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1810: An Overview


In 1810 Tedbury was shot and wounded on the Parramatta property of Edward Luttrell, by Luttrell’s son, also named Edward. I have included the transcript of Edward Luttrell’s trial for wounding Tedbury for several reasons. Firstly, Lisa Ford in her work, Settler Sovereignty: Jurisdiction and Indigenous People in Georgia and New South Wales 1788-1836, argues that Luttrell’s trial is evidence that the authorities had brokered a peace with Aboriginal people in 1805 and were keen to maintain that peace. Secondly, Edward Luttrell’s actions may have had bearing on the killing of his brother Robert in 1811. Thirdly, it dispels some common misapprehensions that Tedbury was shot on the Lutrell’s Hobartville property at Richmond.
John Macarthur Junior, or one of the other Macarthurs, in A few Memoranda respecting the Aboriginal Natives, recorded Tedbury’s effective disappearance from the historical record in a grammatically incorrect sentence: “I have heard poor Tjedboro a year or two afterwards, from the effects of a gun-shot wound in the face which he received during an altercation into which his fiery spirit led him, with a young European, in the streets of Parramatta.”
Later in the year a correspondence in the Gazette began a mission to “civilize and evangelize the Natives of New South Wales”, the legacy of which is still with us.

13th of March, 1810


Edward Luttrell’s argument that he shot Tedbury in defence of his sister largely depended upon the evidence of his family and servants. However, it was enough to secure his acquittal. That Tedbury was affected by alcohol and quarreling with his wife highlights the pernicious influence of alcohol on the disintegration of Aboriginal society.
R. v. Luttrell

In the fiftieth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Third of the United Kingdom, Great Britain and Ireland King, defender of the faith. New South Wales to wit.
Be it remembered that Ellis Bent esq. Judge Advocate of our Sovereign Lord the King for the territory of New South Wales who [prosecuteth] for our said Sovereign Lord the King in his behalf, in his proper person, cometh here into the Court of Criminal Jurisdiction holden in Sydney in the said territory, for the trial of all and all manner of felonies and misdemeanors and other offences whatsoever on Monday the twelfth day of March in the fiftieth year aforesaid, and for our Lord the King, giveth the court here to understand and be informed that Edward Luttrell late of Parramatta in the territory aforesaid, gentleman, on the nineteenth day of February in the fiftieth year aforesaid, which force and arms at Parramatta aforesaid, in the territory aforesaid in and upon a certain native of the territory aforesaid, called or known by the name of Tidbury in the peace of God and our said Lord the King then and there being wilfully and violently did make an assault, and that the said Edward Luttrell with a certain gun then and there loaded and charged, with gun powder and one leaden bullet or a piece of lead, which gun the said Edward Luttrell in both his hands then and there had and held to, against, and upon, the said Tidbury then and there did wilfully maliciously shoot and discharge and that the said Edward Luttrell [66] with the leading bullet aforesaid out of the gun aforesaid then and there by force of the gunpowder, shot, and discharged as aforesaid, the aforesaid Tidbury in and upon the mouth of the said Tidbury wilfully and maliciously did strike penetrate and wound, by means whereof the said Tidbury became weak and distempered and continues so, weak and distempered for a long space of time, to wit, from thence, until the day of the taking this inquest, and other wrongs to the said Tidbury then and there violently and maliciously did, the great damage of the said Tidbury to the evil example of all others, the like case offending, and against the peace of our said Lord the King his Crown and Dignity.

Witnesses for the Crown

1. Hannah Conaway

2. George Kayley232

3. James Wise

4. James Milham.233
Edward Luttrell brought before the court charged with an assault upon one Tidbury (a native) for wounding him by discharging a gun loaded with a leaden bullet at him.
Plea not guilty …
Susannah Conway sworn, says she lives at Parramatta, is acquainted with Mr Luttrell by sight. Knows also one Tidbury by sight. That near six o'clock on the 19th February, she went into her garden and heard a noise towards the bushes, near Mr Luttrell's. She looked and saw a black man and woman quarrelling. About ten minutes after she saw Tidbury come up to the garden where she was. That while she was talking to Tidbury and another black man, she saw Mr Luttrell standing about 60 yards off. He had a gun in his hand. He had it levelled towards the black. She saw him fire off the gun. She saw Tidbury fall and that afterwards he got up and ran away. Before the accident she heard one of the other Luttrells, for the father was there also, called out “damn your bloods do not fling your spears here”.
Questioned by the defendant. Says that she did not see Mr Edward Luttrell the defendant, and Tidbury at the same time that she saw Mr Edward Luttrell fire and looking immediately after saw Tidbury fall. She does not know anything that might have occurred between the defendant and Tidbury before the accident. Says that she never had quarrelled with defendant or his family and has no reason to bear any of them malice. Tidbury, she believes, had some spears in his hand when he came up to her garden.
George Kaley sworn, says he lives at Parramatta. That about an hour before sundown, on the afternoon of the 19th February, he saw Tidbury sitting down on the ground about 300 yards from his garden. He was bleeding and that his upper lip was perforated. Witness opened Tidbury's mouth and observed it much lacerated. That he saw Tidbury after several efforts take out a ball, which was produced to the court.

Questioned by defendant. Say he had given the natives arms to go a shooting with.
[2] James Wise sworn, says he lives at Parramatta. That he knows Tidbury and his wife. Says in the same afternoon before the accident he saw Tidbury come out of Thomas Eccle's house, next door to the witness, very much intoxicated. His wife he saw nearly in the same state. That Tidbury and his wife were quarrelling very much and he saw her run away. That Tidbury was left in the kitchen. That witness heard the report of a gun immediately after he saw defendant with the gun in his hand. That he then saw near Mr Luttrell some smoke about five minutes after witness saw Tidbury. Saw him led by one Peter a black along the field and afterwards saw him sit down. That he was wounded in the upper lip. That he saw Tidbury take a ball from the inside of his mouth. Saw the ball. That in about ten minutes he assisted in taking Tidbury away to Kaley's house.

Questioned by the defendant. In about half a minute after hearing the report of the gun, he saw Mr E. Luttrell.
Mr Mileham sworn, says he is Assistant Surgeon at the Hawkesbury. He believes he visited Tidbury a day after the accident. He saw the wound which appeared to him gun shot. It had punctuated the upper lip. That it appeared to him that it had been inflicted by a spent ball.
Mr Luttrell in his defence says that the day before he had heard that certain natives had threatened to assassinate some of his family. That on the 19th while he was at tea two persons called out that the natives had speared his sister. Upon that he rose and went out with his gun and shot Tidbury as he was running away.
Elizabeth Anstey sworn says that on the 19th February she gave the defendant the alarm that the natives had thrown a spear at his sister. That while she and the defendant's servant were in the garden speaking to a black woman at the bottom of it, Mr Luttrell's younger sister came out, and she saw Tidbury, who was coming up at the time with several spears, heave one very forcibly at Mr Luttrell's sister which went within an inch of her head. This spear fell in the yard. The spear produced which she swore to be the one thrown by Tidbury at defendant's sister.
Thomas Nugent sworn, says he is servant to the hospital at Parramatta. Says he was present when he saw Tidbury throw a spear at Mr Luttrell's sister.
[3] Louis Peter, a native of India and Roman Catholic, sworn says that he is servant to Mr Edward Luttrell. Says he was present in Mr Luttrell's garden on the 19th on the afternoon with Elizabeth Anstry. That when the child came out he saw Tidbury the black fling a spear at it. The spear shewn to him says it is the one thrown at the child.
Verdict – not guilty.
Note

]The native Tedbury had held animosity towards the colony for some time leading up to this trial (see Sydney Gazette, 19 May 1805 and 15 October 1809). Lisa Ford suggests that diplomatic considerations were critical in the trial. Tedbury, who had been repeatedly involved in raids, had been the object of diplomatic negotiations in the period – his release from custody had been brokered by local Aborigines in return for a promise of peace in 1805. Here again, we see provocation or self-defence successfully used as justification for violent acts against Aborigines. Ford observes that “the colony may have feared that unprovoked shooting could lead to further violence”.

For other original material on this case, see Court of Criminal Jurisdiction, Miscellaneous Criminal Papers, State Records N.S.W., 5/1152, pp 357 and 359; Sydney Gazette, 24 February 1810 (indictment) and 17 March 1810 (acquittal). See L. Ford, Settler Sovereignty: Jurisdiction and Indigenous People in Georgia and New South Wales 1788-1836, Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University 2007, (forthcoming revised manuscript: Harvard University Press, 2010), 225.’234

31st of March, 1810


The Reverend Samuel Marsden refused to serve as the trustee of a turnpike trust which included Simeon Lord and Andrew Thompson. Marsden had been appointed to the position without consultation by Governor Macquarie. While not directly relevant to the Hawkesbury it probably signalled the beginning of the deterioration of relations between Marsden and the Governor. It also well illustrated the position of those free settlers who increasingly identified themselves as exclusivists, though Marsden’s objections may also have been based upon Thompson’s marital relations.235 Around the same time Lieutenant Archibald Bell was offered magistracy in the Windsor District, but as Andrew Thompson had already been appointed a Windsor magistrate, Bell withdrew to his farm without positively declining the position.236

7th of July, 1810


The following correspondence should be placed in the context of Governor Macquarie’s instructions of 9th May, 1809, which apart from some changes in punctuation were the same as those given to Governor Bligh. Essentially they also remained the same as those given to Phillip and Hunter.
6. And whereas we are desirous that some further information should be obtained at the several ports or harbours upon the coast and the islands contiguous thereto within the limits of your Government, you are, whenever any of our said ships can be conveniently spared for that purpose, to send one or more of them upon that service. You are to endeavour by every possible means to extend your intercourse with the natives, and to conciliate their affections, enjoining all our subjects to live in amity and kindness with them. And if any of our subjects shall wantonly destroy them, or give them any unnecessary interruption in the exercise of their several occupations, it is our will and pleasure that you do cause such offenders to be brought to punishment according to the degree of the offence. You will endeavour to procure from time to time accounts of the numbers of natives inhabiting the neighbourhood of our said settlement, and report your opinion to one of our Secretaries of State in what manner the intercourse with these people may be

turned to the advantage thereof.’237
In reading the following correspondence it is important to remember that the Governor’s instructions were “to conciliate their affections, enjoining all our subjects to live in amity and kindness with them”. His brief was not to “civilize and evangelize the Natives of New South Wales”.
Philanthropus’s call to “civilize and evangelize the Natives of New South Wales must be placed in the context of the Anti Slavery Society and the Church Missionary Society, coalitions of evangelical Christians drawn from major and minor churches. William Wilberforce was an important figure in the movement. Wilberforce played a key role in the appointment of Richard Johnson and Samuel Marsden to the infant colony. Samuel Marsden persuaded Robert Cartwright, 1771-1856, an ordained Church of England minister to come to Australia which he did in March 1810. In December 1810 Cartwright was appointed Chaplain to the Hawkesbury. In 1819 he was transferred to Liverpool. In October 1820 he accompanied Lachlan Macquarie in a tour of the south west where “the Revd. Mr. Cartwright performed Divine Worship, and gave us a very excellent appropriate Sermon, strongly impressing the justice, good Policy, and expediency of Civilizing the Aborigines, or Black Natives of the Country and Settling them in Townships.”238
I think it is highly likely that Robert Cartwright was Philanthropus.
From the style, the anti-Aboriginal position and the length of A friend to Civilization’s reply, I suspect that A friend to Civilization was Robert Howe. Similarly, Amicus who wrote to the Gazette from 1803 to 1838, was also likely to have been the editor.
The letter of A friend to Civilization is particularly relevant because it addresses the declining number of Aboriginal around Sydney.
To the PRINTER of the SYDNEY GAZETTE.

SIR,

The great Creator having made of One Blood all Nations of the Earth, and taking tor granted that the Natives of New South Wales are capable of instruction and civilization, 1 should be extremely obliged by the favor of an Answer to the following Query, either publicly through your Paper, or privately to be left at the Gazette Office.


Query. – “What plan can be adopted, what means used, or what steps taken, whereby we may most speedily and effectualy civilize and evangelize the Natives of New South Wales, local circumstances considered ?"

I am Sir, your obedient servant,



PHILANTHROPUS.”’239

14th of July, 1810


The depletion of Aboriginal food supplies is well illustrated by the following classified advertisements. Whereas in the past kangaroos had been hunted for food, by 1810 they were hunted for their skins.
For Sale at Mr. Nichol's warehouse, a number (3 to 400) fine fur seal, and kangaroo skins in prime condition Apply to Mr. Nichols.’240

14th of July, 1810


To the PRINTER of the SYDNEY GAZETTE.

SIR, In answer to the Query of Philanthropus, I beg to communicate the following remarks, which, should they appear relevant to the design of your correspondent who has humanely suggested the idea of rescuing the Natives of New South Wales from their deplorable state of barbarism, I should be proud to recognize in one of your earliest columns.
My first observation must convey the painful notion, that those people appear to possess every quality that can tend to discourage the hope of their ever becoming civilised beings after they reach an adult state. That they are too indolent to provide for their common wants, their preference to a state of nakedness in lieu of the most trivial exertion to defend themselves from the weather, which they nevertheless acutely feel, is doubtless a demonstration; as is also that of their inattention to the culture of a single herb or plant, whence they are obliged to content themselves with whatsoever chance may contribute to the immediate calls of appetite, and indiscriminately devour the most loathsome insects, with the most nauseous filth, that can with the least trouble be obtained. This trait in their character is alone sufficient, in my opinion, to repel the prospect of civilizing the grown people without the use of force, to bring them first to industry, without which civilization would go back to barbarism, and barbarism consequently never can approach to civilization. If, therefore, they could be made industrious, their condition would be improved; a relish for the indulgencies which would thereby come within their reach would excite wants; these would beget exertion; and even the natives of New South Wales might in process of time derive honour and advantage from the invention of a pair of fashionable snuffers or a corkscrew, or of the most gaudy trinkets that the first European bijouterie could have furnished to decorate the persons of their fair country women. That they possess a genius, some instances have informed us; several that have been taken from their parents in a state of infancy have been taught to read, write, and converse with tolerable fluency; but they possess to (sic) little curiosity, or the wish of enquiry, that I may venture to affirm, that in the course of a twenty years observation of European manners, not one has yet attempted to build himself a hut, or by the slightest experiment, to alleviate the misery of his condition, if such he can at all conceive it.
It has heretofore entered the imagination, that by rearing a few of their children in the families of the European Settlers, the parents might eventually be guided by their precept and example; but this expectation has hitherto been foiled; for, as they advanced in growth, they flew to opposite extremes - either conceiving an utter abhorrence to the society and language of their countrymen, or returning to their society and totally deserting that in which they had been reared ; from which extraordinary contrast of course it follows, that those of the first description neither charmed by their example, nor took any pains to allure by their precepts; while less if possible could be expected from the latter, who had, by their example, sufficiently demonstrated an aversion to European manners, and were soon initiated in the barbarous habits of their forefathers.
Concluding then, as I am inclined to do, that the adults of our native tribes are beyond the present reach of civilisation, I shall beg leave, in compliance with the wish of the humane and charitable PHILANTHROPUS, to etch an outline of what, I consider likely to insure the attainment of his object, - which owing to the length of the Communication is reserved for the next week's Gazette.’241
TO CORRESPONDENTS.

We are necessitated to apologize for the non- appearance of the remainder of the Answer to the Query of PHILANTHROPUS, which was promised early this day, but was not received at the Office until too late for insertion. - The communication concludes with the signature "A friend to Civilization," to the tardiness of whose messenger alone we can attribute the delay.’242

28th of July, 1810


ANSWER to the QUERY continued.

I have already observed that the expectation entertained of .accelerating the civilization of the natives by rearing some of their children in European families had been foiled from different-causes, Namely, an aversion which some of them when at a riper age conceived to the manners and even the persons of their own tribes, while others, upon the contrary, conceived no less an aversion to the manners of Europeans, which they afterwards abandoned. Prejudices so excessively contrasted must have had their origin in certain causes to which they succeeded as a necessary consequence; -some being taken from their parents after they had attained to a sufficient age -to relish the habits they were born in, and, as first impressions in general are the strongest, it is not altogether wonderful their inclination afterwards should return to; while others, who were earlier withdrawn from the tribes, were impressed as they grew up with an aversion to the abject manners from which they had been rescued in their infancy, and unable to discriminate between men and manners, conceived an antipathy to both.
Formerly our intercourse with the natives was much greater than at present; they frequented the settlements in numbers, and performed their exercises, most of which were hostile to each other, frequently among us; they were then familiar, almost everyone was known as well by an European name, which he assumed, as by his native appellation:- but that intimacy has subsided ; for as the elders have fallen off, the younger, not receiving the encouragement of their parents met with upon our first acquaintance, seldom come among us; and from hence it is that some of us entertain a notion that their race is upon the decline - merely because we are less accustomed to their visits than before. This growing distance between us is particularly mentioned, because it tends to embarrass the prospect of their civilization; for if nothing could be effected when we were honoured with their friendly intercourse, less can be expected until that intercourse is reestablished. To what, causes precisely to attribute their gradual renunciation of our acquaintance I cannot altogether judge; but I should rather consider that their repeated skirmishes with us, in which several have been killed, have rendered the rising generation timid, and here am I sorry to remark, that if these poorly-provided people be allowed an idea at all, their good opinion of us upon our first appearance, must have considerably declined, when they were given to understand, by our unseasonable and unfeeling interferences in their quarrels, that we had a relish for sanguinary cruelty, and that instead of evincing a superiority of mind by humane endeavours to prevent their conflicts, they found among their white spectators many who were debased by cruelty; who could wantonly endeavour to irritate and to provoke their rancour against each other, and who, by an unseasonable display of tempestuous mirth, seemed gratified at the infliction of a wound, which the difference of complexion could not divest of its torture.- To these, among other causes may their present distance be attributed; and now that the novelty of their appearance and manners is worn off, few of us esteem them worthy the slightest notice or regard, and in a few years more we may expect them totally to withdraw themselves from this part of the coast.
Under such disadvantages, the civilization of these poor creatures must appear to be utterly impracticable until many obstacles are removed, which will occupy much time and attention; for in the first place, as I have already hinted, an intercourse must be re-established; by acts of kindness we must obtain their .friendship ; we must endeavour to learn their language, and teach ours to as many of them as possible, so as to enable us to converse with freedom, and to be perfectly understood to one another; and we must, in the whole of our conduct towards them, appear to take an interest in their welfare;- but how, or in what space of time all this is to be accomplished, if it ever be at all, must be left to time itself. To lay down a plan which may escape the imputation of absurdity is all I at present aim at, and to that .I shall proceed.
To the re-establishment of a friendly intercourse then, every one must assist, by encouraging their visits to the settlements, by acts of kindness. As many of their children as they can be prevailed on to part with, must at an early age be distributed among the families of sedate persons: - in learning the English tongue, they must not be allowed to forget their own, which may be prevented by their frequent meeting together, and conversing in both and as they will associate with our children each will acquire the language of the other. That they may be taught to read and write we have had several instances, but none so much entitled to remark as the boy reared and educated in the family of the Rev Mr. Marsden.243 Then of course it follows they should be sent to school, at which the teacher must be careful to prevent the white children from making any improper reflexions on their colour, or treating them in any other way contemptuously.

(To be concluded in our next.)’244

4th of August, 1810


ANSWER to the QUERY continued.

On the mode of rearing, as well as of educating those of the young natives who may offer to our adoption must much depend the length of time that may be occupied in their civilization. Decent and well-ordered bodily habits, joined to the inculcation of good principles, moral and religious, must, not for a moment be lost sight of; and yet, I am somewhat apprehensive that an 'indiscriminate intermixture with our own children, which in other respects would certainly be advisable, might tend to .retard rather than accelerate their progress in either, as we have too feelingly to lament, that there are numbers in our own Community who affect to despise the character of a Heathen, and are yet too faulty in themselves to attend to the duties that characterize the Christian. Moral precept is but the theory, example the true practice of morality; Men must therefore be judged by their works, which are proofs substantial of a rectitude of mind, and not from words alone, which, however .excellent in their tendency, yet lose considerably in their effect from a presumption of insincerity.


If to civilize, then, be to adapt men to the purposes of society, 1 must here observe, that before we can hope to reclaim others we should commence the practice upon ourselves; that we should avoid errors which are conspicuous in those of our acquaintance; and when, on the contrary, we can discern a quality worthy of attainment, we should esteem it valuable, and endeavour to plant it as an exotic within our own minds that we should prefer candour to duplicity, which once detected exposes its actor to contempt; that we should divest our tongues of calumny, which is the assassin's meanest subterfuge, that we should lay aside an unnecessary ostentation of manners, as derogatory. to the human species; that diligence and modesty should take place of arrogance and impudence; that instead of contriving to evade we should assist in the enforcement of the laws by which we are governed; that we should learn temperance, and obedience to our superiors; that our religious duties should be more especially an object of regard, and that by a rational intercourse among each other, we should .charm the barbarian rather than disgust him at our failings. By example worthy to be imitated, the first impression then made upon their minds would be respect towards their benefactors, in which capacity every one must be esteemed who assisted in the furtherance of the object suggested by the humane PHILANHROPUS.
Supporting us in a fit state to undertake the arduous state of drawing these people from a state of barbarism. I shall proceed without further digression to the means that may best promise to be attended with ultimate success. That they have even degenerated from a state of nature, a comparison with other newly discovered people must acquaint us; nor by the most whimsical casuist can it be contended, that Nature, who has bestowed such various faculties on man should originally have designed these for so abject a condition, I may almost may say of non-existence.
Inured to privations of almost every kind, they find in ease apparantly (sic) their only comfort. From habitual indolence they have become supine and slothful, their ideas extending no further than the objects within their view; and from hence it follows that their language, if original, must be very confined, as it can embrace little more than the names of places, and of the animal and vegetable productions of the climate. To us it would consequently be the easier to acquire, while ours would become as familiar to the little pupils as their own. It may be nevertheless objected, that as they learn the one they might forget the other, whereas I have already considered it essential that this should not be permitted, because that upon an interchange of languages a great deal must depend. Every such objection must, however, vanish when we consider that in European seminaries several languages are taught to the learner at the same time, without any danger of impairing their knowledge of their own, but which improves, in common with every other object of retention, as the mind expands itself.
In their infancy they must be treated tenderly, in order that as they grow up they may look back with aversion to the hardships of their primitive condition, and feel the more sensibly their obligations to Providence, and to us as its immediate instrument, in relieving them from a state of misery and want. Accustomed to ease, comfort, and security, they would then be in as little danger of abandoning our society as we ourselves at present should be inclined to join with theirs. They would then also feel, as we do, that in the continuance of the comforts they enjoyed, something must be necessary, as nothing could be obtained, without an endeavour to procure it. These endeavours, closely connected, constitute a life of industry, to the measure of which, a short experience would acquaint them, those comforts would be j proportioned, and industry, arising from necessity, would be as acceptable to them as to any other people.
*** As an apology for carrying the conclusion of this Article to the next Paper, we beg leave to insert a note from the Correspondent, received by the Publisher this day.

" Sir,-It was not my design when I first undertook the task of replying to the Query of PHILANTHROPUS, to have gone to any considerable length; but Í am unwarily, as it were, drawn into a theme, to conclude on which will require a few days longer. In your next you may safely promise the completion.’245

11th of August, 1810


Answer to the Query - Concluded.

Having already occupied so great a portion of .your Paper, 1 have now at length shaped myself to the determination of summing up my plan in a short sentence, and connecting my former observations with those that must necessarily follow.
I have urged the necessity of adopting as many of the native children as we can procure, and making them members of our own families; and although, perhaps, few parents, whatever be their colour, might upon a short correspondence be inclined to part with their young, yet a few in the first instance kindly treated and properly attended to might, and doubtless would, in the course of time beget a more general condition; and then, instead of parting with them with reluctance, they would be happy to consent to the alteration of their condition. Upon the other hand, few European families would readily undertake the nurture of a little alien, against whose complexion our prejudices in a manner are at war: but this second obstacle in time may also be surmounted, if humanity be allowed to plead in their behalf. They must he kindly treated, clothed, lodged, and supported in a comfortable manner:- as they learn our language they must be exercised in their own, which our children should acquire;-they must be .educated, and instructed in light professions, or in any to which their inclinations lead; - they must be taught to honour their patents, to esteem their relatives, and, by counsel and example to contribute as much as possible to the general work of civilization. - As they ripened in years they would become more sensibly attached to their condition; industry would be no less pleasant than familiar; Religion would make as just an impression on their minds as upon that of any other people, and thus in the course of time should we be fraternized; theirs would be the more evident profit, and ours the enduring gratification of having in so great an instance performed our duty both as Men and Christians.

I remain, &c.



"A FRIEND TO CIVILIZATION."’246

8th of September, 1810


To CORRESPONDENTS.

The Communication of Amicus, in answer to the Query of PHILANTHROPUS, on the most practicable mode of civilizing the Natives of this Country, is received; but as most of the hints closely correspond with those of another writer on the same subject, (vide Sydney Gazettes lately published),the only material point in which a difference is discernible bearing upon that part of the mode, already submitted to the Public, which treats of the maintenance and education of the native children that may offer to our adoption. The former, as upon reference to the Gazettes quoted will appear, urges their alienation from the native habits by their admission into European families of which they might in time become useful members, and thus repay the care bestowed upon their infancy, by means whereof the expense and loss of the time that would be necessary to the institution of an asylum at the public expense would be avoided. Amicus is however of the contrary opinion, as will appear from the following passage, which is precisely copied from the Article with which he has been kind enough to favour us.
"The children of the Natives ought not to be allowed a mixed intercourse with our own, but kept as a separate flock reserved for a particular purpose; because that if they be as carelessly attended to in their moral progress as our own children too commonly are, they will in all probability exchange ignorance for vice, one to be pitied, the other to be detested. Now it is not my wish to offend anyone, Mr. Printer, by a severe conclusion nor do I think that what I have said upon this point will be taken as an offence, for two reasons; the one because those who do bestow proper attention upon the rearing of their children will feel great gratification in the knowledge that they do not incur the censure; and the other, because those of an opposite cast must be shielded by a want of natural feeling from any operation which a just rebuke ought to have upon the mind. But it is my idea, that the infant natives should have an impartial trial, or else they had better have none at all; for it certainly would be better that they should .continue in an uncivilized state, than be polished merely to become corrupt.
"I consider, therefore, that by keeping them in a small society formed of their own body, be it great or small, they would avoid a great evil which it would be difficult to amend than in the first instance to provide against. To effect this would require a capital to defray the necessary charges, and this capital might be raised by voluntary contribution, so that all who chose might our of charity give what he pleaded, and the little creatures, independent of individual caprice, would be relieved from the fear of being turned out of doors at a minute's notice, which would be an act of extreme cruelty, as they would be forced to fly for support to the woods when as little able to endure such a life of misery as ourselves. With respect to the necessity of preserving the native language while these children acquired the English tongue, I think myself; it would forward the desired object; but I cannot consider at the same time that this end would be better accomplished by a mixed intercourse. No, from sedate persons appointed to direct and instruct them, they would be led forward in a proper and not in an irregular manner; whereas, were the black and white children promiscuously to mingle for the purpose of instructing one another in their different languages, little more could be expected than a jargon which taking root among the rising generation, might hereafter be as foreign to the mother tongue as is the case with many provincial dialects. From their preceptors they would acquire the English language, and by associating with each other they would retain their own ; and surely it may also with propriety be supposed, that if their language were likely to become an acquisition, we might with their assistance very soon become proficient."
The above being the only passage that conveys any new idea, we trust Amicus will excuse the omission of the remainder.’247

November – December, 1810


During November and December 1810 Governor Macquarie toured the outer districts and farms. This tour should be placed in the context of Macquarie’s orders that “in the case of any peculiarly Meritorious Settler, or well-deserving Emancipated Convict becoming a Settler as foresaid, that you shall be at liberty to enlarge the said Grants so respectively to be made to such Settler or Emancipated Convict as aforesaid, by the addition of such further number of acres to be granted to them respectively as you in your Discretion shall judge proper”.248 These orders enabled Macquarie to negotiate the enormous log of land grants made by the NSW Corps to themselves and to meet the needs of newly arrived free settlers.
The following extract from his journal is important for several reasons. Firstly it describes the extent of settlement along the Hawkesbury Nepean Rivers. Secondly it is possible to identify the Kurry-Jung-brush as the area around Kurmond and the Comleroy Road. Thirdly, Macquarie’s enthusiasm for William Wilberforce and his work is evident in his naming one of the five towns after him. Again it needs to be noted that in naming and planning the five towns Macquarie was enacting his orders to “lay out Townships of a convenient size and extent”. These instructions extended to the provision of fresh water, garrisons, town halls and churches in each.249
Fourthly, Macquarie’s description of his tour provides an opportune moment to pause and examine the administrative, economic, geographical, military and political etymology of the language of settlement. Originally to “farm” was to collect a fixed payment. “Camp”, “route” and “town” have a military origin. “Survey” is an administrative term. A “village” is an administrative unit, smaller than a town. A “district” was a territory under the jurisdiction of a feudal lord. To take “possession” was to take and hold, irrespective of ownership. Macquarie’s use of “brush” and “forest” indicates how Aboriginal people used fire to modify the landscape. Macquarie used “brush” meaning “thicket” to describe the hills and valleys of what is now Grose Vale. However, he described the more open park like landscape of the broader ridge running up to Kurrajong Heights as a “forest”. Macquarie’s use of the word “forest” is interesting. Most officials, such as Collins described the Australian forest as “woods”. In Britain a forest was a royal hunting ground. Windsor Forest or the New Forest was the first such hunting preserve, created by William I. Woodlands was used to describe anything else. In Australia, with the cessation of Aboriginal fire practices, “bush” has supplanted both woods and forest.250
Finally, his visit to the Hawkesbury was significant for the apparent lack of any contact with Aboriginal people. At the Cow Pastures “we met two or three small Parties of the Cow-Pastures Natives – the Chief of whom in this Part is named Koggie; who with his wife Nantz, and his friends Bootbarrie, Young Bundle, Billy, and their respective Wives”. On entering the mouth of the Burragorang Valley he was told by a Aboriginal man that the name of the river was Warragombie. At the Hawkesbury he met no Aboriginal people.
Friday 30th. Novr. —
After Breakfast, at ½ past 10 O'Clock this morning, we broke up our Camp at D
r. Jamison's Farm, and set out to prosecute our Tour along the Farms situated further down the Rivers Nepean and Hawkesbury – our Servants & Baggage setting out at the same time by a more direct Route to our next resting Place or Ground of Encampment on the banks of the Hawkesbury; and Ensn. Maclaine's Boat being sent back on a waggon to Parramatta. — Our pleasant facetious travelling companion Mr. Gregory Blaxland took his leave of us this morning and returned home to attend his own concerns. —
After leaving Doctor Jamison's Farm we passed through Capt. Woodriffe's and Mr. Chapman's, both on the Right Bank of the Nepean and which appeared a very fine rich Soil fit both for Tillage and Pasturage. — Thence we passed through a long extensive chain of Farms along the Nepean belonging to Appledore, Westmore, Collett, Stanyard, Pickering, Field, Stephen Smith, Jones, Cheshire, Harris, Guy, Wm. Cheshire, Landrine, Stockfish, Oldwright, Ryan, Griffith, Kennedy &c. &c. being the front line of Farms on this River.
These are all good Farms, good Soil, and well cultivated, but they are liable to be flooded in general when this River overflows its Banks, and consequently the Houses of the Settlers are very mean and paltry.
There was a tolerable good Road for the Carriage through the whole of these Farms. — On arriving at Donald Kennedy's Farm, which is beautifully Situated on a rising ground near the River, I quitted the carriage and mounted my Horse to view the back line of Farms, and explore the Ground intended to be laid out shortly for a Township and place of Security and retreat for the Settlers inhabiting this part of the Country; leaving Mrs. M. at Kennedy's Farm till my return. — I was accompanied by the Surveyors and the rest of the Party, and we rode over the High Grounds intended for the Township, and which appears a most eligible Situation for one and not more than 3 miles from the River.

We returned by the back line of Farms to Kennedy's, where we rejoined Mrs. M. and thence pursued our Journey along the remaining parts of the Nepean District in the Carriage.
On arriving at Mr. Thompson's Farm of Agnes Bank, we were joined by Mr. Wm. Cox the Magistrate of these Districts. — From Agnes Bank we proceeded to view the Confluence of the Nepean and Grosse [sic] Rivers, which is within about two miles of that Farm. — We drove in the Carriage close to the spot of the junction of the two Rivers, which we went to view on foot, and were highly gratified with the sight. — From the confluence of these two Rivers, the noble River Hawkesbury commences; but here it is only an inconsiderable stream, and not navigable even for small Boats for three or four miles farther down. — From the confluence of the Nepean and Grosse [sic] Rivers we proceeded again in the Carriage along the front line of Farms on the Hawkesbury, till we arrived at the Yellow-Mundie-Lagoon, a noble lake of fine fresh water, at the North End of which we halted and Encamped for the Night; finding all our Servants and Baggage just arrived there only a few minutes before us. — Here Mr. Cox took his leave of us to go home to his own House as did Mr. Evans; promising to be with us again early in the morning.
Whilst our Tents were Pitching and our Dinner getting ready, Mrs. M. and myself took a short ride on Horseback along the Banks of this beautiful Lagoon, returning again to our Tents in about an Hour; having first arrived at our ground of Encampment at ½ past 6 O'Clock, after a Journey of about 25 miles, besides my extra ride to the Township. — We did not dine till 2 past 8 O'Clock – and went soon afterwards to Bed.
Saturday 1st. Decr. 1811. [sic]251
We Breakfasted at 9 O'Clock this morning, having been joined previous thereto by M
r. Cox, Mr. & Mrs. Evans, Mr. Forest and some other Visitors. — Having sent off our Servants & Baggage and Carriage by the direct Road to the Government Cottage at the Green Hills on the Right Bank of the Hawkesbury, we mounted our Horses to make an Excursion to Richmond Hill, the Kurry Jung Brush, and Richmond Terrace on the Left Bank of the Hawkesbury; setting out from the Yellow-Mundie Lagoon at 10,O'Clock, accompanied by Mrs. Macquarie, the Gentlemen of our own Family, Mr. Cox & Mr. Evans, we crossed the Hawkesbury about a mile from our last Encampment, in a Boat to Richmond Hill, our Horses crossing the River by a bad Ford about half a mile higher up, and which we mounted again on landing at Richmond Hill. — We rode up the Hill to call on Mrs. Bell (the Wife of Lieut. Bell of the 102d. Regt.) who resides on her Farm on the summit of this beautiful Hill, from which there is a very fine commanding Prospect of the River Hawkesbury and adjacent Country. — We found Mrs. Bell and her Family at Home, and after sitting with them for about an hour, we again mounted our Horses to prosecute our Excursion, directing our course for the Kurry Jung Hill.
Soon after leaving Richmond Hill I discovered that my favorite horse Cato, which I had hitherto rode from the commencement of my Tour, was quite lame occasioned by a wrench he had got in crossing the River this morning at the deep bad Ford already alluded to. — In consequence of this accident I was obliged to send him back to go leisurely to the Green Hills, and to mount one of the Dragoon Horses during the rest of this day's Excursion. — We rode through a fine open Forest and Hilly Country for about 5 miles to the Foot of the Curry [sic] Jung Hill, which is very long and steep to ascend, arriving on the summit of it at 12 O'Clock, and from whence we had a very grand noble Prospect of the low grounds on both Banks of the River Hawkesbury as far as the Green Hills. — Having feasted our Eyes with this fine prospect on the one hand, and with that of the Blue Mountains (here quite close to us) on the other, we began to descend the Hill on the opposite side to that we ascended it, and the descent was so very steep that we had great difficulty to sit our Horses. — We arrived, however, safe and without meeting with any accident at the bottom of the Hill, which from the Summit to the foot cannot be less than a mile long, excessively steep, and covered with thick Brush-wood; but through which Mr. Evans had had a small Passage or Road made some little time before, with the view to mark out the best Path to descend the Hill. — The Brush wood that covers the sides of this Hill is full of a small sort of Leech, which fasten on Horses Feet and annoy & fret them very much. — Mrs. M. had two or three of them on her ankles at one time, and all our Horses were attacked by them, but they were soon shook off. — We found plenty of Wild Raspberries on the sides of this Hill, but they were without any flavour and not worth Eating.
On leaving the Kurry Jung Hill (named by the late Mr. Thompson "Mount Maurice" out of compliment to Lt. Col: OConnell), we pursued our way through that District of Country called the Kurry-Jung-Brush, which is a fine range of Hill & Dale alternately, and admirably well calculated for Pasturage, being well watered and abounding in good grass and good shelter for both Black Cattle & Sheep. Several Farms having been located in this fine tract of Country to different Individuals in the time of the Usurped Government, I desired Mr. Meehan the Acting Surveyor to point them out to me as we rode along.
About 2. P.M. we quitted the Kurry-Jung Brush and arrived on what is called Richmond Terrace, running Parallel with the Hawkesbury for about 3 miles and commanding a very rich and beautiful prospect of the low grounds on each side of the River, now looking very rich, being covered with luxuriant Crops of Wheat ready for cutting down to repay the Industrious Husbandman for his Toil and Labour. — From the Terrace we gradually descended into the Plains and Back Line of Farms on the left Bank of the Hawkesbury, and rode through beautiful extensive Fields of Wheat for Six or Seven Miles after descending from the Terrace till our arrival on that part of the Bank of the River opposite to the Green Hills. Here we dismounted; and crossed the River ourselves in the late Mr. Thompson's Barge, which was here waiting for us, whilst our Horses swam across the River, which is here about a quarter of a mile broad. At halfpast 5, O'Clock we arrived at the Ferry on the Left Bank of the River and at 6, O'Clock landed in the Government Garden on the Green Hills and took possession of the Government House – or, more properly speaking, – Government Cottage; most beautifully situated on the Summit of a very fine Bank or Terrace rising about Fifty feet above the level of the River; of which, and the adjacent Country, there is a very fine view from this sweet delightful Spot. — This day's ride was a very long and fatiguing one for us all, but particularly so for my poor dear Elizabeth; who, however, bore it uncommonly well, notwithstanding she was at least Seven Hours on Horseback, and rode not less than Thirty Miles during this Day's Excursion since we Breakfasted at Yellow-Mundie-Lagoon. —
Mrs. M. and myself were quite delighted with the beauty of this part of the Country; its great fertility, and its Picturesque appearance; and especially with the well-chosen and remarkable fine scite [sic] and situation of the Government Cottage and Garden on the Green Hills. — We dined soon after our arrival and after Dinner our Friend & Family physician Doctor Redfern took his departure for Sydney. —


Sunday 2d. Decr. 1811. [sic]
M
rs. M. and myself with the Gentlemen of our Family, attended Divine Service this forenoon at the temporary Church at the Green Hills, where the Revd. Mr. Robert Cartwright, the Chaplain of this District, gave us a most excellent Discourse and read Prayers extremely well indeed. — After church Mrs. Macquarie and myself attended by Capt. Antill, rode in the Carriage to the new Burying Ground, distant about a mile from Government House, to view the Tomb where the remains of our late worthy and highly esteemed good friend Mr. Andw. Thompson, late Chief Magistrate of this District, are deposited, and whose loss we both very sincerely lament and deplore, and from whose superior local knowledge and good sound sense and judicious advice, I once fondly flattered myself I should derive great benefit and advantage during my present Tour of Inspection through this Colony. — The Spot Mr. Thompson's remains are buried in is most beautiful and happily selected by his Executor Captain Antill; and the Situation of this new Burying Ground altogether is one of the most beautiful and convenient that can well be imagined. — Having remained there for near Half an Hour, we took our leave of our departed Friend's Tomb (– which we intend to improve and render more elegant & conspicuous as a tribute of regard and friendship for his memory –) and proceeded in the Carriage to see two of his Farms called West Hill (or Red House Farm) and Killarney, both very good ones, and both within the convenient distance of two miles of the town on the Green Hills. The Road to these Farms is very good, and we had a very pleasant Drive to and from them in the Carriage. Mr. Cox and Doctor Mileham dined with us today.


Monday 3d. Decr.—
Immediately after Breakfast this morning I set out for the Richmond District, accompanied by the two Surveyors, M
r. Cox the Magistrate, the Revd. Mr. Cartwright, and the Gentlemen of my own Staff, in order to examine and survey the proper Grounds and Scite [sic] for a Town and Township in that District. We rode over the greater part of the Common formerly marked out in the time of Govr. King for the Richmond District, and afterwards over that part of it I deemed most eligible and convenient for erecting a Town and Township on, and which we at length fixed on at the extremity of the Common, near Pugh's Lagoon; intending to have the Church, School-House and Burying Ground on a very beautiful elevated Bank immediately above this fine bason [sic] of Fresh Water, and within about 200 yards of it. — After fixing on the situation of this Township I proceeded to view the different Farms of the Richmond District, first going along the Back-line as far as Capt. Forest's, and returning Home to the Green Hills by the Center and Front Line of Farms; the Soil of which in general is extremely good, and yield at this present time very fine Crops, but the Houses and Habitations of the Settlers are miserably bad, and the front and center lines of Farms are liable to be flooded on any innundation of the Hawkesbury River. — This day's Ride was a very hot, long, and fatiguing one; having been Nine Hours on Horseback. — I set out from the Government House at 8 O'Clock in the morning and did not return Home till 5 O'Clock in the afternoon, having rode about 35 miles. — Mrs. M. remained at Home this day, being a good deal fatigued after her long ride on Saturday. —

The Revd. Mr. Cartwright & his wife, Mr. Cox, and Dr. Mileham dined with us this day.


Tuesday 4th. Decr. —
Wishing to explore the Hawkesbury River, down as far as Portland Head, and at the same time view the Front Farms on both Banks that far, I set out this morning between 5 and 6 O'Clock, accompanied by M
rs. Macquarie, Mrs. Cartwright, Mr. Cartwright, Mr. Cox, Mr. Hassall, and the Gentlemen of our Family, in the late Mr. Thompson's Barge and another smaller Boat, on our Excursion to Portland Head. — We stopt [sic] at Govr. Bligh's Farm of Blighton, about six miles below the Green Hills on the Right Bank of the River, a very beautiful situation; and after walking about the grounds there for half an hour we proceeded on our Voyage down the River. — At 8 O'Clock we stopped at the New School-House recently erected by Subscription, on the left Bank of the River, a little below Caddye-Creek, but on the opposite side, where we had determined to Breakfast, which was accordingly prepared with all convenient haste within the New School-House, which is prettily situated on the Bank of the River. — Here Doctor Arndell came to pay us a visit from his Farm on Caddye Creek on the opposite side of the River, and Breakfasted with us. — After Breakfast we embarked again and prosecuted our voyage down the River, the Banks of which begin here to be very high and Rocky in most places. — The Farms on both Banks, especially those on the Left Bank, are rich and well cultivated, and make a pretty appearance from the water, being generally interspersed with extensive Orchards of Peaches and other Fruits. — We reached Portland Head, which is about twenty miles by the windings of the River from the Green Hills, about 12 O'Clock; and there being nothing of consequence to be seen lower down the River at this time, we retraced our steps back the same way we came till we arrived at Caddye Creek, where we quitted our Boat and landed at Dr. Arndell's Farm, where we had directed our Carriage & Horses to meet us, and where we found them accordingly waiting for us; the Boats proceeding Home with our Servants & Baggage.
We arrived at Dr. Arndell's House about 2, O'Clock, and having rested ourselves for about half an hour there, I set out on Horseback along with the Surveyors, Mr. Cox & Mr. Cartwright to survey and examine the Ground most eligible for a Town & Township in the Nelson District on the Common belonging to that District; Mrs. Macquarie proceeding home in the Carriage. — Having rode over the Common in various directions, we at length determined upon the part of it most eligible and convenient for a Township, immediately in rear of the Back Line of Farms, and entirely out of the reach of the inundation of the River. — We then rode home and arrived at the Government Cottage at ½ past 6 O'Clock in the Evening. — Mrs. M. had got Home long before us, and had Dinner ready prepared for us, which we enjoyed very much after our long water Excursion in the morning and fatiguing afternoon's ride. —


Wednesday 5th. Decr. —
I accompanied M
rs. M. in the Carriage this morning to pay Visits, immediately after Breakfast, to Mrs. Cox, Mrs. Pitt, Mrs. Evans & Mrs. Forrest, all residing in different Parts of the Richmond District. — On our return Home we stopt [sic] for a short time to shew Mrs. M. the Ground intended to be marked out for a Town & Township in the Richmond District close to Pugh's Lagoon, which she admired very much. — After my return Home I went to examine and view the inside of the Church, School-House and the Government Granaries and Provision Stores — all which I found in good order and repair; the Grain & Provisions being in excellent good condition. — Mr. Simeon Lord, and Mr. Moore from Sydney, and Dr. Arndell and his Daughters dined with us this day. —


Thursday 6th. Decr. —
At 9 O'Clock this morning, as soon as we had Breakfasted, I set out, attended by the Surveyors, M
r. Cox, Mr. Fitzgerald, and the Gentlemen of my staff (– leaving Mrs. M. at home) to visit the several Farms on the opposite side of the River, and to examine and survey the proper ground for a Town and Township for the Farms on the Left or North Bank of the River Hawkesbury liable to be flooded by the inundations. —
Having crossed the Ferry at the Green Hills to the North side of the River, we proceeded by the Front & Center line of Farms alternately as far down the River as Kershaw's Farm, about 7 miles from the Green Hills; and thence returning by the Back Line of Farms passed over the Common in rear of them, where we looked for an eligible Spot for the intended Town & Township for the accommodation of the Settlers of the Phillip District and others inhabiting the Northern Bank of the River Hawkesbury, and after carefully surveying the different Parts of the Common we fixed on a very safe and convenient situation for the Town and Township in this part of the Country; which done we returned home and arrived at Government Cottage at ½ past 2 O'Clock. — Took some refreshment and walked out to survey the Grounds belonging to the Crown in and near the present village on the Green Hills, and also the adjoining Public Common marked out for this part of the Country in the time of Governor King; a convenient part of which it is now my intention to appropriate for a large Town and Township for the accommodation of the Settlers inhabiting the South side of the River Hawkesbury, whose Farms are liable to be flooded on any inundation of the River, and to connect the present Village on the Green Hills with the intended new Town and Township. — After viewing the ground and maturely considering the importance of the measure, the scite [sic] and situation of the new Town was at length fixed finally upon — the exact scite [sic] of the new Church and Great Square being particularly marked out, as well as the extent and situation of the new Burying Ground; the Acting Surveyor, Mr. Meehan, receiving orders to measure and make out a Plan of the whole. —
A large Party of Friends dined with us today, consisting in all of 21 Persons, including our own Family. — After Dinner I christened the new Townships, drinking a Bumper to the success of each. — I gave the name of Windsor to the Town intended to be erected in the District of the Green Hills, in continuation of the present Village, from the similarity of this situation to that of the same name in England; the Township in the Richmond District I have named Richmond, from its beautiful situation, and as corresponding with that of its District; the Township for the Evan or Nepean District I have named Castlereagh in honor of Lord Viscount Castlereagh; the Township of the Nelson District I have named Pitt-Town in honor of the immortal memory of the late great William Pitt, the Minister who originally planned this Colony; and the Township for the Phillip District; on the North or left Bank of the Hawkesbury, I have named Wilberforce – in honor of and out of respect to the good and virtuous Wm. Wilberforce Esqr. M.P. – a true Patriot and the real Friend of Mankind.
Having sufficiently celebrated this auspicious Day of christening the five Towns and Townships, intended to be erected and established for the security and accommodation of the Settlers and others inhabiting the Cultivated Country, on the Banks of the Rivers Hawkesbury and Nepean; I recommended to the Gentlemen present to exert their influence with the Settlers in stimulating them to lose no time in removing their Habitations, Flocks & Herds to these Places of safety and security, and thereby fulfil my intentions and plans in establishing them. —
As soon as we had broke up from Table, Captain Antill, accompanied by Messrs. Lord and Moore, who had dined with us, set out by water for Scotland Island, a part of the Estate of the late Mr. Thompson, in order to take an account of his Property there, the rest of our Party returning to their respective Homes, highly gratified with their entertainment. —


Friday 7th Decr. —
I received and answered a great number of Petitions and Memorials from Settlers and others in the course of this morning. — I also received and answered a congratulatory address from the Principal Settlers & Inhabitants of the Hawkesbury and Nepean Districts, presented by Doctor Arndell, the oldest Settler in this Country (–having arrived in the Colony with Gov
r. Phillip in 1788 –) complimenting me on my administration, and first appearance in this part of the Colony; to which I made a suitable reply. —

In the afternoon I went to explore again the scite [sic] of the intended new Town of Windsor, accompanied by the two Surveyors, to whom I communicated my plans and final orders respecting the scite [sic] of the Church, Great Square in the new Town, and Small Square and Streets intended to be formed in the present Village, which is henceforth to form part of the Town of Windsor, and to be designated so accordingly. — I laid out several new Streets and gave directions for enlarging and improving the old ones, as well as respecting the size and descriptions of all future Houses that are permitted to be built in the Town of Windsor. —

Mr. Cox, Dr. Mileham, and Mr. Evans dined with us again today; my labours at Windsor being now ended. — ‘252

1810: Conclusion


The above correspondence changed forever relations between Aboriginal people and settlers. The proposal for Aboriginal children to be adopted in to the homes of “sedate persons” foundered quickly, however, the argument of “keeping them in a small society formed of their own body, be it great or small”, was to be the foundation for Governor MacQuarie’s Native Institute of 1814 and late state and federal assimilation policies.



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