3 Migration Learning Outcomes After reading, studying, and discussing the chapter, students should be able to

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Learning Outcomes
After reading, studying, and discussing the chapter, students should be able to:
Learning Outcome 3.1.1: Understand the difference between immigration, emigration, and net migration.

Learning Outcome 3.1.2: Recognize the principal streams of international migration.

Learning Outcome 3.1.3: Understand the difference between internal and international migration.

Learning Outcome 3.1.4: Describe the different sources of immigrants during the three main eras of U.S. immigration.

Learning Outcome 3.2.1: Describe the principal patterns of interregional migration in the United States.

Learning Outcome 3.2.2: Describe the principal patterns of interregional migration in several large countries.

Learning Outcome 3.2.3: Describe three types of intraregional migration.

Learning Outcome 3.3.1: Explain cultural and environmental reasons for migration.

Learning Outcome 3.3.2: Explain environmental reasons for migration.

Learning Outcome 3.3.3: Understand economic reasons for international migration.

Learning Outcome 3.3.4: Describe the demographic characteristics of international migrants.

Learning Outcome 3.4.1: Describe government policies that restrict immigration.

Learning Outcome 3.4.2: Understand the diversity of conditions along the U.S.-Mexico border.

Learning Outcome 3.4.3: Understand the diversity of conditions along the U.S.-Mexico border.

Learning Outcome 3.4.4: Understand attitudes toward immigrants in Europe.
Chapter Outline
Introduction Migration, the permanent movement of people to a new location, is central to the interest of geographers. Geographers study migration because it helps reveal changes in population in places and regions around the world. The cultural exchange that occurs when migrants arrive at new locations also bears significance to geographers.
Key Issue 1: Where Are the World’s Migrants Distributed?
Migration is a permanent move to a new location, and is a specific type of relocation diffusion. Geographers examine the migration of people across Earth and the basis for the migration.
Introducing Migration During the past 7,000 years, humans have diffused from a small portion of Earth’s land area to most of it by migration. Migration is a type of mobility, which is a broad term encapsulating all types of movements from one location to another. Movements that occur on a regular basis (daily, weekly, monthly, or annually), such as commuting from home to work, are called circulation. The flow of migration always involves two-way connections – emigration is migration from a location, while immigration is migration to a location.
The difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants is the net migration. If the number of immigrants is greater than the number of emigrants, the net migration is positive, and the region has net in-migration. If the number of emigrants is greater than the number of immigrants, the net migration is negative, and the region has net out-migration.
The reasons behind migration are a key interest to geographers, as migration generates profound changes for individuals and cultures at large. Migration to a new location disrupts traditional cultural connections and economic patterns in one region. Migrants bring their language, religion, ethnicity, and other cultural characteristics, as well as methods of farming and other economic practices to their new homes.
International Net Migration Nineteenth-century geographer E.G. Ravenstein’s “laws” are the foundation for contemporary geographic migration study. The “laws” are organized into three groups that help us understand where and why migration occurs:

  • The distance that migrants typically move (discussed in Key Issues 1 and 2).

  • The reasons migrants move (discussed in the first part of Key Issue 3)

  • The characteristics of migrants (discussed in the second part of Key Issue 3).

International Migration Flows A permanent move from one country to another is international migration. According to the Pew Research Center, approximately 214 million people (3 percent of the world’s population) are international migrants. At the regional scale, the three largest flows of migrants are:

  • From Latin America to North America

  • From South Asia to Europe

  • From South Asia to Southwest Asia

Migration from Mexico to the United States represents the largest flow of people from a single country to another single country. The significance of the movement of people from developing countries to developed countries is emblematic of regional migration patterns. North America, Europe, Southwest Asia, and the South Pacific have net in-migration. Latin America, Africa, and all regions of Asia except for Southwest Asia have net out-migration. The United States is home to more foreign-born residents than any other country – roughly 42 million as of 2015, with approximately 1 million additional people arriving annually.
International and Internal Migration Geographer E.G. Ravenstein developed a set of laws that help describe human migration. According to Ravenstein:

  • Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country.

  • Long-distance migrants to other countries move to major centers of economic activity.

Distance of Migration Migration can take two forms: international or internal.
International Migration International migration may be voluntary or forced. Voluntary migration is migration where a person has chosen to move (for economic or environmental reasons), while forced migration means a person was compelled to move (by cultural or environmental factors). This distinction is not always easily identifiable.
Internal Migration Internal migration is the permanent movement of a person or people within the same country. Internal migration can be divided into two types: interregional and intraregional. Interregional migration is the movement from one region of a country to another. The movement within the same region of a single country is called intraregional migration.
Changing U.S. Immigration The United States is situated in a unique position in the study of international migration, as it is inhabited overwhelmingly by direct descendants of immigrants. About 80 million people migrated to the United States between 1820 and 2015, including 42 million currently alive in 2015. Immigration in the United States can be conceptualized into three main eras:

  • Colonial settlement in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

  • Mass European immigration in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

  • Asian and Latin American immigration in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

U.S. Immigration at Independence According to the first census in 1790, the U.S. population was
3.9 million, including 950,000 who had immigrated to one of the colonies currently part of the United States. Immigration to the United States in this era primarily came from two key places: Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. Most Africans were forced to migrate to the United States as slaves, while most Europeans were voluntary migrants. All of the colonies in the United States were established on the Atlantic Coast.

U.S. Immigration: Mid-Nineteenth to Early Twentieth Centuries From 1840 until the outbreak of World War I, the source regions for new migrants coincided with the Industrial Revolution diffusing from its hearth in Great Britain. The majority of the immigrants that came to the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century came from Germany, Ireland, and Scandinavia. In the early twentieth century many of the immigrants came from Eastern and Southern Europe.

U.S. Immigration: Late Twentieth to Early Twenty-first Centuries After World War II most new migrants to the United States came from Asia and Latin America. Asians and Latin Americans have come to the United States in recent decades after many of their countries entered stage 2 of the demographic transition.
Key Issue 2: Where Do People Migrate within a Country?
Interregional Migration in the United States The expansion of the United States to the western reaches of North America allowed for large-scale internal migration. Through mass interregional migration, the interior of the continent was settled and developed.
Changing Center of Population The U.S. Census Bureau computes the population center of the United States every census. The population center is the average location of everyone in the country, the “center of population gravity.” Over the past 200 years, the center has reliably shifted westward, although the rate of this shift has fluctuated over time.
1790: Hugging the Coast Settlement was concentrated along the Atlantic Coast, as colonists depended on shipping links with Europe to receive provisions and to export raw materials. The Appalachian Mountains also presented a physiographic barrier to westward movement.
1800-1840: Crossing the Appalachians Transportation improvements, notably the construction of canals (especially the Erie Canal), encouraged westward settlement. The forested river valleys between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River provided cheap land for enterprising migrants.
1850-1890: Rushing to the Gold The population center drifted further west during the mid- to late nineteenth century. The Gold Rush of the late 1840s pulled people past western frontiers that were not heavily occupied. In fact, explorers such as Zebulon Pike thought of the Great Plains as unfit for agricultural activity, leading many in the United States to conceptualize the region as the Great American Desert.
1900-1940: Filling in the Great Plains Emigration from Europe to the United States offset most of the migration from the East Coast to the U.S. West, preventing a major westward shift of the population center. The Great Plains region was also beginning to pull more migrants, as advances in agricultural technology enabled people to cultivate the landscape.
1950-2010: Moving South The population center not only resumed its westward movement, but shifted southward as well, as Americans moved to the South for job opportunities and warmer climes. Interregional migration has diminished considerably, as regional differences in employment opportunities have receded.
Interregional Migration in Other Large Countries Long-distance interregional migration has played an important role in opening new regions for development in countries with large amounts of land area, such as China, Canada, and Russia.
Interregional Migration in Canada Mirroring migration patterns in the United States, population expanded westward in Canada over the past 200 years. The two westernmost provinces, Alberta and British Columbia, have had the vast majority of Canada’s current net in-migration, while Ontario has had the most net out-migration.
Interregional Migration in Russia The population of Russia is highly clustered in the western (European) portion of the country. In the past, eastward interregional migration was observed, as the Asian portion of Russia was sparsely populated and Communist policy dictated economic development in this region. The Soviet government sometimes forcibly moved people to these isolated areas to provide an adequate supply of labor for this industrial expansion.
Interregional Migration in China The predominant flow of interregional migration is from rural to urban areas, where job prospects are higher. More than 150 million people have emigrated from rural areas in the interior of the China. While interregional migration to the east coast was restricted in years past, limitations have been eased recently.
Interregional Migration in Brazil While the Brazilian east coast is more heavily populated than its densely forested interior areas, development of the interior region (along with the movement of the capital to Brasília) over the past half century has altered historic migration patterns. The coastal areas now have net out-migration, whereas the interior areas have net in-migration.
Intraregional Migration Intraregional migration is a more frequently observed phenomena than interregional or international migration. Most intraregional migration occurs from rural to urban areas in developing countries, while migrants are moving from cities to suburbs in developed countries.
Migration from Rural to Urban Areas Beginning with the Industrial Revolution in the 1800s, migration patterns in Europe and North America saw people move from rural to urban areas. Developing countries are starting to see similar trends, with agricultural job opportunities disappearing and factory and service prospects in urban areas growing.
Migration from Urban to Suburban Areas The majority of intraregional migration in developed countries is from cities to surrounding areas, or suburbs. The population of city-based urban populations in developed countries has decreased since the mid-twentieth century, while suburban areas have grown rapidly. Amenities such as private yards and garages have pulled people to the suburban lifestyle; however, this lifestyle is only possible with access to reliable transportation, such as a car or train. This transportation allows access to jobs, shopping, and recreational facilities.
Migration from Urban to Rural Areas The late twentieth century saw the development of a new migration trend: counterurbanization. Counterurbanization is the net migration from urban to rural areas, a phenomena that has results in part from the rapid growth of suburbs. Rocky Mountain states such as Colorado and Utah have specifically experienced counterurbanization in the United States. The development of communication and transportation systems have economically and socially connected once isolated areas, allowing for this trend to take place.
Key Issue 3: Why Do People Migrate?
Ravenstein’s laws help geographers contextualize the impetus of people who migrate:

  • Most people migrate for economic reasons.

  • Cultural and environmental reasons also induce migration, although not as often as economic reasons.

While one prevailing reason may be easily identifiable for migration, a mosaic of reasons generally prompts a move. People migrate due to push and pull factors. A push factor motivates people to move from their present location, while a pull factor encourages people to move to a new location. Push and pull factors typically work in tandem for people deciding (or being forced to) to migrate.

Cultural Reasons for Migrating The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes three groups of people who are forced to migrate for political reasons:

  • A refugee has been forced to migrate to another country to avoid the impacts of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights, or other disasters and cannot return for fear of persecution because race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political views.

  • An internally displaced person (IDP) has been compelled to move for similar political reasons as a refugee but has not migrated to a different country.

  • An asylum seeker is someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee.

In 2014, The UN counted 19.5 million refugees, 38.2 million IDPs, and 1.8 million asylum seekers. The largest number of refugees in 2014 were forced to migrate from Afghanistan and from Syria due to prolonged civil wars in each respective country. Countries bordering Afghanistan and Syria took in the largest share of refugees – Pakistan and Iran from Afghanistan and Lebanon and Turkey from Syria.

Trail of Tears Under the Indian Removal Act of 1830, Native Americans were forced to move from the lands they had historically occupied in the southeastern United States to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). The Choctaw were forced to emigrate from Mississippi in 1831, the Seminole from Florida in 1832, the Creek from Alabama in 1834, the Chickasaw from Mississippi in 1837, and the Cherokee from Georgia in 1838. 25 million acres of land were opened up for white settlement by these five removals. Many of the 46,000 Native Americans forced to move died on the journey to Indian Territory, with a dry climate unsuitable for agricultural activity awaiting them in the west. The route taken by these Native Americans is now known as the Trail of Tears; parts of it are preserved as a National Historic Trail.
Environmental Reasons for Migrating People will sometimes migrate for environmental reasons. They are pulled toward physically attractive regions and pushed from hazardous ones. Many people are forced to move by water-related disasters because they live in a vulnerable area like the floodplain of a river. A lack of water will often force people to migrate from an area. Deterioration of land to a desert like condition, typically due to human activity, is known as desertification (or more precisely, semiarid land degradation). For instance, the areas of Africa capable of sustaining human life has deteriorated due to population growth and persistent drought. An environmental or political feature that deters migration is an intervening obstacle. While long-distance passage over land or sea was the traditional environmental barrier to international migration, transportation improvements have diminished the prominence of environmental features as intervening obstacles.
Migrating to Find Work Most people migrate for economic reasons, often due to a lack of job opportunities. Economic restructuring impacts job prospects both internationally and intraregionally.
Economic Reasons for Migrating Throughout history, the United States and Canada have drawn economic migrants. While Europeans historically immigrated to the United States and Canada, today many people emigrate from Latin America and Asia, pulled by the economic prospects offered by these two North American countries. Sometimes, it is difficult to categorize migrants coming to the United States, Canada, and European countries – many move for economic reasons, while others flee government persecution. This distinction between the two is important because these destinations treat these two groups differently. Economic migrants are generally not admitted unless they possess special skills or have a close relative already in the new country, while refugees receive special priority in most cases.
Asia’s Migrant Work Some countries allow people to immigrate on a temporary basis for economic reasons, most notably in Asia and Europe.
South and East Asia The world’s largest sources of economic migrants emigrate from South and East Asia, with more than 2 million people emigrating from India, Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan every year. 50 million Chinese and 25 million Indians live abroad, with the United States and other Asian countries being prominent destinations.
Southwest Asia Economic migrants from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and other Southeastern Asian countries travel to the oil-rich countries of Southwest Asia for work. The United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia host these immigrants, although working conditions have been considered poor in some of these countries.
Remittances The transfer of money by workers to people in the country from which they emigrated is a remittance. The total amount of remittances worldwide was $550 billion in 2013, with this figure rising by nearly 10 percent every year. In 2013, India was the biggest recipient of remittances, bringing in $71 billion, followed by China with $60 billion.
Gender and Age of Migrants Ravenstein detailed distinctive gender and family-status patterns in his laws:

  • Most long-distance migrants were male.

  • Most long-distance migrants were adult individuals rather than families with children.

Gender of Migrants Ravenstein theorized that males were more likely to migrate long distances to other countries than females because economic push and pull factors were the main reasons for international migration, and males were more likely than females to be employed. This theory held true for people immigrating to the United States during the nineteenth and most of the twentieth centuries, when 55 percent were male. However, since 1970, female immigrants have outnumbered their male counterparts, comprising 55 percent of the total. This trend can also be observed in other developed countries. Ravenstein theorized two reasons for this shift:

  • The high percentage of females in the workforce of developed countries attracts a high percentage of female immigrants.

  • Some developed countries have allowed wives to join husbands who have already immigrated.

This pattern is not present in developing countries, where male immigrants still outnumber female ones.

Age of Migrants Ravenstein theorized that most long-distance migrants were young adults seeking job opportunities rather than children or elderly people. Recent migration trends in the United States mirror this theory in some aspects, but not in others:

  • Most U.S. immigrants are young adults, reflecting Ravenstein’s laws. 49 percent of recent immigrants to the United States are between the ages of 20 and 39.

  • Only 5 percent of recent U.S. immigrants are over the age of 65. However, in developing countries, the elderly are more likely to migrate, comprising 8 percent of immigrants.

  • Children under the age of 20 make up 21 percent of immigrants to the United States, while in developing countries, 23 percent of the same cohort are migrants.

The number of unaccompanied minors attempting to enter the United States without proper documentation has skyrocketed in recent years, due to a mix of pull and push factors. 90 percent of the children between 12 and 17 trying to immigrate to the United States have been males – these teenage boys are pushed by increasing gang violence in their home countries (such as Honduras and El Salvador), and pulled to the United States because of rumors that deportation will not happen if they are caught.

Key Issue 4: Why Do Migrants Face Challenges?
Government Immigration Policies Most countries, including the United States, have instituted selective immigration policies that admit some types of immigrants while barring others. Visas are typically granted for specific employment placement and family reunification. The United Nations categorizes countries according to four types of immigration policies: (1) maintain the current level of immigration, (2) increase the level, (3) reduce the level, (4) no policy. Emigration policies are identified by the same four classes.
Unauthorized Immigration Migrants who enter the United States without proper documents are called unauthorized immigrants. More than half the unauthorized immigrants in the United States emigrated from Mexico. Academic observers favor the term “unauthorized immigrants” when referring to this group of immigrants, while “undocumented immigrant” is preferred by some of the groups that advocate for more rights for these individuals. An estimated 8 million unauthorized immigrants are employed in the United States, comprising 5 percent of the total U.S. civilian work force. They are most likely to be employed in construction and hospitality industries. The states with the largest number of unauthorized immigrants are California and Texas, while Nevada has the highest proportion of unauthorized immigrants. 61 percent of unauthorized adult immigrants have been in the United States for 10 years or more, 23 percent for 5 to 9 years, and 16 percent for less than 5 years.

U.S. Quota Laws The United States has long used quota laws to limit the source regions and numbers of new migrants. The Quota Act and the National Origins Act, passed in 1921 and 1924, respectively, limited the number of immigrants admitted to the United States during a one-year period. Quota laws were historically preferential to Europeans. Today’s quotas give preference to talented and skilled workers in wanted professions which in the long run harms the countries these professionals are emigrating from. This situation is called brain drain. Presently, many professionals from Asian countries are immigrating to the United States, contributing to brain drain in their native countries. Family members of these professionals are also given preference in quota laws, with chain migration drawing these family members to the destinations these professionals have moved to in the United States. Chain migration is the migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
U.S.-Mexico Border Issues The United States has constructed a barrier along the U.S.-Mexico border that covers approximately one-fourth of the border’s length, but locating the border is difficult in sparsely inhabited, remote areas. Mexicans oftentimes urge understanding and sympathy for the plight of the immigrants trying to cross the border.
Migration Policy Disputes American citizens are divided concerning whether unauthorized migration helps or hurt the country. This ambivalence extends to certain elements of immigration law. While many Americans would like to see more effective border patrols and physical barriers, such as fences, constructed to prevent unauthorized border crossings, they cannot agree on the funding of these expenditures. Most Americans acknowledge that unauthorized immigrants take jobs that no American citizen will reliably take, so they support some type of temporary work visa to allow them to work in the United States. Americans also favor letting law enforcement officials stop and verify the legal status of anyone they suspect of being an unauthorized immigrant; however, citizens also fear civil rights may be violated in doing so. Additionally, Americans believe that enforcement of unauthorized immigrants is a federal, and not local, government responsibility. Arizona and Alabama are examples of states that have passed restrictive laws aiming to identify unauthorized immigrants, while more than 100 localities across the country have passed resolutions supporting more rights for these same immigrants – a movement known as “Sanctuary City.”
Europe’s Immigration Crisis Immigrants from the relatively poorer Southern and Eastern Europe are drawn to the economically more developed Northern and Western Europe. These immigrants are employed in industries that are typically eschewed by citizens in these Northern and Western Europeans countries.
Migration Patterns in Europe European countries collectively have around 40 million immigrants. This total includes 20 million who have migrated from one European country to another and 20 million who have emigrated from outside the continent. The flow of migrants within Europe is primarily from east to west. Prior to 2014, most immigrants coming to Europe came from neighboring countries, such as Morocco and Turkey. As a result of the prolonged conflict in Syria, Afghanistan, and North Africa, the number of refugees entering Europe has grown tremendously. These refugees have confounded many governments across Europe, with many struggling to devise balanced policies that will accommodate refugees while protecting the interests of its citizens. The land and sea routes to Europe taken by these refugees are perilous, with more than 1,000 perishing by drowning in the Mediterranean or by suffocating in sealed trucks.

Guest Workers Germany and other wealthy European countries instituted guest worker programs, in which immigrants from poorer countries were permitted to immigrate temporarily to obtain employment. These guest worker programs (operated primarily during the 1960s and 1970s) were anticipated to be examples of circular migration, which is the temporary movement of a migrant worker between home and host counties to seek employment. Guest workers were anticipated to return to their home countries once their work was done. Most of these migrants have remained permanently in Europe, becoming citizens of the host country.
Attitudes Toward Immigrants In Europe, immigrants make up 8 percent of Europe’s population, including 4 percent who migrated from one European country to another, and 4 percent who emigrated from outside the continent. The immigrant population makes up 13 percent of the total population in the United States, and 21 percent of the total population in Canada. Many political parties in countries across Europe have adopted hostile positions toward immigrants, labeling them as the source of crime, unemployment, and high welfare costs. They also claim that these immigrants are eroding the long-standing cultural traditions of the host country. Demographic change has played a major role in the source of this hostility, with most European countries currently in the fourth stage of the demographic transition. With very low or negative NIR, immigrants are now the sole source of population growth.
Oregon Trail
Many students in American classrooms have played “Oregon Trail,” a computer simulation of some of the challenges faced by migrants to the American West. Mentioning this game is likely to generate examples of physical barriers to migration: the sheer distance, river crossings, deserts, and other challenges such as disease, exhaustion, and hunger.
Class Discussion Topics
In 2011, Alabama enacted a law that prohibited or restricted unauthorized immigrants from attending public schools or colleges. Do you think that the citizens of Alabama should pay more in state taxes because the federal government has not effectively controlled the border? Should the federal government have an obligation to fully or partially reimburse the taxpayers of Alabama for the education of unauthorized immigrants? Do you think that the denial of public education will possibly deter unauthorized immigration into Alabama?
Americans purchase products made in foreign countries using cheap labor. Is this any different than allowing low-cost labor to immigrate to the United States? How? Why are employers who knowingly hire undocumented immigrants under less scrutiny than the immigrants themselves?
Challenges to Comprehension
Mobility vs. Migration
Most college students have a great degree of mobility, much greater than that experienced by much of the world’s population. Therefore, students may have a difficult time imagining how little many people around the world actually move and how significant a migration decision is.
Illustrating the significance can be helped with a discussion of the difficulty of obstacles, both cultural and physical, faced by migrants. An understanding of how few resources most migrants have is especially useful. This understanding also aids students in comprehending chain migration, as migrants are likely to travel where they have a connection to family or a group from their home country.
Another approach is to ask students about where, provided they have the money, they would like to travel. Write a list of their favored destinations.
Now ask the students whether there are any places on the list where citizens of which are not free to visit the United States. A healthy discussion should follow.
Refugee/Internally Displaced Person
The United Nations defines a refugee as “a person who has a well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.” Most internally displaced people are essentially refugees that have not crossed an international boundary. For example, apartheid policies in South Africa forced approximately 3.6 million blacks to migrate to government-created homelands within the country. Sudan is estimated to have nearly 5 million internally displaced people due to the ongoing civil unrest.
Sometimes countries will forcibly relocate people if it is deemed to be in the best interests of the country. China forcibly relocated 10 to 17 million people from urban areas to rural communities because they wanted to ease pressure arising from high urban unemployment. The Soviet government forced people to migrate to the Far North to construct and operate steel mills, hydroelectric power stations, mines, and other enterprises.
Explain the concept of eminent domain to the students. Ask the students if they think eminent domain is basically a small scale version of what China and the Soviet Union did. Ask the students if they would be upset if their family had to relocate because of eminent domain.
Review/Reflection Question

  • Name an economic, social, and environmental “push” factor (three in all) that would make you migrate, and explain each one. Do the same for three “pull” factors. Make sure you demonstrate an understanding of the difference between mobility and migration in your answer.

  • Why did 40 million Europeans leave for the United States to face unknown challenges in America? Answer as though you were a European in the late 1800s preparing to migrate and give your reasons for leaving Europe as well as your reasons for choosing America.

  • Why are new migrants to an area frequently the butt of racist or ethnic jokes? Explain in the context of the history of European emigration to the United States. Which groups were more frequently made fun of?

  • Describe an interregional move made by your family, some friends, or some others you know. Explain their migration decision using terminology from the book. Do the same for an intraregional move.

  • Based on your migration history, consider any “cultural baggage” that you have inherited. This baggage may include sports teams allegiance, food, language, dress, and behavior.

For additional review and test prep materials, have your students visit MasteringGeography™ to access a variety of resources, including interactive maps, videos, Google Earth activities, RSS feeds, flashcards, web links, and self-study quizzes.

Thinking Geographically Questions
3.1: Compare the cartograms of emigration (Figure 3-2) and immigration (Figure 3-3) with the cartogram of world population (Figure 2-3). Which of the five most populous countries (China, India, United States, Indonesia, and Brazil) appear to have especially high levels of emigration and immigration, and which appear to have especially low levels?
India, China, and Indonesia appear to have high levels of emigration, while the United States and Brazil have low rates of emigration. The United States and India appear to have relatively high levels of immigration, while China, Indonesia, and Brazil have low levels of immigration.
3.2: What might explain these relatively high or low rates?
Push and pull factors, whether they be economic, political, or environmental, could explain these rates. It should also be taken into consideration whether emigrants were forced to move, or voluntarily did so. For example, the relatively robust economy of the United States pulls people from India and China, where high paying jobs might be harder to get. In 2004, Indonesia was hit by a massive tsunami, displacing thousands and forcing them to move elsewhere.
3.3: Forced migration is considered here as a subset of international migration. What current and historical examples of forced internal migration have been cited in this chapter?
An example of historical forced internal migration cited in this chapter includes the forced relocation of Native Americans during the event known as the Trail of Tears in the mid-nineteenth century. A more contemporary example of forced internal migration cited in this chapter is the interregional migration of Russian citizens from the European portion of the country to the Asian portion of the country for economic development near natural resources (however, this trend has recently reversed).
3.4: Most people migrate for a combination of economic push and pull factors. As you consider your personal future, do you expect push factors or pull factors to be more important in your location decisions? Why?
Economic pull factors will likely play a major role in my location decisions, as I need to live in a place where I can find gainful employment. However, political push factors, such as codified discriminatory policies at the state level in Alabama aimed at minorities, will likely play a role in my decision to move away as well.
3.5: The U.S. border with Mexico has a fence in most places, whereas the U.S. border with Canada does not. What might account for this difference?
The high rates of immigration to the United States from Mexico and other Central American countries by unauthorized immigrants might account for this difference.
Pause and Reflect Questions
3.1.1: Do the developed countries of Europe and North America appear in Figures 3-2 and 3-3 to have net in-migration or net out-migration?
The developed countries of Europe and North America appear to have net in-migration.
3.1.2: If the demographic transition has a stage 5 in the future, what might be key features of a stage 5 of the migration transition?
I believe that the migration transition characteristics of a country in stage 5 might continue to exhibit high international immigration, while shifting to intraregional migration from rural areas and suburbs to cities.
3.1.3: When you or your family last moved, was it voluntary international, forced international, interregional internal, or intraregional internal?
The last time my family moved, it was interregional internal – we moved from the Midwest state of Indiana to the Deep South state of Alabama.
3.1.4: In which stage of the demographic transition were most countries when they sent the most immigrants to the United States?
Most countries were in stage 2 of the demographic transition when they sent the most immigrants to the United States.
3.2.1: How might climate change affect patterns of interregional migration in the United States?
If sea levels rise significantly and populations are not able to mitigate these developments, large-scale interregional migration in the United States from heavily-populated Atlantic Coast states such as Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia to interior regions will have to occur. If drought conditions persist and water resources are improperly managed in areas such as the Plains states (where water is provided by the Ogalala Aquifer) and the southwestern U.S. (where the Colorado River supplies a great deal of water to states dominated by dry conditions), populations will be forced to migrate as well.
3.2.2: Does Russia’s interregional migration pattern more closely resemble that of the United States and Canada or that of Brazil and China?
Interregional migration in Canada and the United States was largely caused by westward expansion of each country’s territory, whereas in China and Brazil interregional migration was spurred by various economic push and pull factors. Russia’s case more closely resembles that of China and Brazil.
3.2.3: Why might rural to urban migration be the most intense in countries in stage 2 of the demographic transition?
As industry (economic advancement opportunities) and health care services grow in stage 2 of the demographic transition, these services are likely to be clustered in urban areas, encouraging rural to urban migration.
3.3.1: What similarities and differences can be seen between the interregional migration patterns of Native Americans and of migrants of European ancestry, as shown in Figure 3-12?
Native Americans had in common the destination of Oklahoma when they were forcibly relocated in the mid-nineteenth century, while European Americans expanded to the wider western reaches of the U.S. by voluntary means.
3.3.2: Why might people choose to build houses in floodplains?
For one, many people are unaware that they may be building a home in a floodplain. Secondly, they may have family ties to a region located in a floodplain, pulling them to the area. Lastly, economic or recreational opportunities present in the area may outweigh the risks of potential damage from a flood.
3.3.3: Before becoming the leading company for transferring remittances from the United States, what was the principal business of Western Union?
The primary business of Western Union prior to becoming the leading company for transferring remittances from the United States was the transmission of telegrams.
3.3.4: Why might elderly people be more likely than average to migrate in developing countries but less likely than average to do so in developed countries?
Elderly people might not have access to entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicaid in developing countries, encouraging them to migrate due to economic factors.

3.4.1: How are changes in the quota laws reflected in changing U.S. immigration patterns, as shown in Figure 3-10?
As quota laws in the United States have changed to pull immigrants who have highly-valued job skills, immigration from Asia has greatly increased since the middle of the twentieth century.
3.4.2: How are changes in the quota laws reflected in changing U.S. immigration patterns, as shown in Figure 3-10?
As quota laws in the United States have changed to pull immigrants who have highly-valued job skills, immigration from Asia has greatly increased since the middle of the twentieth century.
3.4.3: Why at border crossings is traffic entering the United States backed up further than traffic entering Mexico?
Border security crossing into the United States is heavily secure, while border security entering Mexico is minimal (as seen in Figure 3-42).
3.4.4: How do attitudes toward immigrants differ between Europe and North America?
Attitudes are divided in both Europe and North America regarding immigrants coming to these regions. In Europe, hostility is a central tenet of political parties in many European countries, despite the relatively modest percentage of immigrants. In North America, states such as Arizona and Alabama have enacted stringent immigration restrictions on unauthorized immigrants. In both regions, however, these immigrants (whether they have the necessary documentation for immigration or not) occupy an economic niche, working jobs that citizens otherwise wouldn’t. Despite these hostile attitudes, outreach organizations such as Amnesty in USA, the Federation for American Immigration Reform, and the European Network on Statelessness exist to help these at-risk populations.
Use Google Earth to explore the U.S.-Mexico border at Laredo. Fly to: Nuevo Laredo, Mexico. Select Borders and Labels. Zoom in to 5,000 feet.

  1. Follow the international border through the built-up area of Nuevo Laredo and Laredo. How many border crossings do you see?

Two border crossings can be seen between Laredo and Nuevo Laredo.

  1. What is the means of transport at each of the crossings?

Automobile is the means of transport at each of the crossings.

Zoom in to 2,000 feet.

  1. The backup of cars is long trying to enter which country?

The backup of cars is long trying to enter the United States.

  1. Based on the Google Earth image, if you had to ship goods across the border (such as car parts), which means of transport appears to be the quickest and easiest to use?

The quickest and easiest means of shipping goods across the border to the United States would be by air. If one were to ship goods to Mexico, transporting them by automobile would be the quickest and easiest.
GeoVideo Questions

  1. What environmental factor has driven the Turkana to migrate?

Drought conditions have driven the traditionally pastoral Turkana to migrate to the shores of Lake Turkana.

  1. How do some Turkana gain a livelihood in their new home by the lake?

Some Turkana cling to the land and attempt to adapt their pastoral livelihoods to the Lake area, while others have adopted a livelihood of fishing.

  1. Where else have Turkana migrated to escape the drought?

Others have migrated to the cities in order to find jobs that typically pay low wages.

  1. What are the advantages and drawbacks of this choice?

The advantages of migrating to Lake Turkana include a somewhat reliable means of survival, mostly by fishing. Communities are also able to be maintained, however, pressures on the Lake due to drought conditions drying up significant portions of the Lake pose an eminent threat to this tenuous situation.
United Nations High Commission on Refugees
Map and text-based information about refugees, photos, news, publications, and educational material, including the excellent “Global Trends 2015” ( http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/global-trends-2015.html).

Cultural Landscape Report for Ellis Island
Stakely, J. T. (2003). Cultural Landscape Report for Ellis Island. Brookline, Mass: National Park Service Olmstead Center for Landscapers Preservation.

An app is available for iOS and Android platforms that provides a wealth of information on Ellis Island from the National Park Service (more information at https://www.nps.gov/elis/index.htm).

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
This is the official U.S. government site for immigration policy and applications.
U.S. Department of State Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration
http://www.state.gov/j/prm/This is a U.S. government site for official news and views on immigration and refugee issues.
Connections between Chapters
Back to Chapter 2
Students have an extremely difficult time connecting Chapter 2 with Chapter 3. A great number seem to have memorized that migrants came to the United States “to escape religious persecution.”

Address this misconception by asking whether students believe that all 40-some-odd million European migrants to the United States were fleeing religious persecution. It is amazing how durable elementary tales of Pilgrims can be.

Forward to Chapter 4
A natural connection to Chapter 4 is the observation that migrants frequently bring unique elements of their culture with them in the form of unique foods, dress, and social customs.
This observation can be made even more poignant by emphasizing the most common destination of new migrants, large urban areas, are locations which feature cultural diversity.

© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

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