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The 14th Meeting of the APT Wireless Group (AWG-14)



18 – 21 March 2013, Bangkok, Thailand

18 March 2012

Republic of Korea
response to apt questionnaire on Wireless power transmission

Name of the Replying Administration/Organization:

Contact Person (Name, Designation and Email):
Mr. Young-taek KIM (

  1. Applications

  1. What WPT applications do you expect in your country? There may be various types of WPT applications including cellular phones, digital camera, wearable equipment, note PC, tablet, CE appliances, Electric Vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, industrial tools/machines, etc. Please describe your expectations. You may provide specific use cases as well.

In Korea, WPT applications are as follows: a) Smart phones, b) On-Line Electric Vehicles, c) Industrial Robots, d) Wireless Sensor Network, e) Electrical train, f) toys, TV accessory, etc.

  1. Market demand and forecast

  1. Please provide the list of products which are currently on the market and are to be released implementing WPT technologies in your country

In Korea, various technologies and products have been developed since 2007. Main items are such as commercial products, developed prototypes, and so on for wireless power transmission as shown in Table 2-1-1.
Table 2-1-1 WPT commercial products and developed prototypes in Korea






Commercial Products

Smartphone (Tightly-coupled WPT)

Android charge battery cover


Power Transmitter & Receiver (WCP-700)

LG Electronics

Power Transmitter & Receiver (iPhone, Galaxy S2)

LS Cable

Power Transmitter & Receiver (iPhone, Galaxy S2)


Power Transmitter & Receiver (iPhone)


TV Accessory (Loosely-coupled WPT)

Wireless Charger for 3D Glasses


Developed Prototypes

Mobile device (~5W)

Wireless Power Transfer System for Multiple Mobile Devices


Desktop, LED sign board, TV and OLED lighting device (~40 W)

Wireless Power Transfer System in Middle Range


Electric Vehicle (~50 kW)

On-Line Electric Vehicle(BUS)


Regarding commercial products in the Table 2-1-1, tightly-coupled WPT products by Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) specification and Qi certification are released to the market and the loosely-coupled WPT product was developed by Samsung Electronics as well.

Prototypes of WPT system for standing lamp, digital camera, media tablet, MP3 player, PC Monitor, LED sign board, TV, laptops and electric vehicle, electrical train are being developed by KAIST, ETRI, SAMSUNG, LG, LS Cable, SAMSUNG Electro-Mechanics and LG Innotek, etc.

  1. Please provide information or estimates of current and future market size relating to market sectors for WPT devices and systems per application. You may include market size, market trends, prices, commercial timeline, and useful references (e.g. websites, documents).

The products utilizing wireless charging for mobile devices and consumer electronics consist of wireless charging pad and a receiver or a sleeve. Mobile devices and consumer electronics such as smartphones, digital cameras, MP3 Players, media tablets and game controllers can be charged by placing the equipment on the charging pad. The charging pad will be connected with a power source, and depending on the specification up to five smartphones can be charged at a single time. The receiver or the sleeve is used only for smartphones. The sleeve contains a receiver coil that enables the charging of the smartphone. The receiver coils are now being embedded in digital cameras and hence do not require an add-on feature. The model of the sleeves of the smartphones varies with respect to the model of the smartphone it is designed and used for. For example; the sleeve for iPhone 3GS is different from the sleeve of iPhone 4S and sleeve for different other models of Blackberry as well as Samsung smartphones.
Table 2-2-1 Global Wireless Charging Market Revenue, by products, 2010-2017($Million)

Source : MarketsandMarkets

The market for the charging pads as well as the receivers is expected to increase from $671.3 million in 2012 to $6,453.3 million in 2017 at a CAGR of 57% from 2012 to 2017.
Table 2-2-2 Unit Shipments and Revenue for Wireless Charging Pads, Korea,

2010-2017 (Million units, $Million)












Unit Shipments




















The unit shipments for wireless charging pads in the APAC region is expected to increase from 1.15 million units in 2011 to 25.60 in 2017 at an estimated CAGR of 67.08% from 2012 to 2017. The Korean market is expected to have the maximum number of units shipped in 2017 from 0.41 million units in 2011 to 9.5 million units shipped in 2017 at an estimated CAGR of 68.47% from 2012 to 2017. The average price of the pads is 61.3$ from 2010 to 2017.

Table 2-2-3 Unit Shipments and Revenue for Wireless Charging Receivers, Korea,

2010-2017 (Million units, $Million)












Unit Shipments




















The Korean market is eventually gaining momentum and is expected to have the maximum number of units shipped in 2017 from 0.41 million units in 2011 to 9.50 million units shipped in 2017 at an estimated CAGR of 68.50% from 2012 to 2017. The average price of the receivers is 48$ from 2010 to 2017.

  1. Technologies

  1. WPT technology may depend on application. Please describe technical and operational characteristics to implement WPT applications in commercial with respect to each application. These may include transmission technologies, transmission distance, transmission power, and any unique aspects.

There might be various WPT applied devices which include mobile phones, tablets, computer, headsets and associate devices. Following conditions are the fundamental requirements: simultaneously flexible charge multiple devices, deliver power at varying distances from charging surface, charge through surfaces such as desks, countertops and molded plastic parts while minimizing impact on transmitter and receiver design, not be impaired or affected by the presence of foreign objects (keys, coins, pens, magnetic strips) in charging field, tolerate accessories (cases, protective covers, skins, sleeves) on devices, discriminate between loads in the device that do not need charging and those that do, reliably deliver adequate charging power for a given devices (e.g. mobile phones 3.5 - 5W; tablets 6 - 11W; headsets 250 - 500mW), comply with global regulatory requirements

  1. If there are some technologies found by researching in academia and industry, please describe also.

  1. Tightly-coupled WPT (Magnetic Induction Type)

The tightly-coupled WPT system consists of a transmitter coil and a receiver coil. Both coils form a system of magnetically coupled inductors. An alternating current in the transmitter coil generates a magnetic field which induces a current in the receiver coil.
Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) is focusing on tightly–coupled (Inductive) wireless power transmission. WPC released their 1st version of specification based on inductive coupling in July 2010. And recently, they are planning to extend their standardization activities to apply a loosely-coupled technology.

  1. Loosely-coupled WPT (Magnetic Resonance Type)

Loosely-coupled WPT system consists of a power transmitter unit resonator and power receiver unit resonators. Both resonators must have the same resonant frequency and the power is transferred from a transmitter to one or more receivers through coupling wave.
Alliance for Wireless Power (A4WP) is focusing on a loosely-coupled wireless power transmission technology that provides spatial freedom for charging of electrical devices and for multiple devices simultaneously. They released the A4WP technical specification version 1.0 based on resonance technology in January 2013.

  1. Shaped Magnetic Field in Resonance (SMFIR) WPT

SMFIR is the new technology for Online Electric Vehicle (OLEV) which is an electric vehicle using electromagnetic induction. In March 2010, the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) launched out a public transport system using a "recharging road". Electric power strips have been buried 30 cm (12 in) deep under the road surface and connected to the national grid. Pick-up equipment underneath the vehicle then collects power through non-contact magnetic induction which is used either to power the vehicle prime-mover or for battery charging. The demonstration system is a trackless train with an electric tractor hauling three passenger cars.

Gumi, a city in Korea is going to operate the world's first wireless electric bus from July 2013. Electricity is wirelessly fed into the bus from the tracks.

  1. You may provide references of technical reports, websites, or any beneficial sources to share among APT countries.

Some useful websites are as follows: A4WP (, WPC (, KWPF (, TTA Website (
The information of TTA Standards and Reports on WPT are as follows:
양식의 맨 위


Standard number


Issued date



Evaluation Methodology on candidate technologies for Wireless power transfer




Requirements for Wireless power transfer(Technical Report)




Use case for Wireless power transfer(Technical Report)




Service scenario for Wireless power transfer(Technical Report)




Definition on efficiency of wireless power transfer for Mobile devices




Interface definition for highly resonant wireless power transfer




Control protocol of wireless power transfer




Guideline for functional receiver components of wireless power transfer system via coupled magnetic resonances




System Control Sequence of Resonant Wireless Power Transmission




Evaluation Method of Ultrasonic Receiver Efficiency for Wireless Power Transmission


양식의 맨 위

양식의 맨 아래

양식의 맨 아래

  1. Standardization/guidelines/regulations

  1. Does your country participate in international standardization activities of WPT such as IEEE, ITU, ISO, IEC, etc.? If so, please provide WPT activity information of international organizations for standardization/ guidelines/ regulations.

Name of the organization

IEC TC 100

Tech. Item

- Survey for Technical Reports regarding WPT


- IEC TC 100 Stage 0 Project

. Survey Completed: July. 2012

. Under Drafting Technical Reports

Name of the organization


Tech. Item

- In-band PHY and MAC Layer Protocol of WPT



. Working Item was approved in Jan. 2012.

. On Circulation with WD (Working Document)

Name of the organization


Tech. Item

- Recommendation/Report of regulatory and spectrum aspect on WPT


- Question ITU-R 210-3/1

. Question Updated in Nov. 2012.

Name of the organization


Tech. Item

- Non-radiative near- and mid-range magnetic resonant coupling (highly resonant

coupling) (loosely-coupled WPT).


- Baseline Technical Specification completed 2012

Name of the organization


Tech. Item

- Tightly coupled inductive coupling solutions across a range of power levels.

Website lists more than 120 members and 80 certified products including accessories,

chargers and devices


- Interface specifications completed and available

  1. Are there any organizations for WPT standardization/ guidelines/ regulations in your country? It may contain standards development organization, forum activities, or governmental organization.

WPT standardization-related organizations are Korean Agency for Technology and Standards (KATS) , Korea Wireless Power Forum (KWPF) and Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) . The scope of WPT technical standards development includes a broad range of core technologies such as loosely-coupled (Resonant) and tightly-coupled (Inductive) to be applied across a variety of use cases from low-power to high-power applications.
Korea Communications Commission (KCC) and its National Radio Research Agency (RRA) are charged with WPT regulation.

  1. Please provide plans/ timeline and the current development status for standardization/ guidelines/ regulations in your country if available.

Please see the answer for Questions 4).

  1. Please provide the name of the organization, contact point, plan, and status of their works if available.

Name of the Administrations


Contact point

Mr. young-taek KIM (

Plan and/or timeline of standard/guideline/regulation development


Frequency allocation in the band 6.78 MHz for WPT and technical regulation for out-of-band communication on WPT

Status of standard/guideline/regulation development


Frequency allocated in the bands 19-21 kHz and 59-61 kHz for electronic vehicle

Operating in the frequency band 110 - 205 kHz and relevant regulation for in-band communication

Name of the organization

Korean Agency for Technology and Standards (KATS)

Contact point

Plan and/or timeline of standard/guideline/regulation development


- Multi-device charging management of WPT

- In-band Control of WPT

Status of standard/guideline/regulation development


- IEC TC 100 Project PT62827

- Established: 10th Aug. 2012.


. PWI was approved in Jan. 2012.

. Under drafting WD (working document)

Name of the organization

Korea Wireless Power Forum (KWPF)

Contact point

Dr. Won-ho Jang (

Plan and/or timeline of standard/guideline/regulation development


Studies on standardization, spectrum and regulation on WPT

Status of standard/guideline/regulation development


- Researching spectrum related to WPT

- Researching regulation related to WPT

Name of the organization

Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA)

Contact point

Mr. Dae-Jung Kim (

Plan and/or timeline of standard/guideline/regulation development


- Technology development

. WPT based on magnetic resonance

. WPT based on magnetic induction

Status of standard/guideline/regulation development

Completed (See Answer 3-3):

- Use Case & Service Scenario

- Definition of Efficiency

- Evaluation Method

- Technology development

. In-band communication for WPT


. Control for management of WPT


  1. Suitable frequency bands and coexistence with the incumbents

  1. Suitable frequency band for WPT may depend on technology, application, and regulatory aspects. What category of spectrum (e.g., ISM or other specific bands) and/or which frequency band(s) do you consider for WPT usage with respect to each application assumed in your country? Please provide information with reasons.

Status on frequency bands for WPT in Korea

The frequency bands 19 -21 kHz and 59 - 61 kHz for electric vehicle for wireless charging are allocated in 2011. These bands are suitable for high power application for WPT in respect of power efficiency and regulatory aspect such as EMI, EMF, etc.

In terms of mobile & CE applications, the choice of suitable frequency alleviates induction heating effect and any concerns regarding regulatory compliance.
In the case of low power WPT devices using frequency 110 - 205 kHz by tightly-coupled WPT are generally applicable to Extremely Low-power Radio Devices. Most inductive WPT products are currently certificated as Weak Electric Field Strength Radio Equipment which does not require specific frequency allocation for the operation.
The frequency band 6.78 MHz (ISM band) for loosely-coupled WPT is under consideration to be allocated in 2013. Considering the issues, using 6.78MHz as WPT operating frequency can be good candidate. In addition, WPT system designs can be subject to different regulations depending on WPT operating frequency and communication method (in-band/out-of-band in terms of communication frequency channel or unidirectional/bi-directional in terms of power transmission communication channel).

Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band, e.g., 6.78MHz, designated by the ITU-R, are attractive for WPT handling subsystem, because of globally harmonized availability and unrestricted emission, e.g., FCC Part 18.


Frequency use

From a technical point of view, WPT for RF energy transmission is classified into ISM equipment and also the radio equipment to do communication between the devices.

When it comes to regulations, wireless charging part of WPT complies to technical regulation for ISM equipment, but technical regulations for short range devices are applied to communication part of WPT in Korea.
Being used WPT devices for ISM band (6.78 MHz) and Non-ISM band (20 kHz, 110-205 kHz) in Korea, we are considering to make category to ‘WPT equipment’ or ‘ISM equipment for use of non-fixed frequency’ in terms of frequency or use specific.
Designating suitable service and frequency band in preparation for various WPT devices need to be discussed at the international level in the future.

  1. What steps are required to make sure your radio services protected from the usage of WPT? Is there any compliance for EMC/EMI that can be applied for WPT applications?

Please see the answers for Questions 7-1).

  1. RF exposure

  1. Please provide RF exposure guidelines applied in your country. Please provide RF exposure references such as international guidelines publicly available.

KCC enacted EMF regulation with reference to the international guidelines on ICNIRP 98, but this regulation does not prescribe the concerned devices and measurement methods for WPT. For this reason, KCC plans to revise the existing EMF regulation in 2013.

  1. Please provide information on assessment methods/procedures used for human exposure to RF from WPT to demonstrate regulatory compliance.

Currently, there is no assessment methods/procedures used for human exposure to RF from WPT in Korea. KCC is planning to introduce assessment methods/procedures for human safety in 2013.

  1. Regulatory matter

  1. If there are any regulations relating to WPT in your country, please provide detailed information.

In Korea, any radio equipment including WPT devices have to comply with three kinds of radio regulations as defined in the Radio Waves Act: Technical regulation for in-band/out-of band communication frequency, EMC regulation and EMF regulation. Technical regulations are defined technical requirements at the operating frequency such as output power for each type of radio equipment. EMC regulation limits power emission such as harmonics. EMF regulation limits the electric or magnetic field strength with consideration of the influence of RF exposure on human body.
This article presents current situation related with the radio regulation on WPT in Korea. The rest of the article is organized as the following three sections:
Section 1 describes the technical regulation for in-band frequency on WPT in Korea. There are no explicit provisions for the WPT devices in the Radio Waves Act at the moment. But, low power WPT devices for mobile phones are generally applicable to Extremely Low-power Radio Devices or High Power ISM Equipment. Most inductive WPT products are currently certificated as Weak Electric Field Strength Radio Equipment which does not require specific frequency allocation for the operation. The regulation of High Power ISM Equipment is different according to the output power and the operating frequency. Section 2 describes the EMC regulation. Until now CISPR-11 has been applied to WPT, but now KCC is planning to introduce a new EMC regulation which classifies WPT as domestic (or household) devices. Currently, while there is EMF regulation on the mobile phone, there is no explicit provision for WPT. It is now under the consideration by KCC. This will be described in Section 3.
1. Technical regulation for in-band frequency
There are two kinds of regulations applicable in this case as below:
(1) Extremely Low-power Radio Devices

- It is classified as unlicensed radio equipment.

- It is currently applied to certification of inductive WPT products.

- The electric field strength is limited according to the operating frequency, as shown in Table I.

Table I. Electric field strength limit of Weak Electric Field Strength Radio Equipment


Electric field strength (μV/m @3m)

0 – 322MHz

500 (for the frequencies under 15MHz, a value of measurement multiplied by 6π/λ is applied, where λ is the wavelength.)

322MHz – 10GHz


10GHz – 150GHz

3.5ⅹf , where f is the frequency in GHz. (if 3.5ⅹf >500 μV/m, the limit is 500 μV/m)

Over 150GHz


(2) High Power ISM Equipment

- While a device for WPT transmitting over 50W should get permission from KCC/ (RRA) and have to be installed in a specific location, it is unnecessary to get permission for transmitting under 50W. Therefore, mobile devices and audio-video multimedia equipment should not exceed the transmitting power of 50W. Several Korean industry organizations want to have higher transmitting power (e.g. 200 W) for audio-video multimedia equipment.

- The electric field strength of a fundamental wave and a spurious emission is limited to use of ISM bands or to use of ISM equipment as shown in Table II.
Table II. Electric field strength limit of High Power ISM Equipment


Electric field strength


100 μV/m @100m


100 μV/m @30m


Output power ≤ 500 W

100uV/m @30m

Output power > 500 W


100×√(P/500)@30m, where P is the output power in W

- For a device for WPT operating at ISM band, there is no limit output power from fundamental wave in case of use ISM bands.

- Although 6.78 MHz is ISM frequency, it cannot be used at the moment since its usage is not designated yet. KCC is now taking steps to allow WPT to use 6.78 MHz ISM band.

2. EMC regulations
Until now CISPR-11 (Group2, Class B) as shown in Table III has been being applied to WPT, but now KCC is planning to introduce more stringent EMC regulations which classifies WPT as domestic (or household) devices under 30 MHz.
Table III. EMC requirements for WPT

Frequency (MHz)

Electric field strength @10m

Magnetic field strength (quasi-peak)




Average Note2)


0.15 – 30



39 - 3 Note1)

30 - 80.872



80.872 - 81.848



81.848 - 134.786



134.786 - 136.414



136.414 – 230



230 – 1000



Note 1) See Figure 7-1 for details.

Note 2) This average can be applied only to magnetron driven appliances and in case the magnetron driven appliance exceeds the value of quasi-peak at a certain frequency, the magnetron driven appliance can use the average value.


Figure 7-1 Magnetic field strength (quasi-peak) on Korea EMC requirement

EMI regulation under 30 MHz was revised and then the requirements which are applied to domestic (in-door) WPT equipment are separately prescribed as shown the table below. EMI regulation for WPT ISM expects to be revised in Feb. 2013 and be in force from May 2013.
o Radiated disturbance limit of domestic (in-door) WPT devices below 30MHz

- Radiated disturbance limit

Frequency (MHz)

Quasi-peak criteria (dBμV/m)


Distance (m)

0.009 0.45

47 - 20log f


0.45 30


- Limit for WPT harmonics are set to the lower one by comparing two values;

1) the value calculated by adding Radiated disturbance limit shown in the table above to the value displayed in the table below, and 2) the value specified in Radiated disturbance limit for ISM equipment of EMI regulation.






Over 10






Radiated disturbance limit

3. EMF regulation
There is EMF regulation referring to international guideline on ICNIRP 98 in Korea. However, this regulation doesn’t include WPT device for application and suitable measurement method. KCC is planning to introduce revision of EMF regulation including WPT devices in 2013.
Current SAR requirements for mobile phone are as follows:

① SAR for head of the general public: 1.6W/kg @100kHz – 10GHz

② It is expected that the requirement will be subdivided as 0.08W/kg for whole body, 1.6W/kg for head and trunk, 4W/kg for limbs, which is based on IEEE C95.1-1991 standard.

  1. If not, please explain the related rulemaking process or activities being processed for WPT currently or in future.

The activities being processed for WPT currently and in future are as followings:
Technical Regulation for Industrial, Scientific and Medical(ISM)

(Notification of RRA)

Resonant WPT


Electrical Vehicle WPT

(20kHz, 60kHz)

Weak Electric field strength Radio equipment

Short Range Device(SRD)

Electric field strength for ISM

use under frequency 322Mhz

On-gong frequency allocation(2013 year)

Completed frequency allocation(2011 year )

Inductive WPT


Table of Frequency allocation
(Notification of KCC)

Wireless Power Transmission equipment or OO ISM for use of xx frequency

Wireless Power Transmission equipment or ISM(footnote mark)

Technical Regulation


EMC adoption

EMC adoption

On-gong EMC level

(2013 year)


On-going radio equipment and measurement technique for SAR(2013 year)

EMF adoption




  • Currently, ISM equipment over power 50W must be licensed by KCC and electric vehicle power is allowed around 50kW over.

  1. Is there any plan of type approval for WPT products in the future?

Currently, WPT products using over 50 W require for licensing and WPT products using less 50 W require the registration of conformity through weak electric filed strength and EMC test.


  1. Please provide any other WPT information and studies that are beneficial to share among APT countries.



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