortunes and incomes of the big men, we will throw into the government Treasury the money and property from which we will care for the millions of people who have nothing; and with this money we will provide a home and the comforts of home, with such common conveniences as radio and automobile, for every family in America, free of debt....

— Senator Huey Long, 1935
5 Based on these statements by Senator Long, one reason for the suffering caused by the Great Depression was the

(1) failure of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to sign relief legislation

(2) overproduction of military equipment

(3) uneven distribution of income that favored the rich

(4) failure of labor unions to accept shorter work days
6 President Franklin D. Roosevelt responded to the circumstances described in this passage by

(1) renewing New Deal programs to help big business

(2) raising taxes to assure a balanced federal budget

(3) stressing free market economic principles

(4) increasing New Deal efforts for relief and reform
7 What was the primary motive behind President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1937 proposal to add members to the Supreme Court?

(1) removal of Republican justices from the Court

(2) ending the Court’s use of judicial review

(3) assuring United States neutrality at the start of World War II

(4) protection of New Deal programs from unfavorable Court decisions
8

“Troops Break Up Bonus Army Protest”

“FDR Proclaims Bank Holiday”

“Misery Created by Dust Bowl”

These headlines concern events that occurred during the

(1) Civil War

(2) Progressive Era

(3) Great Depression

(4) Cold War

9 A major difference between the philosophies of President Herbert Hoover and President Franklin D. Roosevelt in responding to the Great Depression is that Roosevelt

(1) wanted to rely on private charities to provide assistance

(2) stressed the need for individual self-reliance

(3) supported direct relief to people out of work

(4) thought the government should not be involved in economic reform


10 Which federal agency, created during the New Deal, was intended to prevent serious problems in the stock market?

(1) Social Security Administration

(2) Works Progress Administration

(3) Agricultural Adjustment Administration

(4) Securities and Exchange Commission

Base your answers to questions 11 and 12 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.


11 The main idea of this 1937 cartoon about President Franklin D. Roosevelt is that the president is

(1) trying to increase the public’s respect for the Supreme Court

(2) seeking the Supreme Court’s help against his political opponents

(3) attempting to exercise too much influence over the Supreme Court

(4) refusing to allow the Supreme Court to review legislation

12 One outcome of the situation referred to in the cartoon was that

(1) President Roosevelt decided not to seek reelection

(2) the Supreme Court ended most New Deal programs

(3) President Roosevelt was impeached for abuse of his powers

(4) Congress rejected President Roosevelt’s effort to pack the Supreme Court

13 During the 1920s, installment buying, income inequality, and stock market speculation contributed to the

(1) introduction of supply-side economics

(2) return of laissez-faire economic principles

(3) economic weaknesses that helped bring about the Great Depression

(4) decision to lower tariff rates
14 During the 1920s, which economic trend helped cause the Great Depression?

(1) buying goods on credit

(2) saving rather than spending

(3) continuing shortages of consumer goods

(4) imposing low tariffs on imported products

15 What was an underlying cause of the Great Depression?

(1) unequal distribution of income throughout the 1920s

(2) adoption of high federal income tax rates during the 1920s

(3) failure of American farmers to produce enough food after World War I

(4) rapid increase in federal defense spending following World War I


16 Which geographic area was most seriously affected by the Dust Bowl of the 1930s?

(1) Atlantic Coastal Plain

(2) Ohio River valley

(3) Great Plains

(4) Pacific Coast
17 In 1937, President Franklin D. Roosevelt sought to increase the number of Supreme Court justices because

(1) some justices complained they were unable to handle the heavy caseload

(2) some regions of the country were not represented on the Court

(3) the Court needed more minority representation

(4) the Court had declared several New Deal programs unconstitutional

Base your answer to question 18 on the maps below and on your knowledge of social studies.


18 Which conclusion is most clearly supported by the information provided by these maps?

(1) The Great Depression altered American political preferences.

(2) The Republican Party remained strong in the deep South.

(3) The Democratic Party lost support in the Northeast between the two elections.

(4) Most voters believed in traditional approaches to economic problems.
19 What was a basic cause of the Great Depression of the 1930s?

(1) Too many antitrust laws were passed.

(2) Tariffs on foreign manufactured goods were reduced.

(3) The distribution of income was unequal.

(4) Immigration was not limited.
20 Which factor led to agricultural overproduction and falling farm prices during the 1920s?

(1) decline in European demand after World War I

(2) lower tariffs enacted by Congress

(3) lack of access to cheap credit

(4) decreasing population in cities of the South
21 During the 1920s, much of the debt accumulated by consumers was due to

(1) installment buying of manufactured goods

(2) overproduction of farm products

(3) long strikes by labor unions

(4) rising income taxes

22 During the 1930s, poor land management and severe drought conditions across parts of the Midwest resulted in the

(1) formation of the United States Department of Agriculture

(2) creation of wheat surpluses

(3) growth of the Granger movement

(4) development of Dust Bowl conditions on the Great Plains

23 The New Deal reform that helped labor unions win the right to represent workers was the

(1) creation of Social Security

(2) formation of the Securities and Exchange Commission

(3) passage of the National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act

(4) establishment of unemployment insurance

Base your answer to question 24 on the chart below and on your knowledge of social studies.


24 Which conclusion is most clearly supported by the information in the chart?

(1) President Herbert Hoover’s economic policies expanded job opportunities.

(2) The United States unemployment rate reached its highest level in 1938.

(3) President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal programs failed to address the unemployment crisis.

(4) World War II ended the high unemployment rates of the Great Depression.
25 As part of the New Deal, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) were created to

(1) allow for a quick recovery of stock prices

(2) provide direct loans to businesses

(3) protect individual investors from stock fraud and bank failure

(4) allow banks and companies to invest in the stock market
26 Senator Huey Long, Dr. Francis Townsend, and Father Charles Coughlin are best known as

(1) members of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s cabinet

(2) outspoken critics of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal

(3) supporters of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s reelection campaign in 1940

(4) members of the Supreme Court nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Base your answer to question 27 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.


27 Based on this cartoon, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s goal concerning the Supreme Court was to

(1) increase ethnic and racial diversity

(2) insure support for New Deal legislation

(3) appoint justices who would use a strict interpretation of the Constitution

(4) strengthen judicial independence

Base your answer to question 28 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.


28 Which statement most accurately expresses the viewpoint of the cartoonist?

(1) New Deal programs are endangering the country.

(2) Most Americans support New Deal programs.

(3) Supreme Court decisions are overturning New Deal programs.

(4) New Deal programs emphasize health care reforms.

Base your answers to questions 29 and 30 on the song lyrics below and on your knowledge of social studies.

Dust Storm Disaster

On the 14th day of April of 1935, There struck the worst of dust storms that ever filled the sky. You could see that dust storm comin’, the cloud looked deathlike black, And through our mighty nation, it left a dreadful track.... The storm took place at sundown, it lasted through the night, When we looked out next morning, we saw a terrible sight. We saw outside our window where wheat fields they had grown Was now a rippling ocean of dust the wind had blown. It covered up our fences, it covered up our barns, It covered up our tractors in the wild and dusty storm. We loaded our jalopies and piled our families in, We rattled down that highway to never come back again.

—Woody Guthrie
29 Which region of the United States was most directly affected by the situation described in this song?

(1) Southeast

(2) Great Lakes

(3) Great Plains

(4) Pacific Northwest
30 These song lyrics were written about people who became

(1) sharecroppers in the South

(2) migrant farm workers on the West Coast

(3) fishermen in New England

(4) coal miners in the Ohio River valley
31 Passage of the Social Security Act (1935) helped American workers by

(1) creating jobs for the unemployed

(2) guaranteeing a minimum wage

(3) legalizing the right to join labor unions

(4) providing financial assistance after retirement
Base your answer to question 32 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
32 Which statement most accurately expresses the main idea of the cartoon?

(1) President Franklin D. Roosevelt should limit the powers of Congress.

(2) Actions by President Franklin D. Roosevelt threaten American democracy.

(3) President Franklin D. Roosevelt is more powerful than European dictators.

(4) The Supreme Court is helping President Franklin D. Roosevelt reorganize his administration.

33 The primary purpose of the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (Wagner Act) was to

(1) allow factory owners to use court injunctions against workers

(2) guarantee collective bargaining rights

(3) establish the Social Security system

(4) ban the use of strikes by unions

34

“Harding Rejects Wilson’s Foreign Policy—Wants Return to ‘Normalcy’”



“Coolidge Declares: ‘The Chief Business of the American People Is Business’”

“Hoover Calls for ‘Rugged Individualism’; Rejects Paternalism and Socialism”

Which policy of Republican presidents in the 1920s is most consistent with the positions stated in these headlines?

(1) The United States should assist unions and provide old-age insurance.

(2) The United States should acquire and protect an empire.

(3) The federal government should support the poor and raise farm prices.

(4) The federal government should assist business and limit foreign commitments.

35 Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), United States v. E. C. Knight Co. (1895), and Schechter Poultry Corporation

v. United States (1935) are all Supreme Court cases dealing with

(1) presidential power during wartime

(2) federal authority to regulate interstate commerce

(3) protection of students’ religious freedom



(4) government regulation of passenger transportation

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