1Assimilation – fundamental terms



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1Assimilation – fundamental terms


Assimilation is a process whereby adjacent consonants become more similar to each other (e.g. in manner or place of articulation) in order to facilitate pronunciation. Assimilation is the result of the process known as coarticulation that refers to the effect of the phonetic context on the articulation of speech sounds.

1.1Anatomic mechanisms underlying assimilation processes

1.1.1Perserveration


It refers to prolongation of the articulatory setting characteristic of a phoneme that occurs in the left context, so that the articulatory features of the phoneme in the right context are affected, e.g.

świat /ɕfjat/, krzywy /kʃyvy/, twarz /tfaʃ/


1.1.2Anticipation


It occurs when the articulators are set in the position characteristic of a phoneme in the right context too soon. As a result the articulatory features of the phoneme in the left context are changed, e.g.

szybko /ʃɨpko/, arabski /arapsci/, babcia /bapɕa/


1.2Typology of assimilations in Polish


the direction of the effect of the phonetic context

progressive or perserverative a. (left to right: a sound changes with reference to a preceding segment)

regressive or anticipatory a. (right to left: a sound changes with reference to a following segment)

type of expression

intra-word a. (within word boundaries)

e.g. ściemnić /st^ɕemɲit^ɕ/ or /ɕt^ɕemɲit^ɕ/



inter-word a. (at the boundary between adjacent words)

e.g. kotek Basi /koteg baɕi/, ogród Piotra /ogrut pjotra/



articulatory feature that becomes affected by the context

voicing

nasality

palatalization

place of articulation

manner of articulation



2Voicing assimilations

2.1inter-word a. (always regressive)





word-final syllable

word-initial syllable

voiceless obstruent (orthography) (+nasal or liquid)

voiced obstruent (orthography)

(+nasal or liquid)



voiced phoneme

voiced phoneme

regressive voicing




word-final syllable

word-initial syllable

voiced obstruent (orthography)

(+nasal or liquid)



voiceless obstruent (orthography)

(+nasal or liquid)



voiceless phoneme

voiceless phoneme

regressive devoicing



idź tam – idź do niej

it^ɕ tam id^ʑ do ɲej

zjedz tosta – zjedz deser

zjet^s tosta zjed^z deser

włóż szal – włóż żakiet

vwuʃ ʃal vwuʒ ʒacjet

weź pomarańczę – weź brzoskwinię

veɕ pomaraɲt^ʃe veʑ bʒoskfiɲe

mów ciszej – mów głośniej

muf t^ɕiʃej muv gwoɕɲej

ząb trzonowy – ząb biały

zomp tʃonovɨ zomb bjawɨ

próg sali – próg drzwi

pruk sali prug d^ʒvi

Idź do kuchni, weź talerz, nóż i widlec i nałóż sobie warzyw.

id^ʑ do kuxɲi veɕ taleʒ nuʒ i videled^z i nawuʃ sobje vaʒɨf

Zmiażdż czosnek, wrzuć go na patelnię i usmaż z cebulą.

zmjaʃt^ʃ t^ʃosneg vʒud^ʑ go na patelɲe i usmaʃ s t^sebulow~



2.1.1Regional variation


Poznan-Cracow pronunciation

word-final syllable

word-initial syllable

voiceless obstruent (orthography)

sonorant (vowel or consonant)

voiced phoneme

sonorant

regressive voicing


Warsaw pronunciation

word-final syllable

word-initial syllable

voiced obstruent (orthography)

sonorant (vowel or consonant)

voiceless phoneme

sonorant

regressive devoicing







Warsaw

Poznan-Cracow

sklep Adama

sklep adama

skleb adama

sklep monopolowy

sklep monopolovɨ

skleb monopolovɨ

grób Anny

grup annɨ

grub annɨ

grób rodzinny

grup rod^ʑinnɨ

grub rod^ʑinnɨ



2.2intra-word a.

2.2.1Regressive devoicing


On word boundaries and when followed by a voiceless obstruent voiced obstruents become devoiced:


-/p/

Araba-arabski

araba arapsci

słaba-słabszy

swaba swapʃɨ

baba-babcia

baba bapt^ɕa

-/t/

wóda-wódka

vuda vutka

młody-młodszy

mwodɨ mwotʃɨ

słodycz-słodsi

swodɨt^ʃ swotɕi

-/f/

surowa-surówka

surova surufka

wada-wpada

vada fpada

wziąć-wsiąść

vʑoɲt^ɕ fɕoj~ɕt^ɕ

-/s/

rozwód-roztwór

rozvud rostfur

bluza-bluzka

bluza bluska

bezładny-bezpłatny

bezwadnɨ bespwatnɨ

<ż,-rz>-/ʃ/

książę-książki

kɕow~ʒe kɕow~ʃci

mężowie-mężczyzna

mew~ʒovje mew~ʃt^ʃɨzna

bliżej-bliższy

bliʒej bliʃʃɨ

In clusters of a voiced obstruent followed by a nasal/liquid or <ł> and a voiceless obstruent the following rules apply:

voiced obstruent + nasal/liquid/<ł> + voiceless obstruent ->

voiceless obstruent + devoiced nasal/liquid/<ł> + voiceless obstruent e.g. mędrca /mentrt^ɕa/

or: voiced obstruent + nasal/liquid/<ł> + voiceless obstruent e.g. módlcie /mudlt^ɕe/



or: voiceless obstruent + voiceless obstruent e.g. jabłko /japko/

2.2.2Regressive voicing


<ś> - /ʑ/

proś-prośba

proɕ proʑba

- /d^ʒ/

licz-liczba

lit^ʃ lid^ʒba

- /d/

fotek-futbol

fotek fudbol

- /g/

tak-także

tak tagʒe

wszak-wszakże

fʃak fʃagʒe

jak-jakże

jak jagʒe

jednak-jednakże

jednak jednagʒe

2.2.3Terminal devoicing


Voiced obstruents at word boundaries become voiceless.

plosives

dębu-dąb

dembu domp

wada-wad

vada vat

waga-wag

vaga vak

fricatives

głowa-głów

gwova gwuf

bryza-bryz

bryza brys

talerze-talerz

taleʒe taleʃ

więzi-więź

vjej~ʑi vjej~ɕ

affricates

rydze-rydz

d^ze rɨt^s

łodzi-łódź

wod^ʑi wut^ɕ

gwiżdże-gwiżdż

gviʒd^ʒe gviʃt^ʃ

mądrzy-mądrz

mondʒɨ montʃ

In clusters of a voiced consonants followed by a sonorant at word boundary the following rule applies:

voiced consonant + sonorant (consonant) + pause ->

voiced consonant + sonorant (consonant) + pause, or

voiceless consonant + devoiced sonorant (consonant) + pause

e.g.

kadr /kadr/ or /katr/



bóbr /bubr/ or /bupr/

realizm /realizm/ or /realism/

blizn /blizn/ or /blisn/

2.2.4Progressive devoicing


Voiced consonants become devoiced when preceded by a voiceless consonant:

-/ʃ/

wrzeć-przeć

vʒet^ɕ pʃet^ɕ

grze-krze

gʒe kʃe

brzask-trzask

bʒask tʃask

przedrze-przetrze

pʃedʒe pʃetʃe

-/f/

dwór-czwór

dvur t^ʃfur

zwiad-świat

zvjat ɕfjat

zwarzy-twarzy

zvaʒɨ tfaʒɨ

Przez Krzysztofa trzeba w czwartek przyjść do pracy.

pʃes kʃɨʃtofa tʃeba f t^ʃfartek pʃɨjʑd^ʑ do prat^sɨ

Twój ojciec chrzestny jest świetnym przyjacielem.

tfuj ojt^ɕet^s xʃestnɨ jest ɕfjetnɨm pʃɨjat^ɕelem


3Nasality


Assimilation with respect to nasality is optional. It concerns only vowels and occurs in very few contexts, e.g. when the the vowel precedes a nasalized glide (/w~/ or /j~/):

wąs /võw~s/

pański /pãj~sci/

also:


kamfora /kãmfora/

tramwaj /trãmvaj/

benzyna /bẽw~zɨna/

inspektor /ĩnspektor/

inwalida /ĩnvalida/

awansie /avãw~ɕe/



4Palatalization


Some consonants preceding a palatal consonant may assimilate and become palatal. This is an alternative pronunciation:

assimilation

word

canonical

alternative

-

/ɲɲ/

gminie-gminnie

gmiɲe gmie

gmiɲe gmiɲɲe

cenię-cennie

t^seɲe t^see

t^seɲe t^seɲɲe

-

/ʑd^ʑ/

działać-zdziałać

d^ʑawat^ɕ zd^ʑawat^ɕ

d^ʑawat^ɕ ʑd^ʑawat^ɕ

podział-rozdział

pod^ʑaw rozd^ʑaw

pod^ʑaw roʑd^ʑaw

-

/ɕɕ/

się-ssie

ɕe e

ɕe ɕɕe

śmieszył-rozśmieszył

ɕmjeʃɨw romjeʃɨw

ɕmjeʃɨw roɕɕmjeʃɨw

<-zzi,-zź>-

/ʑʑ/

zielenieć-zzielenieć

ʑeleɲet^ɕ eleɲet^ɕ

ʑeleɲet^ɕ ʑʑeleɲet^ɕ

ziębnąć-zziębnąć

ʑembnoɲt^ɕ zʑembnoɲt^ɕ

ʑembnoɲt^ɕ ʑʑembnoɲt^ɕ



5Place and manner of articulation


Assimilations concerning place or manner of articulation are mostly regressive and word-internal.

A stop may assimilate with respect to manner of articulation to the following fricative or affricate: this process is known as affrication. It occurs when the articulators are set to a position appropriate for the following sound too early. As a result the plosive acquires a fricative release.

Fricatives may assimilate regressively with respect to place of articulation: the tip of the tongue is set to a position characteristic of the following fricative before the friction of the first one is released.


assimilation

word

canonical

alternative

+ /ʃ/ -> /ʃ/

(place, regressive)



zszargać

sʃargat^ɕ

ʃʃargat^ɕ

rozszerzać

rosʃe ʒat^ɕ

roʃʃe ʒat^ɕ

, + /t^ʃ/ -> /ʃ/

(place, regressive)



sczernieć

st^ʃerɲet^ɕ

ʃt^ʃerɲet^ɕ

rozczarować

rost^ʃarovat^ɕ

roʃt^ʃarovat^ɕ

+ /ʒ/ -> /ʒ/

(place, regressive)



rozżalony

rozʒalonɨ

roʒʒalonɨ

zrzucać

zʒut^sa t^ɕ

ʒʒut^sa t^ɕ

zżymać się

zʒɨmat^ɕ

ʒʒɨmat^ɕ

, + /t^s/ -> /t^s/

(manner, regressive)



matce

matt^se

mat^st^se

dowódca

dovutt^sa

dovut^st^sa

, + /ʃ/ or /ʒ/ or /t^ʃ/ + vowel -> /t^ʃ/

(place or manner, regressive)



powietrze

povjetʃe

povjet^ʃʃe

odczuwam

ott^ʃuvam

ot^ʃt^ʃuvam

+ /ʒ/ + vowel -> /d^ʒ/

(manner, regressive)



kadrze

kadʒe

kad^ʒʒe

Andrzej

andʒej

and^ʒʒej

, + palatal consonants ->

/t^ɕ/, /d^ʑ/

(manner, regressive)



najmłodsi

najmwotɕi

najmwot^ɕɕi

Śródziemnym

ɕruemnɨm

ɕrud^ʑʑemnɨm

oddziału

odd^ʑawu

od^ʑd^ʑawu


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