Accomplishments major goals of the project

Download 68.68 Kb.
Size68.68 Kb.
ACCIMA Annual Report 2013

  1. Accomplishments

    1. major goals of the project

[Drag and Drop text]

The Atmosphere-Ocean Coupling Causing Ice Shelf Melt in Antarctica (ACCIMA) collaborative project combines teams of researchers at The Ohio State University (OSU), New York University (NYU) and Old Dominion University (ODU) to model the multi-disciplinary processes impacting the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The major goal of this project is to understand the various processes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and on land that influence the delivery of heat to the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which then causes the ice sheet to melt and raise global sea level. To understand these processes, we will create a coupled model of the polar Southern Hemisphere with high enough horizontal resolution to represent mesoscale dynamics in each of these component systems.
The first step toward this goal is to create individual versions of the atmosphere (Polar-WRF), ocean (ROMS, POP2), sea-ice (CICE, ROMS), land (CLM) and ice shelf (ROMS) on a common grid with a spacing that ranges from 30 to 10 km. These component models are run with external forcing created either by the other models or by various analysis products. The purpose of these experiments is to specify the various constants and processes so that the models will realistically represent the dynamics of the polar Southern Hemisphere.
The second step toward the major goal is to allow some of the individual models to be coupled so they can adjust freely to the changes in the other model states. We will use the software set up by the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and NCAR which provides a coupling environment for the individual models above. At the moment, different versions of CESM software allow different coupling options. WRF is not yet part of the latest release (cesm1.1.1) although it is part of an earlier release (cesm1.0.4). Work is proceeding to make ROMS part of CESM, but no software has been released to date.
The third step is to couple all models to allow free interaction and influence among them. This will require a new release of CESM (anticipated soon).
The final step is to reduce the model grid to 10 km for the coupled system to allow the ocean to be almost eddy-resolving and for the atmosphere to feel the effects of these small scales in the ocean as well as allow the atmosphere to react to topographic variations on the land and thus create katabatic and barrier winds.

    1. Accomplishments

[The Section will be included in the pdf file submitted as supplementary information]

      1. Major Activities

WRF– Benchmarking the performance of Polar WRF in the Antarctic was completed (Bromwich et al. 2013). Simulations with Polar WRF on a 30-km version of the ACCIMA grid were performed to generate high resolution atmospheric forcing for the ocean models.
CLM– Simulations with CLM on the 20 km grid to get a dynamically adjusted base state.
ROMS– Simulations with ROMS on the 10 km grid forced by ERA interim meteorology and ECCO2 ocean at the boundaries to get ocean, sea ice and ice shelf processes properly represented.
POP2– Simulations with POP2 on the 20 km grid forced by the Common Ocean-ice Reference Experiments Datasets version 2 (COREv2, Large and Yeager 2008) which is composed of 6-hour NCEP/NCAR reanalysis on T62 grid for surface air wind, temperature, and specific humidity; monthly precipitation from a blend of GPCP (Huffman et al. 1997), CMAP (Xie and

Arkin 1997), and Serreze products; and daily radiation is from GISS. Lateral boundary conditions are specified from ECCO2 to get a dynamically adjusted initial ocean state and to properly specify various ocean model parameters.

POP2+CICE– Simulations with coupled POP2 and CICE on the 20 km grid forced by COREv2 (described above) to evaluate the interaction between these models.
Yellowstone– Using the newly commissioned UCAR computer (yellowstone) for test simulations and to set up the production calculations that will involve all of the coupled models.

      1. Specific objectives

WRF– Simulations with the Polar version of WRF (Polar WRF) were done to determine the optimum strategy for modeling on the ACCIMA grid. Using this strategy, Polar WRF was run at 30 km and 3-h output frequency for 2010 with specified sea surface temperatures and sea ice conditions and lateral boundary forcing from the ERA-Interim global reanalysis. The output data set will be used to force the ocean models.
CLM– Create an adjusted state for the land model forced by the seasonally varying surface fluxes. Simulations have been run for 80 years to allow the deeper ice layers to equilibrate to the seasonally varying surface heat fluxes.
ROMS– Create an eddy-permitting ocean/sea-ice/ice-shelf model simulation driven by surface winds and air temperature from ERA-interim. These simulations have been done on the 10 km grid for the Southern Ocean.
POP2– Create an ocean only (POP2) and a coupled ocean/sea-ice simulation (POP2-CICE) on the 20 km grid forced by NCEP-reanalysis meteorology.

WRF-CLM– Create a coupled atmosphere-land simulation on the 20-km grid that is driven by the ERA-Interim global reanalysis using spectral nudging and specified ocean conditions. This work is ongoing.

      1. Significant results

WRF – Extensive experimentation was done with Polar WRF on the ACCIMA grid at 30 km to find the optimal integration strategy. Figure 1 shows the integration domain along with the selected physics options used in WRF. The 30-km domain was nested inside a coarser outer domain (90 km) to provide smooth lateral boundary conditions for the inner domain (30 km). The ERA-Interim global reanalysis provided the lateral boundary conditions for the coarse domain. To prevent WRF model drift during extended integrations of up to several months in duration spectral nudging to ERA-Interim was used in the inner domain. It was found that nudging of waves 1-7 at upper model levels provided the most stable and realistic solution while minimizing the nudging needed so that smaller scale simulation features can realistically develop.

Figure 1: WRF namelist (below) and integration domain (right).

5th order horizontal advection (upwind-based);

3rd order vertical advection;

Positive-definite advection for moisture;

6th-order horizontal hyper diffusion;

Grid nudging ( at model top 20 for inner domain and all level for outer domain);

Upper damping (a layer of increased diffusion, damp_opt =1);

Vertical velocity damping, Divergence Damping,

Time Off-centering (epssm Controls vertically propagating sound waves);

Morrison microphysics;

New Grell sub-grid scale cumulus scheme;

Noah land surface model;

RRTMG atmospheric radiation scheme ;

RRTMG shortwave scheme ;

MYNN(2.5) planetary boundary layer scheme ;

MYNN(2.5) similarity surface layer;

Gravity wave drag ;

Modis landuse data ;

Sea ice (concentration).

• Grid nudging: T,UV,Q at top 20 levels for inner domain and above PBL for outer domain.

• Spectral nudging φ, UV, T at top 20 levels for inner domain and above PBL for outer domain.

• 70 vertical model layers and two domains:

P’ (perturbation pressure of model level) = P(pressure of model level) – Pb(base state pressure)


Polar WRF

Figure 2: Monthly total precipitation (mm) for January 2010

Using this integration strategy, Polar WRF was run for 2010 using a 3-h output frequency. The benefit of the higher resolution provided by Polar WRF (30 km versus ~ 80 km for ERA-Interim) is demonstrated by Figure 2 that shows the simulated total precipitation for January 2010 for both ERA-Interim (left) and Polar WRF (right). The orographic precipitation upwind of the South American Andes (top left) is much more pronounced in Polar WRF as is the downwind precipitation shadow in comparison to ERA-Interim. Another example is provided by the Polar WRF precipitation along the Queen Maud Land coast of Antarctica (top) where the windward facing slopes show precipitation maxima whereas these features are weakly represented or absent from ERA-Interim. Polar WRF resolves mesoscale lows that are not present in ERA-Interim and the surface winds over the Antarctic ice sheet, as expected, have a lot more spatial structure in Polar WRF (figures not shown).

CLM– The land model has stabilized to a repeating seasonal cycle providing initial conditions for the coupled simulations. CLM represents the Antarctic ice sheet with about 2 m of snow (about 1 m water equivalent depth) on top of solid ice. Using 2003 forcing conditions every 3 hrs (Qian et al 2006), it is seen that the surface temperature on top of the snow layer, which can communicate to the atmosphere, adjusts very rapidly to the forcing. At deeper CLM model layers down to 35 m deep in the Antarctic ice the annual temperature cycle is small and decades are required for equilibrium with the surface forcing. After 80 yrs of simulation the 35 m ice temperature becomes similar to the annual mean surface air temperature.
ROMS– The ROMS based ocean/sea-ice simulation creates realistic sea ice concentration with a seasonal cycle that matches the observed cycle for the Southern Ocean (Fig. 3A). In addition, the volume transport at Drake Passage (Fig. 3B) is 139 ± 10 Sv which is close to the observed 134 ± 11 Sv (Cunningham et al. 2003). Finally, the basal melt under the three largest ice shelves (Fig 3C) has a stable seasonal pattern with little drift and compares reasonably with observations for the Ross (0.16 m/y vs obs of 0.12 to 0.22; Shabtaie et al. 1987, Lingle et al. 1991, Jacobs et al. 1992, Loose et al. 2009), Filchner-Ronne (0.20 m/yr vs obs of 0.24-0.44; Nicholls et al. 2003) and Amery (1.1 m/yr vs obs of 0.5-1.1; Galton-Fenzi et al. 2012).

Figure 3: Results from 10 km ROMS simulation using 2010 forcing repeated for 10 years. A) Sea ice area for the last 5 years. The solid line is the model result, the blue dotted line is observations for 2010 and the red dashed line is the average ice area. B) Volume transport at Drake Passage (1 Sv = 106m3/s). C) Basal melt rates (m/yr) for the three largest Antarctic Ice Shelves.

Figure 4: Simulation results from the ocean-only POP2 model. A) Volume transport at Drake Passage, B) Temperature section along Greenwich Meridian in June of year 1, C) Temperature section along Greenwich Meridian at the end of the first year.

POP2– The POP2 ocean-only simulation on the 20 km grid behaves reasonably. The transport at Drake Passage is above the observed range with values varying between 145 and 170 Sv (Fig. 4). Over time, there is some erosion of the internal temperature and salinity structure which indicates excessive vertical mixing driven by vertical convection during the winter.

POP2+CICE– The coupled POP2-CICE simulations have been run over several years. The model develops low sea ice concentration in the winter (Fig. 5) and near-freezing water over much of the ocean south of the ACC (Fig. 6). The excess vertical convection in the winter is due to somewhat weak near-surface stratification. Experiments are underway to adjust initial conditions to avoid this runaway convection and venting of deep heat from the ocean.

Figure 6: Temperature sections along Greenwich Meridian from the coupled POP2-CICE model in June (Left) of the first year and (Right) the second year.

Figure 5: Sea Ice concentration over the Weddell Sea from the coupled POP2-CICE model for August from (Left) the first year and (Right) the second year.

      1. Key outcomes

• Individual component models have been run on the regional 10 km to 30 km grids over the polar Southern Hemisphere. The atmosphere (Polar WRF), land (CLM) and ocean (ROMS) produce realistic simulations for current conditions compared to present day observations.

• The ocean/sea-ice/ice-shelf model based on ROMS has a very good ability to simulate the transport at Drake Passage, the global sea ice area, and the ability to calculate basal melt in response to these processes. We are currently using this model to assess the impact of changing resolution in the atmospheric model on the resulting ocean circulation (from ERA-interim to 30 km Polar-WRF). We will be able to use this model directly when the coupling software is released with ROMS as a component model in CESM. ROMS also acts as a good test model to help adjust processes in POP2 to get realistic ocean simulations (from ERA-interim to 30 km Polar-WRF).
• Pairwise coupling of several models (CLM-WRF, POP2-CICE) have been completed or nearing completion. The ocean model displays a runaway convection; procedures to resolve these difficulties are underway.

      1. References:

Bromwich, D. H., F. O. Otieno, K. M. Hines, K. W. Manning, and E. Shilo, 2013:.Comprehensive evaluation of polar weather research and forecasting performance in the Antarctic. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 274-292, doi: 10.1029/2012JD018139.

Cunningham, S.A., S.G. Alderson, B.A. King, and M.A. Brandon, 2003. Transport and variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in Drake Passage. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8084. doi: 10.1029/2001JC001147.

Galton-Fenzi, B. K., J. R. Hunter, R. Coleman, S. J. Marsland, and R. C. Warner, 2012. Modeling the basal melting and marine ice accretion of the Amery Ice Shelf, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C09031, doi:10.1029/2012JC008214.

Huffman, G. J., and Coauthors, 1997. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 5-20.
Jacobs, S.S., H.H. Hellmer, C.S.M. Doake, A. Jenkins, and R.M. Frolich, 1992. Melting of ice shelves and the mass balance of Antarctica. J. Glaciology, 38, 375-387.
Large, W., and S. Yeager, 2008. The global climatology of an interannually varying air-sea flux data set. Climate Dynam., 33, 341-364, doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0441-3.
Lingle, C.S., D.H. Schilling, J.L. Fastook, W.S.B. Paterson, and T.H. Brown, 1991. A flow band model of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica response to CO2-induced climatic warming. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 6849-6871.
Loose, B., P. Schlosser, W.M. Smethie, S. Jacobs, 2009. An optimized estimate of glacial melt from the Ross Ice Shelf using noble gases, stable isotopes, and CFC transient tracers. J. Geophys. Res.,114, C08007. doi: 10.1029/2008JC005048.
Nicholls, K. W., L. Padman, M. Schröder, R. A. Woodgate, A. Jenkins, and S. Østerhus, 2003. Water mass modification over the continental shelf north of Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 3260, doi:10.1029/2002JC001713, C8.
Qian, T., A. Dai, K.E. Trenberth, and K.W. Oleson, 2006. Simulation of global land surface conditions from 1948-2004. Part I: Forcing data and evaluation. J. Hydrometeorology, 7, 953-975.
Shabtaie, S., and C.R. Bentley, 1987. West Antarctic ice streams draining into the Ross Ice Shelf: Configuration and mass balance. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 1311-1336.
Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, 1997. Global Precipitation: A 17-Year Monthly Analysis Based on Gauge Observations, Satellite Estimates, and Numerical Model Outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2539-2558.
1.3 Training and professional development

[Drag and Drop text]

1.3.1 Postdocs
C. Yoo attended three workshops: the EaSM-PI meeting at NSF headquarters in Washington DC in July 2012, Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) workshop at Hobart, Australia in October 2012, and WCRP special workshop on Ozone and SH climate at Buenos Aires, Argentina in February 2013.
1.3.2 Grad students
J. Nicolas attended the WCRP special workshop on Ozone and SH climate at Buenos Aires, Argentina in February 2013 and presented a poster.
1.3.3 Undergrad students

[none to report]

1.4 Results to communities of interest
This is achieved through extensive participation in conferences and workshops where the ACCIMA project is discussed/presented.
1.5 Plans for next time interval to accomplish goals
The major activity is for the individual groups to finish calibrating the individual models and to run simulations with coupled models.
Collaboration of the three groups is maintained with a conference call at 2 week intervals.

The next annual project meeting will be held at Ohio State once the coupled model is fully operational; this likely will occur in fall 2013.

We will stay in touch with CESM software development to determine when new models are included in the coupling framework and are released to research groups for their use.
1.6 Supporting pdf files

[include results from Section 1.2 above in the pdf file.]

2 Products
2.1 Publications
2.1.1 journal publications
Bromwich, D. H., F. O. Otieno, K. M. Hines, K. W. Manning, and E. Shilo, 2013: Comprehensive evaluation of polar weather research and forecasting performance in the Antarctic. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 274-292, doi: 10.1029/2012JD018139.

Nadeau, L.-P., D.N. Straub, and D.M. Holland, 2013: Comparing idealized and complex topographies in quasigeostrophic simulations of an Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., in press.

2.1.2 books, non-periodical

[None to report]

2.1.3 conference papers, presentation abstracts
EASM project PI meeting, Washington DC, July 8 to July 11, 2012. C. Yoo presented a poster How important is atmosphere-ocean coupling on fine scales for communicating the large scale ozone signature to Antarctica? (attending: Klinck, Hines, Yoo)
SCAR Open Science meeting, Portland, Oregon (attending: Bromwich)
FRISP/WAIS meeting (attending: Dinniman)
WGOMD/SOP Workshop on Sea Level Rise, Ocean/Ice Shelf Interaction and Ice Sheets, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, Feb 18 - Feb 20, 2013 (attending: Holland)
Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) workshop at Hobart, Australia in October 2012 (attending: Yoo)
WCRP special workshop on Ozone and SH climate at Buenos Aires, Argentina in February 2013 (attending: Yoo and Nicolas)
Posters presented:

Bromwich, D.H., L.-S. Bai, M. Dinniman, E. Gerber, K. Hines, D. Holland, J. Klinck, J. Nicholas and C. Yoo. The ACCIMA Project - Coupled Modeling of the High Southern Latitudes. 26th Forum for Research into Ice Shelf Processes Workshop, Stockholm, Sweden, 12-14 June 2012.

Hines, K.M., D.H. Bromwich, L.-S. Bai, J.P. Nicolas, D.M. Holland, J.M. Klinck, M. Dinniman, C. Yoo, and E.P. Gerber. The ACCIMA Project – Coupled Modeling of the High Southern Latitudes. 17th Annual Community Earth System Model (CESM) Workshop, Breckenridge, CO, 18-21 June 2012.

Bromwich, D.H., and K.M. Hines. ACCIMA. XXXII SCAR Open Science Conf., Portland, OR, 16-19 July 2012.

Bromwich, D. H., L.-S. Bai, M. Dinniman, E. Gerber, K. Hines, D. Holland, J. Klinck, J. Nicolas, and C. Yoo, 2013: How important is atmosphere-ocean coupling on fine scales for communicating the large scale ozone signature to Antarctica? World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Special Workshop on Climatic of Ozone Depletion in the Southern Hemisphere, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 25 February-1 March 2013.

Nicolas, J. P., D. H. Bromwich, and A. J. Monaghan, 2013: West Antarctic temperatures and atmospheric circulation changes since the International Geophysical Year. World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Special Workshop on Climatic of Ozone Depletion in the Southern Hemisphere, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 25 February-1 March 2013.

2.2 Technologies or techniques

[None to report]

2.3 Inventions and patents

[None to report]

2.4 Websites

[None to report]

Project Website for the ACCIMA project: (password protected)

Website for Polar WRF:

2.5 Other products
Polar WRF 3.4.1 – polar-optimized supplement to the widely-used Weather Research and Forecasting Model
2.6 Supporting pdf files

[add pdf file]

3 Participants and collaborators
3.1 Worked on project

[Individual information is added on the web site]

3.1.1 Senior Personnel
[add contribution to the project on local report]
• L.-S. Bai has worked on running Polar WRF to simulate 1 year over the ACCIMA Antarctic grid.
• D. Bromwich is the overall project leader and has organized communication between groups along with publications, reports, and bi-weekly conference calls.
• M. Dinniman is responsible for developing and configuring the Southern Ocean model with ROMS. This model includes sea ice and ice shelves. In addition, he is using the ROMS model to help calibrate the POP2 model so that it will provide realistic simulations of the Southern Ocean.
• E. Gerber is helping to supervise activity at NYU and coordinate collaboration with ODU and OSU. He is working with Changhyun Yoo to couple WRF, POP2, CICE, and CLM, and to design experiments and metrics to evaluate the model.
• K. Hines has worked on WRF climate modeling, including updating Polar WRF to work with WRF 3.4.1. In addition he has worked on running the adapted Arctic Regional Climate Model on Ohio Supercomputer Center and NCAR machines. This includes Community Land Model runs. He has also helped to organize collaboration between groups.
• D. Holland is supervising activity at NYU and coordinating collaboration with ODU and OSU. He is working with Changhyun Yoo and Ed Gerber to couple WRF, POP2, CICE, and CLM, and to design experiments and metrics to evaluate the model.
• J. Klinck is supervising the activity at ODU and is responsible for coordinating this activity with NYU and OSU. In addition, he is working on the configuration of POP2 and CICE models so that they will produce realistic simulations of the Southern Ocean and sea ice.
3.1.2 Post-Doc
• C. Yoo has worked setting up the models that are part of CESM on our Antarctic and Southern Ocean domain. He has also ported and run the models on the UCAR supercomputer Yellowstone. He collaborates with colleagues at OSU and ODU to find optimized configurations for the models.
3.1.3 Graduate Students
• J. Nicolas is working on using Polar WRF to simulate the surface mass balance over Antarctica (under NASA funding). Improvements are planned to the model physics (e.g., inclusion of drifting snow processes and diamond dust simulation) that will be of benefit to this project.
3.1.4 Undergraduate Students

[None to report]

3.1.5 Technician, Programmer

[None to report]

3.1.6 other participant

[None to report]

3.1.7 REU

[None to report]

3.2 Organizations as partners

[The text below is used by each group to show how the various tasks are distributed.]

3.2.1 Ohio State University
Responsible for overall project organization and management; and for the configuration of the atmospheric and land parts of the coupled model system.
3.2.2 New York University
Responsible for setting up the ocean and sea ice parts of the coupled model; for verification of the ocean and ice model results; and for setting up the coupled model to run on the yellowstone computer system.
3.2.3 Old Dominion University
Responsible for the stand-alone ROMS based ocean model configuration and verification; and, for analysis of the POP2 and CICE model solutions.
3.3 Other collaborators
Dr. L. Ruby Leung, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory supplied help on regional climate modeling.

Dr. John Cassano, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder supplied help on the Arctic Regional Climate Model.

Anthony Craig, National Center for Atmospheric Research supplied help on the Arctic Regional Climate Model and served as a consultant on technical issues of regional climate modeling.

Dr. Paul Budgell, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway supplied help on the use of the WRF mesoscale atmospheric model in regional climate simulations.

4 Impact
4.1 On development of principle discipline
We are calibrating and verifying coupled models for the Southern Ocean on a regional grid using the CESM software which is designed for global simulations. These efforts will identify processes at high southern latitudes that impact global simulations. This should improve understanding of the primary climatic phenomena, ENSO and SAM, critical to regional climate change observed during the last 50 years. Also, our efforts can act as a guide for other research projects looking at mesoscale or higher resolution dynamics in other regions of the Earth that have global impacts.
Once the coupled regional climate system model is fully functional and well documented in publications we intend to make the code available to researchers worldwide probably through NCAR.
4.2 On other disciplines
Our major impact is to properly represent atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere processes at high southern latitudes in simulations models which will be used to project the state of the coupled earth system into the future. This project provides climate dynamics understanding to help interpret contemporary West Antarctic ice shelf melting as well as the climatic records from West Antarctic ice cores and sediment cores. SAM and ENSO strongly modulate West Antarctic climate. The ability to forecast future conditions allows human society to implement measures to mediate these future conditions or to modify current activities to moderate future impacts.

4.3 On human resources
The project has funding for one postdoc and one graduate student. Both are integral to the working of the project and are learning specific skills with regard to ocean and atmosphere processes. In addition, both are learning the details of numerical models applied to earth systems and of computer systems that are required to run these models.
4.4 On physical resources (infrastructure)

[None to report]

4.5 On institutional resources

[None to report]

4.6 On informational resources

[None to report]

4.7 On technology transfer

[None to report]

4.8 On society beyond sci/tech

[None to report]

5 Changes and Problems
5.1 Changes in approach and reasons
This project is now using POP2 as the ocean model in place of ROMS. The major reason is that ROMS is not yet part of the CESM coupled model system, although work is proceeding by other groups to accomplish this task. The use of POP2 will allow the coupled model simulations to proceed.
5.2 Actual or anticipated problems or delays
There are different versions of CESM software with different component models. The latest version of CESM (1.1.1) does not yet include WRF as an atmospheric model. According to Tony Craig of NCAR (personal communication April 2013), this merged code that should run on Yellowstone is expected to be available for community users in the June 2013 time frame.
Similarly, ROMS is not part of the CESM software although work is proceeding. We need to include ROMS in the model as it represents the mechanical and thermodynamics effects of ice shelves. It was anticipated that ROMS would be included by now, but it has not. We do not know when ROMS will be available in CESM.
The POP2 ocean model is an alternative to ROMS and is currently being used and calibrated. POP2 does not include ice shelves, although work has been done to add this capability. If a version of POP2 with ice shelves is released soon (as expected), we will use it to look at the influence of various processes on ice shelf basal melt.
5.3 Changes that impact expenditures

[None to report]

5.4 Changes that impact human subjects

[None to report]

5.5 Changes that impact vertebrate animals

[None to report]

5.6 Changes that impact biohazards

[None to report]

6 Special requirements

[None to report]

6.1 Supporting pdf files

[no file to be included.]

Download 68.68 Kb.

Share with your friends:

The database is protected by copyright © 2024
send message

    Main page