1800 earthquake in California est at 6

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1800 earthquake in California est. at 6.5, Volta of Italy invents electric cell, industrial revolution in England, Act of Union between Britain and Ireland, Tuberculosis outbreak in England, Tsunami in Indonesia, French retakes papal states, Population of Paris reaches 650,000, death of Italian composer Nicola Piccini, death of English poet William Cowper, death of French general Jean Baptiste Kleber, Napoleon establishes himself as first Consul in the Tuileries – French army defeats Turks at Heliopolis and advances on Cairo – defeats Austrians at Biberach Hochstadt and Hohenlinden advances on Vienna, Napoleon’s army crosses Great St. Bernard Pass – defeats Austrians at Marengo and conquers Italy, British capture Malta, US federal offices moved from Philadelphia to Washington DS with free inhabitants of 2464 and 623 slaves, Jefferson wins presidential election, Plot to assassinate Napoleon discovered in Paris, Maria Edgeworth writes gothic novel, Thomas Morton writes comedy where character Mrs. Grundy first mentioned, Jean Paul writes German novel, Schiller writes, Mme de Stael writes, Napoleon appoints committee of jurists to write up Civil Code, Cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti elected Pope Pius VII, Fitche writes, Arnold Heeren writes about Europe’s political systems, Schelling writes about idealism, Church of United Bretheren in Christ founded in US, David paints “Mme. Recamier” portrait, Goya paints “Portrait of a Woman”, Boieldieu writes opera, Cherubini writes opera in Paris, Humphrey Davy writes about nitrous oxide, German physician F.J. Gall founds practice of phrenology, William Herschel discovers existence of infrared solar rays, Royal College of Surgeons in London founded, Richard Trevithick constructs light-pressure steam engine, Alessandro Volta produces electricity from cell – first battery of zinc and copper plates, Eli Whitney makes muskets with interchangeable parts, Grossglockner in the Austrian Alps first scaled, letter post introduced in Berlin, Ottawa founded, Robert Owen takes over New Lanark mills and starts social reforms, Populations Paris 550,000 New York 60,000 Bill Richmond a former slave becomes popular boxer, 1 million African-Americans, Former slave Toussaint L’Ouverture establishes Haiti – first independent Latin American state, Napoleon establishes Society to Encourage French inventors, Alessandro Volta develops electric battery, D.C. becomes U.S. Capitol, Code Napoleon codified, Government moved to Washington, D.C., Jefferson elected (Republican) Jefferson and Burr tied, so Congress picked. Napoleon secures Louisiana from Spain, Livingston and Monroe go to Paris, Eli Whitney demonstrates interchangeable parts in D.C. Sequoyah creates Cherokee written language, Act of Union with Britain and Ireland, Napoleon Bonaparte becomes ruler of France, Prosser plans slave revolt, 14 Mar Pope Pius VII appointed (Barnaba Chiaramonti ), Beaver hats become popular in Europe, Haydn composes The Seasons, Discovery of UV rays, Volta invents voltaic pile, Napoleon defeats Austrians at Marengo, Henry Maudslay invents precision screw- cutting lathe in Britain, Russia withdraws from confronting France, England subdues Ireland in Act of Union, Begin era known as "Romantic Age"

1801 Central Assembly of St. Dominique (Haiti) appoints Toussaint L’Ouverture governor, First rail locomotive, end of era of William Pitt the Younger as British Prime Minister, beginning of reign of Czar Alexander I of Russia, Matthew Flinders begins to circumnavigate Australia , Thomas Jefferson delivers inaugural address, death of German painter Daniel Chodowiecki, death of Italian composer Domenico Cimarosa, death of American painter Ralph Earle, death of Hungarian poet Sandor Kisfaludi, death of German poet Novalis, death of Paul I of Russia, Act of Union of Great Britain and Ireland comes into force, Peace of Luneville between Austria and France marks the actual end of the HRE, Thomas Jefferson inauguration, Czar Paul I assassinated and succeeded by Alexander I, Nelson defeats Danes off Copenhagen, Prussians march into Hanover, English enter Cairo – French troops leave Egypt which the Turks recover, Chateaubriand writes novel, Kotzebue writes comedy, Schiller writes, Robert Southey writes poem, K.F. Gauss writes regarding math, Hegel and Schelling write philosophy, David paints “Napoleon au Grand Saint-bernard”, Goya paints “The Two Majas”, Beethoven writes ballet, Haydn’s “The Seasons” oratorio completed, M.F.X. Bichat writes book of general anatomy, American civil engineer Robert Fulton produces first submarine “The Nautilis”, J.J. Lalande catalogues over 47,000 stars, Bank of France founded, European populations: Italy 17.2 million, Britain 10.4 million Spain 10.5 million, London 864 k, Paris 574k Vienna 231 K Berlin 183 k, First iron trolley tracks in Croydon-Wandsworth ENG, Union Jack becomes official flag of UK, Victoria Regia (Queen of the Night) discovered in Amazon Territory, France invades Austria, Alexander I becomes Tsar of Russia, Jefferson plans for NW expedition, Federalists quickly create more federal judges "Midnight Judges" John Marshall named Chief Justice, William Pitt ends reign as Prime Minister of England, Jefferson 3rd president, Judiciary Act increases judges "midnight judges" Jefferson declares blockade after Tripoli (Barbary pirates) declares war, French stop trying to take Egypt, British and Turks defeat French army at Aboukir, Napoleon restores state-church relations in Concordat with the Pope, Czar Alexander I ascends Russian throne - Kingdom of Georgia voluntarily unites with Russia, Peace of Luneville confirms France's defeat of Austria, John Marshal begins role as Supreme Court chief justice; Napoleonic Concordat offers government to pay salaries of clergy in France

1802 Emperor Gia-Long begins reign in Vietnam, Worlds first steam ship Charlotte Dundas built in Scotland, death of German philosopher Franz Aepinus, death of Erasmus Darwin the English scientist and poet, death of English painter George Romney, death of American jurist John Lowell, Napoleon becomes president of Italian Republic (formerly Cisalpine) – creates order of Legion of Honor – becomes first Consul for Life – annexes Piedmont Parma and Piacenza, Peace of Amiens between Britain and France, France suppresses Negro rebellion in Santo Domingo led by Toussaint-L’Ouverture, Sir Walter Scott writes, Mme. De Stael writes novel, Jeremy Bentham writes about legislation, G.F. Grotefend deciphers Babylonian cuneiform, Schelling writes, Daniel Webster writes about neutral nations in war, Canova sculpts Napoleon Bonaparte, Period of Classical Empire style, Gerars paints “Madame Recamier”, Beethoven composes, J.N. Forkel writes about life of J.S. Bach, John Dalton introduces atomic theory into chemistry, death of Erasmus Darwin the English scientist, William Herschel discovers binary stars, German naturalist Gottfried Treviranus coins term “biology”, Englishmen John Truter and William Somerville explore in Bechuanaland, “Peerage” published in London, Duke of Richmond introduces horse racing in Goodwood, “Health and Morals of Apprentices” act in Britain, Alexander von Humboldt almost climbs Mount Chimborao in Ecuador, West India Docks in London built, Victor Hugo born, storm in Norway kills 26, Treaty of Amiens creates temporary peace in Europe, French decided to focus on Europe - was looking to relinquish control of new world, Federalists complain that Pres has no power to purchase lands (Opposite of their flexible position earlier), War between French and English over, Oliver Evans invents high-pressure steam engine, Beethoven composes, Napoleon made Consul for life, Treaty of Amiens signed by Britain and France, Nguyen Anh unifies Vietnam and rules from Hue as the first Nguyen emperor, Napoleon names self Consul for Life

1803 Second Maratha war disrupts India 2 years, circumnavigation of Australia by Matthew Flinders complete – he names it, Napoleonic War between Britain and France until 1815, end of Italian Este line (from 1135), death of German poet Johann Wilhelm Gleim, death of American Revolutionary Statesman Samuel Adams, death of German poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, death of Pierre A.F. Choderlos de Lachos the French novelist, death of German author Johann Gottfried von Herder, death of Italian dramatist Vittorio Alfieri, Swiss cantons regain independence (Act of Mediation), Ohio becomes state, US buys Louisiana Putchase, Renewal of war between France and Britain, French complete occupation of Hanover, Robert Emmet leader of Irish July rebellion executed, Second Mahratta War against Sindhia of Gwalior who submits to the British, Jane Porter writes historical novel, Schiller writes tragedy, Greek patriot Adamantois Coraes publishes about modern Greece, death of German philosopher Herder, Joseph Lancaster writes about education, Henry Raeburn paints “The Macnab” portrait, Turner’s “Calais Pier” exhibited, Benjamin West paints “Christ Healing the Sick”, Beethoven composes sonata, death of Franz Xavier Sussmayer the Austrian composer who completed Mozart’s Requiem, Claude Berthollet writes about chemistry, J.J. Berzelius discovers cerium, Lazare Carnot writes about the physics of movement, Robert Fulton powers boat by steam, Lamarck writes about the physical body, Henry Shrapnel invents explosive shell, Building of Calcedonian Canal begins, Technical college in Prague founded, SC reopens ports to African slave trade, using W Indies and Latin American blacks, British win final Maratha War in Central India, Louisiana Purchase, Napoleon plots to invade Britain, Marbury vs. Madison allows for judicial review of laws, declares Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional, Land deal with Napoleon sells Louisiana territory to US for $15 million, Napoleon begins conquest of Europe, OH 17th state, US re-declares neutrality in Napoleonic wars, Haydn, Beethoven compose, War resumed between France and Britain over Malta, Second Maratha War begins, Napoleon sells Louisiana, Removal Policy to rid land of Native Americans ensues; Hudson River School of landscape painting opens

1804 NJ passes emancipation law, Haiti becomes independent under Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Lemuel Haynes receives honorary master’s degree from Middlebury College VT, Fulani begins jihad in N Nigeria, Russian envoy visits Nagasaki Japan and tries to negotiate treaty – fails, First oil lamps made in England (designed by French), Napoleon becomes emperor of French at Notre Dame, Lewis and Clark begin expedition – Prince George becomes obsessed with out-showing Napoleon, death of Immanuel Kant German philosopher, death of Jacques Necker the Swiss economist, Alexander Hamilton killed in duel by Aaron Burr, death of English painter George Morland, end of suspension of Habeas Corpus Act in Britain, The Duc d’Enghien executed for a plot against Napoleon, Napoleon proclaimed emperor by Senate and Tribunate and in crowned in presence of Pope Pius VII in Paris, War breaks out between East India Company and Holkar of Indore – ends with defeat of Holkar’s army, Francis II assumes title of Emperor of Austria as Francis I, 12 Amendment added to US constitution, Spain declares war on Britain, Napoleonic general Jean Bernadotte becomes Marshal of France, Schiller writes “Wilhelm Tell” in Weimar, British and Foreign Bible Society founded in London, Code Napoleon promulgated, Thomas Brown writes about cause and effect, death of Immanuel Kant, death of English painter George Morland, English Water Colour Society founded, Beethoven composes, Thomas Bewick completes “History of British Birds”, death of English chemist Joseph Priestly, English scientist W.H. Wollaston finds palladium in platinum, first dahlias in England, Hobart Tasmania founded, Lewis and Clark expedition starts, Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares Saint Domingue independent and restores the original name of Haiti, Napoleon crowned Emperor, Haitian independence, Lewis and Clark begin expedition, Napoleonic legal code, Napoleon declares himself Emperor, Immanuel Kant dies, 12th amendment ratified - Election of Pres and Vice same party, Louis and Clark expedition starts from St. Louis May 14, Jefferson sends naval squadron to fight Barbary Pirates - ships bombard Tripoli, Jefferson and George Clinton win election. Burr defeated as vice president - he blames Hamilton, challenge to duel. Hamilton duels, but won't fire the gun. Is mortally wounded, Haiti formally a nation, Slavery banned in North, President and Vice President in same party (12th amendment), Louis and Clark explore Louisiana territory, Haiti independent, Beethoven composes, napoleon crowned emperor, Schiller's Wilhelm Tell, Code Napoléon applied in continental Europe, Usman dan Fodio begins jihad in Hausaland (Northern Nigeria) which results in large Islamic state, Lewis and Clark leave, Napoleonic Code created, Napoleon crowns self Emperor, Serbia revolts from Turkey and gains partial independence, Jacquard loom invented in France, Zebulon Pike begins two years exploration in SW

1805 Mungo Park explores Niger river W Africa, Mohammed Ali rules Egypt and Egypt breaks away from Ottoman empire, end of second Maratha War in India, Battles of Trafalgar (British victory) and Austerlitz (French), death of French painter Jean Baptiste Greuze, death of English sculptor Thomas Banks, death of Italian composer Luigi Boccherini, death of British admiral Horatio Nelson, death of German actor A.W. Iffland, Jan - 24 inches of snow falls in a two day storm in NY, Arthur Wellesley later Duke of Wellington resigns in India, Start of Jefferson’s second term, Treaty of St. Petersburg by Britain and Russia against France joined by Austria, Napoleon crowned as King of Italy in Milan Cathedral, Battle of Austerlitz – Napoleonic victory over Austro-Russian forces, Peace of Pressburg between Austria and France – Austria gives up the Tirol and all her Italian possessions – Bavaria and Wurttemberg become kingdoms – Baden becomes a grand duchy, Establishment of modern Egypt – Mehmet Ali proclaimed Pasha, Break between Britain and US over trade with West Indies, Chateaubriand writes romantic novel, writer Schiller dies, Walter Scott writes, Robert Southey writes, Hosea Ballou writes about the Atonement, Lord Liverpool writes about British coins, Goya paints “Dona Isabel CObos de Procal”, Philipp Otto Runge paints “The Morning”, Beethoven writes opera in Vienna, death of Italian composer Luigi Boccerini, Paganini begins to tour Europe as violin virtuoso, Rockets reintroduced as weapons into the British army, Mungo Park undertakes second expedition up Niger River, F.W.A. Sarturner isolates morphine, Napoleon abandons French revolutionary calendar, Pestalozzi school at Yverdun Switzerland Total state expenditure of Great Britain listed as 62.8 million pounds, Third Coalition battles napoleon, Ali becomes Pasha of Egypt, Brits defeat Napoleon by sea at Trafalgar Oct 21 by Nelson, Treaty with ruler of Tripoli US Marines capture port of Derna in Tripolean war Apr 27, Burr tries to convince people to leave the Union, Joseph Smith born Dec 23, English Nelson destroys French and Spanish fleets, but is killed, Modern Egypt is founded, Louis and Clark reach Pacific, Beethoven composes, battle of Trafalgar, Austrians beaten by French at Ulm, Russian and Austrian armies routed at Austerlitz, Britain's Essex case bans neutrals from trading with France, French navy defeated at Battle of Trafalgar; end of US "Second Awakening" revival on East Coast where Methodists, Baptists and Disciples of Christ created

1806 Goldau Valley Landslide, Mungo Park explores Niger River, W Africa, Napoleon brings HRE to an end, End of Lewis and Clark expedition, Imam Sayyid Said begins to rule Oman, Cyclone hits Dominica, Yellow Fever hits Martinique, Landslide in Switzerland, death of English painter George Stubbs, death of American Revolutionary general Horatio Gates, death of French painter Jean Honore Fragonard, death of US statesman Robert Morris, death of Charles Augustin de Coulomb French philosopher, death of English architect Henry Holland, death of Henry Knox the American Revolutionary leader, death of English cabinetmaker Thomas Sheraton, death of Japanese painter Kitagawa Utamaro, death of Spanish composer Vincente Martin y Soler the Spanish composer, death of British statesman William Pitt the Younger, death of Emperor Francis II, British occupy Cape of Good Hope, death of William Pitt the Younger, death of Charles James Fox British foreign secretary, Joseph Bonaparte named King of Naples, Louis Bonaparte named King of Holland, Britain blockades French coast, Prussia declares war on France, Following victories at Jena and Auerstadt Napoleon enters Berlin Napoleon’s Berlin Decree begins “Continental System” closing Continental ports to British vessels, French army under Murat enters Warsaw, Confederation of Rhine founded, official end of the HRE, Peace of Posen – Saxony made a kingdom, Burr plot in the US, Arnim and Brentano collects German folk songs, Goethe marries Christiane Vulpis, Kleist writes village comedy, Jane and Ann Taylor write nursery rhymes, J.C. Adelung writes “Mithridates a History of Languages and Dialects”, Fichte writes, Institut de France created by combining academies, James Madison writes about British trade, Napoleon establishes organization for Jews in France, Population of Germany reaches 27 million, Brera Gallery in Milan opens, Claude Clodion begins Arc de Triomphe in Paris, death of Fragonard, Thorvaldsen sculpts “Hebe”, death of Japanese portrait painter Kitagawa Utamaro, David Wilke paints “Village Politicians”, Beethoven composes, Rossini’s first opera produced in Rome, Humphrey Davy discovers electrolytic method for preparing potassium and soda, P.A. Latrelle writes about insects and crustaceans, Sir Francis Beaufort composes scale (0-12) to indicate wind strength, British cotton industry employs 90,000 factory workers and 184,000 weavers, Beginning of building of Dartmoor Prison in England, First Gentlemen v. Players cricket match, Napoleon dissolves Holy Roman Empire, End of Lewis and Clark expedition, death of Japanese painter Kitagawa Utamaro, Francis II, Last Hapsburg King, declares end of the Holy Roman Empire, Napoleon controls most of Europe, Louis and Clark return to St. Louis Sep 23, Bur contemplates allegiance with Mexico, or war with Mexico, is arrested and charged with treason, acquitted, moves to Europe Cumberland Gap Road funded, Sep 23 Louis and Clark return, Zebulon Pike explores Colorado, Govt. Approves national road, Holy Roman Empire ends with Confederation of the Rhine - most German states under French domination, War between France and Prussia, Beethoven composes, HRE formally dissolved, Lewis and Clark reach Pacific, Prussia defeated by napoleon at Jena-Auerstädt, Napoleon replaces HRE with Confederation of the Rhine, Napoleon's Berlin Decrees deny British right to trade with Europe, Dayyid Said reasserts Omani power in e Africa, Capetown, S AFR falls to English, return of Lewis and Clark, French re-conquer Austrians, Napoleon begins to rule with iron fist, Francisco de Miranda sails from New York to South American (revolutionary), Buenos Aires repels British, Napoleon begins to organize German states as he abolishes Holy Roman Empire

1807 Asante invade Fante confederacy in Africa, British abolish slave trade, though slavery continues until 1833, Portugal’s John VI flees to Brazil, death of English novelist Clara Reve, death of Swiss painter Angelica Kauffmann, death of U.S. jurist Oliver Ellsworth, death of Sultan of Turkey Selim III, Indecisive battle of Eylau between French and Russo-Prussian armies, French victory at Friedland, Treaty of Tilsit between Napoleon the Czar and King of Prussia, Jerome Bonaparte becomes King of Westphalia, Napoleon endures dictatorship by suppressing Tribunate, Sultan Selim III of Turkey deposed and succeeded by Mustafa IV, The Chesapeake Incident between US and Britain, US Embargo Act against Britain and France, Baron vom Stein becomes Prussian Prime Minister and emancipates serfs, France invades Portugal and dethrones Portuguese royal family which flees to Brazil, Mme. De Stael writes, Lord Bacon writes “Hours of Idleness”, Ugo Foscolo writes, Charles and Mary Lamb writes tales from Shakespeare, Wordsworth writes ode, US Evangelical association holds first convention, Commercial Law Code introduced in France, Hegel writes, Gottlieb Hufeland writes about economy, Canove sculpts “Paolina Bonaparte as Reclining Venus”, David paints “Coronation of Napoleon”, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres begins painting “LaSource”, death of Swiss painter Angelica Kauffmann, Death of English painter John Opie, Turner paints “Sun Rising in a Mist”, Beethoven composes, Etienne Nicolas Menul composes “Joseph” opera, Spontini composes opera, Thomas Moore’s music composed, Charles Bell writes about comparative surgery, Robert Fulton’s paddle steamer “Clermont” navigates Hudson, Alexander von Humboldt and Bonpland writes about voyages in Spanish Americas, Horse racing – first Ascot Gold Cup, England prohibits slave trade, Sierra Leone and Gambia become British crown colonies, Street lighting by gas in London, England bans importation of slaves, First commercial steamboat run by Fulton in US, Slave trade ends in Britain proper, Napoleon at peak of power, US continues French trade, Brit adopts Orders of Council to block US trade with France by taking ships/blockade. America runs the blockades, Brit demands right to search or seize ships of America (Chesapeake vs Leopard), Embargo Act (US) forbids AM trade with any foreign nation To avoid war. Unenforceable. Canada trade booms, Some merchants violate law. Robert Fulton builds steamboat, Manuel Lisa explores length of Missouri River, Beethoven composes, Fulton builds steamboat, London streets lit by gas, Wordsworth writes, Napoleon's "Continental System" is complete, second battle of Copenhagen - Britain captures Danish fleet - Peace of Tilsit leaves Napoleon dominant, Yhe Braganzas (Portugese royal family) flees to Brazil under British escort, Aaron Burr's conspiracy trial, American congress passes nonintercourse act "Embargo Act" which failed miserably and upset US merchants, Napoleon stirs up war sentiments between Britain and US, Napoleon at height of powers, Portugal falls to France, Buenos Aires repels British from ports, General Whitelock conquers Montevideo, but is defeated in Buenos Aires; steamboat Clermont first sails

1808 Federal law bans importation of African slaves (though a quarter million are imported illegally before slavery ends), Fulani invade Bornu near Lake Chad, Peninsular War in Spain begins until 1814, Rebellions against Spain begin in South America, death of Goethe’s mother Katharina Elisabeth Textor, death of Russian nobleman Count Alexei Grigorievich, US prohibits importation of slaves from Africa, French army occupies Rome – invades Spain and takes Barcelona and Madrid – Joseph Bonaparte becomes King of Spain – Joachim Murat becomes king of Naples in his stead, Erfurt Congress, Rebellion in Madrid – King Joseph flees and Napoleon takes the city, Municipal Councils introduced in Prussia, Chateaubriand writes, Goethe writes “Faust” part 1, Kleist writes, Oehlenschlager writes Danish tragedy, Theatre St. Philippe in New Orleans opened, Walter Scott writes story in verse, John Dalton writes about chemical philosophy, K.F. Eichhorn writes, J.F. Fries writes new critique of reason, Napoleon abolishes Inquisition in Spain and Italy, Schlegel writes, Kaspar Friedrich paints “The Cross on the Mountains”, Goya paints “Execution of the Citizens of Madrid”, Ingres paints “La Grande Baigneuse”, Beethoven composes, Ships iron anchor chains patented by Cptn. S. Brown, J.L. Gay-Lussac writes about the combination of gasses, source of the Ganges River discovered, Disappearance of fashion of pigtails in men’s hair, Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt, Extensive excavations begin at Pompeii, Henry Crabb Robinson becomes first war correspondent – sent by “Times of London” to Spain to report on Peninsular war, Napoleon abolishes inquisition in France and Spain, U.S. bans importation of slaves, Goethe publishes "Faust" Beethoven's 5th Symphony, Importation of new slaves ceases, New England merchants suffer under Embargo Act, James Madison (Republican) wins election as Jefferson refuses 3rd term, Tecumseh forced west, starts Indian national movement, Religious revival among Indians, Napoleon conquers Spain, Latin Americans begin to revolt, Peninsular war to drive French from Spain, Embargo act softened to Non-Intercourse act, James Madison 4th president, Goethe writes Faust part 1, Spanish national uprising against the French starts the Peninsular war, Napoleon installs brother as Spanish king, Italians rally against Napoleon creating new Italian nation, War between Sweden and Russia

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