At the end of these chapters, students will be able to answer the following: What ideas of representative government and religious toleration did the colonies implement in the New World? How did they evolve?
What immigrants settled in what colonies and why?
What were the social, cultural, and economic similarities and differences among the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies?
Why was slavery introduced into the colonies and how did it influence European and African life in the colonies?
How did slavery and indentured servitude differ?
HMMMMM . . . .in which region would you have chosen to live if you were alive during the 1600’s-1700’s in colonial America? Think about it, write it down and why - then we will 4 corner.
The English had actually attempted to colonize the New World in 1587. Sir Walter Raleigh sponsored a colony on Roanoke Island (part of present day North Carolina). Historians often refer to this as the Lost Colony, because by 1590 the colony had completely disappeared.
In 1607 the English tried again, this time in Jamestown, Virginia. Jamestown was funded by the Virginia Company, a joint stock company – where a group of investors paid the king to allow them the right to settle their colony. Joint stock companies were common ways to fund journeys to the New World, and the area around Jamestown settlement took its name from the joint stock company that funded it, hence the state of Virginia. Jamestown struggled in its early years, and nearly disappeared like the Lost Colony.
The Jamestown colony did eventually succeed due to 2 major factors. First, the leader of the Powhatan Confederacy, an alliance of Indian tribes in the area, decided to help the settlers. Powhatan, a member of the Algonquian tribe and head of the confederacy, led his tribesmen to teach the Jamestown colonists which crops would grow well in the Virginia soil and how best to cultivate these crops. The second factor was the settlers’ decision to plant tobacco. John Rolfe, who married Pocahontas, thought to import the tobacco from the West Indies. Tobacco quickly became their number one export.
Unlike those who flocked to the Chesapeake seeking financial gain, the English settlers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony (MBC) came to America for religious reasons. The Puritans wished to reform, or “purify” the Anglican Church, and then to separate entirely from the Anglican Church. Persecuted by non-Puritans, the Puritans chose to leave England. They first went to Holland, but eventually made their way to America. Because they traveled for religious reason, we call them the Pilgrims.
The Pilgrims raised money for their journey by promising sympathetic merchants that they intended to go to the Chesapeake region where so many others were beginning to thrive. Historians differ on whether this was purposeful or not on the Pilgrims’ part, but the Mayflower veered off course and they landed in present day Massachusetts. Unlike the initial settlers in Jamestown, the Pilgrims were prepared to work hard together to create a successful colony. Before they landed at Plymouth, they had forged an agreement on their boat. This Mayflower Compact established 2 things:
Basic political and legal rules for the colony
The idea that the power to govern generates from the consent of the majority of the people – the ideal that would later serve as the foundation for the Declaration of Independence
In 1630, a larger, more powerful colony was established in Massachusetts by the Puritans. These Puritans differed from the Pilgrims in that they had chosen not to leave the Anglican Church entirely, but to purify it by beginning their own settlement as a model – “a city upon a hill”- as their leader, John Winthrop called it. More than 900 Puritans boarded 11 ships to cross the Atlantic, and many colony laws were determined by church laws. To keep their colony pure, the Puritans allowed only Anglican Church members in good standing to vote and take part in political matters. Additionally, the Bible was used as the basis for many court judgments and policy decisions.
ASSIGNMENTS FOR CHAPTERS 2 AND 3 Vocabulary (57 points): define the following terms: