Aristotle – “A change in the state of the soul results in a change in the state of the body and a change in the state of the body results in a change in the state of the soul.” Science

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Lecture 1-12-99

Aristotle – “A change in the state of the soul results in a change in the state of the body and a change in the state of the body results in a change in the state of the soul.”
Science is the systematic observation of natural events for the purpose of determining the cause of natural events.
Classification of Man:

Homo sapiens means “man the intelligent”

Man is of the Phylum chordata. We have a notochord ( =flexible rod of tissue )  nucleus propulsus and a dorsal hollow nerve tube that contains the brain and spinal chord. Man also at one time had pharyngeal pouches, the remnants of which are the Eustachian tubes.

Man belongs in the Class Mammalia, characterized by hair, mammary glands, 3 auditory ossicles, teeth, diaphragm, and an 4 chambered heart.

Man is of the Order Primate, along with limas, monkeys, and the great apes.

The Family Hominidae is the family of man ( people ).

Medical terminology


-dyne – pain

-oid – resembling

-penia – few, small

-trophy – nourishment


Dys – painful


Structural levels of the body:

  1. Atoms and molecules

  2. Cellular level – 60-100 trillion cells / body

  3. Tissue level – epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous tissue – layers of cells of common function.

  4. Organ level – 2 or more organs that perform common function

  5. System level – 2 or more organs that perform common function, integumentary, endocrine, CV, Urinary…

Planes of reference




Longitudinal – parallel to long axis

Directional terms

Rostral – toward the nose
Body regions





Abdomen ( regions and quadrants )

Pelvic region – pubic, perineum, lumbar, sacral, gluteal.

Upper extremity – shoulder, brachium, cubital, antebrachium, carpus, Manus

Lower extremity – hip, thigh, patellar, popliteal, crural region( leg ), pes
Body membranes

Mucous membranes line body cavities open to the exterior.

Serous membranes line body cavities NOT open to the exterior.

Terms for the day:

-oma – denoting a tumor or neoplasm

iatrogenic - denoting an unfavorable response to medical or surgical treatment, induced by the treatment itself

dysplasia – abnormal tissue develoment

hyperplasia – quantitative hypertrophy;an increase in number of cells in a tissue or organ, excluding tumor formation, whereby the bulk of the part or organ may be increased. See also hypertrophy.

hypertrophy – general increase in bulk of a part or organ, not due to tumor formation.

cyanosis – A dark bluish or purplish coloration of the skin and mucous membrane due to deficient oxygenation of the blood

etiology – The science and study of the causes of disease and their mode of operation.

idiopathic – denoting a primary disease of unknown cause

prognosis – A forecast of the probable course and/or outcome of a disease.

neuropathy - A classical term for any disorder affecting any segment of the nervous system

Terms related to movement of the body

1. Flexion - decrease in joint angle, if thigh or shoulder it means bringing it anteriorly

a. lateral flexion - bending of a joint, decrease of a joint angle

2. Extension - increase in joint angle

In anatomic position most joints are in extension

3. Abduction - away from the main axis

4. Adduction - toward the main axis

5. Rotation - movement of a body part around its own axis

a) medial rotation - internal rotation

b) lateral rotation - external rotation

c) supination of the forearm – anatomical position

d) pronation - rotation of the forearm so that the palm is rotated in a medial and posterior direction

or rotation of the radius on the ulna

6. Circumduction - circular movement of a body part

7. Inversion of the foot - ( sometimes called supination ) turning the sole of the foot inward

8. Eversion of the foot – ( sometimes called eversion ) turning the sole of the foot outward/laterally

9. Protraction - movement of the body part anteriorly

10. Retraction - movement of the body part posteriorly

11. Elevation - movement which raises a body part

12. Depression - lowering of a body part

Select topics relating to anatomy

1. Homeostasis - equilibrium - balance within the body. Disease results from a disruption of homeostasis

2. Fluids of the body

a) Extracellular fluids

1) plasma

2) interstitial fluid - intercellular fluid

3) synovial fluid

4) cerebrospinal fluid

b) Intracellular fluids

1) cytoplasm - cytosol

2) nucleus – nucleoplasm

There is a constant exchange between extracellular and intracellular fluids in the body.

3. Stress - reactions to disturbance in homeostasis, things that disturb the homeostasis of the body.

4. Disease - inappropriate response to stress, the body’s inappropriate response to stress

a) Signs - objective evaluation made by a trained person

b) Symptoms – subjective: “I don’t feel good”

c) Etiology - cause of disease, cause of disease

d) Diagnosis


S – subjective – complaint of the patient

O – objective – clinical findings

A – assessment – put it all together

P – plan – what to do given the above information
D – degenerative

A – anomalies or auto-immune

M – metabolic

N – Neoplasm

I – infectious

T – trauma or toxic

Eponyms, pros and cons – an eponym is the use of a person’s name to describe anything scientific, it doesn’t tell you anything!
Different Approaches to the Healing Arts

  1. Allopathic Medicine - create conditions antagonistic to the causative factor

  2. Homeopathic Medicine - like treats like, medicines which evoke similar symptoms ( eg. Extract of jalapeno to treat hemorrhoids.)

  3. Chiropractic - maintain neurological and musculoskeletal balance

  4. Medicine - treatment and prevention of disease using nonsurgical means

The Metric System

Deciliter = 100 ml

mg% = mg/100ml

1 cup = 8 oz. = 1/2 pint

1 meter = 100 centimeters = 1000 mm = 3.28 ft.

1 grain = 64.8 mg.

Organization of the skeletal system

  1. The Axial Skeleton

Skull – cranial and facial bones

Auditory ossicles – 3 bones total per side

Hyoid bone – below the larynx

Vertebral column – 26 bones in the adult

Rib cage/sternum -

  1. The Appendicular Skeleton

  • Pectoral Girdle - scapula & clavicles - cingulum membri superioris - girdle - articulates with sternum & vertebral column

  • Upper Extremities - humerus, radius, ulna, carpal bones, metacarpals and phalanges

  • Pelvic Girdle - 2 ossa coxae, cingulum membri inferioris - articulates with sacrum

  • Lower Extremities - femur, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsals and phalanges

Functions of the skeletal system

  1. Support – it is an internal rigid framework to our structure

  2. Protection – of internal organs

  3. Body movement – levers for muscles to pull against

  4. Provide an anchoring point of muscles

  5. Calcium/phosphorus storage and metabolism

  6. Hematopoiesis


  1. Condyle – a large rounded projection or a knob usually on the end of a long bone. Provides smooth articulation point

  2. Facet – a flattened or shallow articulating surface – ribs, vertebrae

  3. Head – a prominent rounded articulating bone end

  4. Alveolus – deep pit or a socket – teeth

  5. Foramen – a hole or rounded opening

  6. Fissure – a narrow, slit-like opening

  7. Sinus – a cavity or a hollow space in a bone

  8. Sulcus – a groove

  9. Crest – a narrow, ridgelike projection

  10. Epicondyle – a projection located superior to a condyle

  11. Process – any bony protuberance

  12. Spine – a sharp, slender process – scapula

  13. Trochanter – a massive, big process, only on the femur: greater, lesser, and gluteal tuberosity

  14. Tubercle – a small rounded process

  15. Tuberosity – a small roughened process

  16. Fossa – a flattened or shallow surface, depression

Shapes of bones

  1. Long bones – are longer than wide – femur

  2. Short bones – somewhat cube shaped – wrist

  3. Flat bones – cranial bones, ribs, scapula

  4. Irregular bones – vertebrae and certain bones of the skull

  5. Accessory bones – extra bones

  6. Wormian bones – after Olas W. – sutural bones in the skull, extra bones

Structure of a typical long bone

Shaft – diaphysis – long tubular

  1. periosteum – dense regular CT

  1. Sharpey’s fibers – perforating fibers that connect periosteum to bone

  1. Epiphysis – spongy bone on each end of the diaphysis

  1. Epiphyseal plate – the growth center of the bone, covered with hyaline cartilage

  2. Articular cartilage – hyaline cartilage

  3. Red marrow – hematopoiesis/hemopoiesis

  1. Medullary cavity – a central cavity within the diaphysis

  1. endosteum – lines the medullary cavity

  2. yellow marrow – fills it

Bone cells

  1. Osteogenic cells – in periosteum and endosteum,  osteoblasts or  osteoclasts

  2. Osteoblasts – lay down the osteoid, make bone

  3. Osteocytes – mature bone cells, reside in the lacunae, regulate calcium release into the blood stream maintain bone

  4. Osteoclasts – break down bone

  5. Bone lining cells – derived from osteoblasts along the surface of most bones, regulate Ca/P movement

Spongy and Compact Bone

  1. Spongy bone – lacy network of trabeculae (= supporting bundles of fibers), located deep to compact bone

  2. Compact bone – very dense, forms external portion of bone composed of cylindrical columns of bone.

Haversian system – osteon

  1. lamellae – concentric rings of bone

  2. central canal – contains artery, vein, and lymphatics

  3. lacunae – spaces where osteocytes reside

  4. canaliculi – small channels which connect lacunae

  5. perforating channels – Volkmann’s canal

Bone Growth

  1. Endochondral ossification – long bones, etc. preexisting, most bone is made like this

  2. Intramembranous ossification – flat bones, within a membrane

Homeostasis and Physiologic function of bone

  1. Hematopoiesis – in the bone marrow, RBCs, WBCs, Platelets (thrombocytes)

  2. Calcium storage and release

  1. Function of calcium in the body

  1. blood clotting

  2. nerve transmission

  3. muscle contraction

  1. Control of calcium levels in the blood

  1. bone

  2. kidney

  3. parathyroid glands

  1. diet/GIT Disorders of calcium metabolism

  1. hypocalcemia – tetany, spasm/seizures of muscles

  2. pH is proportional to HCO3/CO2 ( story about his wife in labor- hypocalcemic – paperbag over her mouth )

  3. hypercalcemia

  1. Essential nutrients for normal bone development and function

  1. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium

  2. Vitamin D – absorption of calcium

  3. Vitamin A – osteoblast function

  4. Vitamin C – necessary for osteoid synthesis

  5. Protein

The Axial Skeleton


Divisions of the skull

  1. Cranial bones – 8 bones in all

  1. Cranial cavity – where the brain is

  1. Calvaria – roof of the cranial vault

  2. Cranial fossa – floor of the cranial cavity

  1. Facial bones – 14 bones are not in contact with the brain. All are paired except the vomer and mandible

Fontanels – means literally fountain

  1. Anterior fontanel – bregmatic fontanel closes by 18-24months  bregma

  2. Posterior or occipital fontanel – closes by 2 months  lambda

  3. Anterolateral or sphenoidal fontanel – closes by 3 months of age  pterion ( 4 bones come together here )

  4. Posterolateral or mastoid fontanel – closes by 12 months  asterion

Sutures – means seam

  1. Sagittal suture – separates parietal bones, bregma  lambda

  2. Coronal suture – anterolateral fontanel  bregma  anterolateral fontanel

  3. Lambdoid suture – posterolateral to posterolateral fontanel, asterion to lambda

  4. Squamous suture - anterolateral posterolateral fontanel, pterion  asterion

  5. Metopic suture – bregma  intranasal sutures, anterior fontanel rostrally to glabella, closes by age 6


Foramen Location Netters plate # Structures that pass through it

Carotid canal foramen Petrous temporal bone 7 Internal carotid artery

Internal carotid nerve plexus
Greater palatine foramen palatine bone 5 greater palatine nerve
Hypoglossal canal superior and anterolateral hypoglossal nerve XII to the occipital condyles 5, 7
Incisive foramen anterior region of palatine e nasopalatine nerve

process of maxilla 5

Inferior orbital fissure btwn maxilla & greater wing maxillary division of trigeminal nerve V2,

of sphenoid bone 2 zygomatic nerve

Infraorbital foramen inferior to the orbit 1 infraorbital nerve
Jugular foramen btwn the petrous portion of sigmoid sinus, Glossopharyngeal IX, temporal & occipital b. posterior Vagus X, to carotid canal 5, 7 Spinal accessory nerve XI

Foramen lacerum btwn petrous portion of the loop of the internal carotid artery -does not go thru

Temporal bone and sphenoid 5
Foramen magnum occipital bone 5, 7 spinal cord, vertebral arteries, spinal accessory nerve roots XI, meninges
Mandibular foramen medial surface of ramus of V3 inferior alveolar nerve ( once it goes thru here)

mandible 10

Mental foramen inferior to first molar on Inf. Alveolar  mental nerve ( once it goes thru here) Lateral side of mandible 2
Nasolacrimal foramenbony canal lacrimal bone 44 nasolacrimal (tear) duct
Cribriform plate or cribriform plate of the ethmoid olfactory nerve I

Olfactory foramina bone 7

Optic canal sphenoid bone 7 optic nerve II
Foramen ovale sphenoid bone 5, 7 mandibular division of trigeminal nerve V3,

Foramen rotundum sphenoid bone 5, 7 maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve V2

Foramen spinosum sphenoid bone 5, 7 middle meningeal vessels ( a and v ),

Stylomastoid foramen btwn styloid and mastoid facial nerve VII

process of temporal bone 5
Superior orbital fissure btwn greater and lesser wings oculomotor III, trochlear IV, ophthalmic division of

of the sphenoid bone 1 trigeminal nerve V1, Abducens VI

Supraorbital notch (foramen) supraorbital arch of frontal b. 1 supraorbital nerve
Zygomaticofacial foramen anterolateral surface of the zygomaticofacial nerve

zygomatic bone 1

Internal acoustic meatus temporal bone 7 Facial VII, Vestibulocochlear VII (does not exit!)


Terms for the day

cytology - the study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell.

Fibrous tissue - a tissue composed of bundles of collagenous white fibers between which are rows of connective tissue cells; the tendons, ligaments

Erythro- - Combining forms meaning red or denoting relationship to redness

Chromo- - Combining form meaning color

Hyper- - Prefix denoting excessive or above the normal;

Hypo- - Prefix denoting deficient or below the normal;

Meta- - a prefix denoting the concept of after, subsequent to, behind, or hindmost; corresponds to L. post-.

Prefix denoting joint, action sharing.

Dia- - Prefix meaning through, throughout, completely

Dys- - Prefix meaning bad or difficult.

Genetic - Relating to 1) genetics; 2) ontogeny.

-coid – like

-osis – denotes primarily any production or increase, physiologic or pathologic, and secondarily an invasion, and increase within the organism, of parasites;

-plasia - Suffix meaning formation.

-stasis - Stagnation of the blood or other fluids.

Words of the day 1-26-99

Petechiae- minute hemorrhagic spots, of pinpoint to pinhead size, in the skin, which are not blanched by pressure.

Pallor , jaundice, rhinorrhea, vesicle, alopecia, hypoxia,

Cicatrix – scar

Hypercapnia – increased arterial CO2

Anodyne – compound less potent than a narcotic, but capable of relieving pain.

Ligaments of the Spine 1/26/99

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