Australian Quarantine Review Secretariat Australian Quarantine a shared responsibility



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Australian Quarantine: a shared responsibility




Australian Quarantine Review Secretariat


Australian Quarantine

a shared responsibility


M.E. Nairn, P.G. Allen, A.R. Inglis and C. Tanner

Department of Primary Industries and Energy
Canberra 1996

© Commonwealth of Australia 1996

ISBN 0 642 25971 2

This work is copyright. Apart from any use under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Australian Government Publishing Service.

Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Manager, Commonwealth Information Services, Australian Government Publishing Services, GPO Box 84, Canberra, ACT, 2601.

Preferred way to cite this publication:

Nairn, M.E., Allen, P.G., Inglis, A.R. and Tanner, C. (1996) Australian Quarantine: a shared responsibility. Department of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra.

Produced by the Australian Quarantine Review Committee Secretariat



CONTENTS


references 271 10

further reading 277 10

FORWORD 11

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11

RECOMMENDATIONS 14

A FRESH APPROACH 14

AWARENESS AND CONSULATION 14

QUARANTINE AUSTRALIA 15

International obligations and leadership 16

Offshore activities 16

Risk analysis 17

Border activities 19

Monitoring and surveillance 22

Preparedness and response 23

Resources and legislation 24

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 24

GLOSSARY 25

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 26

1. THE REVIEW 26

1.1 ORIGIN OF THE REVIEW 26

1.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE 28

1.3 MEMBERSHIP OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE 28

1.4 CONDUCT OF THE REVIEW 29

1.5 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT 31

1.6 HISTORY of the ADMINISTRATION OF QUARANTINE 31

1.7 PREVIOUS Reviews of Quarantine 31

2. A FRESH APPROACH 32



2.1 AUSTRALIAN QUARANTINE 32

2.2 SCOPE OF QUARANTINE 34

2.2.1 The Public Good Element of Quarantine 34

2.2.2 Imbalance between Plant and Animal Quarantine 35

2.2.3 Public Health 36

2.2.4 The Importance of the Environment 37

2.3 ACHIEVING THE QUARANTINE GOAL 38

2.3.1 Principles 38

2.3.2 The Continuum of Quarantine 38

2.3.3 National Coordination and Consistency 39



2.4 A NATIONAL PARTNERSHIP 40

AWARENESS AND CONSULTATION 41

3.1 QUARANTINE CULTURE 41

3.2 COMMUNITY AWARENESS 41

3.2.1 The Travelling Public 42

3.2.2 Fortress Australia versus Manageable Risk 42

3.2.3 Education 43

3.2.4 Responsibility of Officials 44

3.2.5 Publicity 46

3.2.6 A National Symbol 47

3.3 CONSULTATION 48

3.3.1 Principles of Consultation 48

3.3.2 Industry and Agency Consultative Arrangements 49

3.3.3 State Governments 50

3.3.4 Community Consultation 51

3.3.5 Registered Stakeholders 52

3.3.6 Role of Indigenous Peoples and Remote Local Communities 53

4.1 INTRODUCTION 54

4.2 PRINCIPLES 54

4.3 ORGANISATIONAL OPTIONS 55

4.3.1 Retaining the Current Structure 57

4.3.2 Separation of Export Inspection and Quarantine Import Functions 57

4.3.3 Separation of Policy (Regulation) and Operations (Service) Roles 58

4.3.4 Four-way Split 59

4.3.5 Relocation in another Government Portfolio 59

4.3.6 Statutory Authority 60

4.3.6.1 Types of statutory authorities 60

4.3.6.2 Flexibility of independent statutory authorities 61

4.3.6.3 Advantages of an independent statutory authority 62

4.3.7 The Appropriate Structure — Quarantine Australia 63

4.4 FUNCTIONS AND OPERATIONS OF QUARANTINE AUSTRALIA 64

4.4.1 Scope 64

4.4.1.1 Close relationship of policy and operations functions 64

4.4.1.2 Complementarity of selected import and export functions 64

4.4.1.3 Chief Veterinary Officer and Chief Plant Protection Officer 65

4.4.1.4 Direct policy development 65

4.4.1.5 Other responsibilities 66

4.4.1.6 A single border agency 66

4.4.2 The Board 68

4.4.2.1 Role of the Board 68

4.4.2.2 Composition of the Board 68

4.4.2.3 Qualifications and tenure of the Board 69

4.4.2.4 Position of Director of Animal and Plant Quarantine 70

4.4.3 Management 70

4.4.4 Communication 71

4.4.5 Other Issues 72

4.4.5.1 Quarantine Development Unit 72

4.4.5.2 Total quality management 73

4.4.6 Linkages with External Bodies 73

4.5 TASK FORCE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF QUARANTINE AUSTRALIA 74

5. INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS AND LEADERSHIP 74

5.1 INTRODUCTION 75

5.2 WORLD TRADE 75

5.2.1 International Agreements 75

5.2.1.1 SPS and TBT Agreements 75

5.2.1.2 Animal quarantine 76

5.2.1.3 Plant quarantine 76

5.2.1.4 Market access 76

5.2.1.5 Definitional problems 76

5.2.2 Regional Agreements 78

5.2.3 Trading Partner Agreements 78

5.2.3.1 New Zealand 78

5.2.3.2 South-East Asia 78

5.2.3.3 Other 79



5.3 PUBLIC HEALTH 79

5.4 natural environment 79

5.4.1 CITES 79

5.4.2 Biodiversity 79

5.4.3 Other 80



5.5 NATIONAL IMPACT 80

5.5.1 Industry and Community Concerns 80

5.5.2 Involvement of Stakeholders 81

5.6 INTERNATIONAL LEADERSHIP 82

OFFSHORE ACTIVITIES 85

6.1 PRINCIPLES 85

6.1.1 Managing Quarantine Risks Offshore 85

6.1.2 Offshore Monitoring and Surveillance 85

6.1.3 Overseas Information 86



6.2 INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS 87

6.2.1 Research 87

6.2.1.1 Examples of research on issues of quarantine concern 87

6.2.2 Pest and Disease Control 90

6.2.2.1 Regional activities 90

6.2.2.2 Joint activities with Indonesia and Papua New Guinea 90

6.2.2.3 Indonesia 91

6.2.2.4 Papua New Guinea 91

6.2.3 Pest and Disease Preparedness and Contingency Planning 92

6.2.4 Education and Training 93

6.2.5 Diagnostic Services 93

6.2.5.1 Animal health 93

6.2.5.2 Plant health 94

6.3 COOPERATION WITH OVERSEAS AUTHORITIES 94

6.4 PRECLEARANCE 95

6.5 OFFSHORE QUARANTINE AWARENESS 96

RISK ANALYSIS 97

7.1 INTRODUCTION 97

7.1.1 The Mythical 'No Risk' Quarantine Policy 97

7.1.2 The Terminology of Risk Analysis 98

7.1.3 Applying Risk Analysis in Quarantine 99



7.2 STAKEHOLDER CONCERNS 100

7.2.1 Consultation 100

7.2.2 Priority and Timing 101

7.2.3 Who Undertakes Import Risk Analyses 101

7.2.4 Handling Uncertainty 101

7.2.5 Scope 101

7.2.6 Resources 102

7.2.7 Appeal 102



7.3 PRINCIPLES OF RISK ANALYSIS 102

7.4 IMPORT RISK ANALYSIS 103

7.4.1 Early Consultation and Partnership Approach 104

7.4.1.1 Informing stakeholders and the general public 105

7.4.1.2 Initial advice on import access requests 106

7.4.2 Setting Priorities 106

7.4.3 Determining the Type of Risk Analysis 109

7.4.4 In-House Import Risk Analysis 112

7.4.5 Detailed Risk Analysis 113

7.4.5.1 Risk Analysis Panels 113

7.4.5.2 Timetable, scope and methods 114

7.4.5.3 Risk Analysis Panel Working Parties 115

7.4.6 Determining the Level of Risk 116

7.4.7 Appeal 118

7.4.8 Periodic External Review 118



7.5 METHODS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT 119

7.5.1 Trends in Risk Assessment 119

7.5.2 Qualitative, Semi-quantitative and Quantitative Approaches 120

7.6 FACTORS INCLUDED IN IMPORT RISK ANALYSIS 122

7.6.1 Assessing Pest Status 122

7.6.1.1 Pest animal status 122

7.6.1.2 Weediness 123

7.6.2 Genetically Modified Organisms 124

7.6.3 Biological Control Agents 124



7.7 OTHER APPLICATIONS OF RISK ANALYSIS 126

7.7.1 Evaluation of Border Activities 126

7.7.2 Export Facilitation 126

7.8 KEY CENTRE FOR QUARANTINE RISK ANALYSIS 126

8. BORDER ACTIVITIES 127

8.14.INTRODUCTION 127

8.14.PRINCIPLES OF BORDER QUARANTINE 127

8.3 Elements OF BORDER QUARANTINE 129

8.14.2Identifying High Risk Pathways 129

8.3.2 Relationships with Other Border Agencies 130

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠Australian Customs Service 130

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠Department of Health and Family Services 131

8.3.2.3 Federal Airports Corporation 131

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories 131

8.3.2.5 Australia Post 132

8.14.2Delivery of Quarantine Services 132

8.14.2Performance Indicators for Border Programs 132

8.14.2Quality Assurance 133

8.14.2Quarantine-approved Premises 134

8.3.7 Cost-recovery for Quarantine Programs 134

8.4 IMPORT PROTOCOLS 135

8.14.2Effectiveness of Current Import Protocols 135

8.14.2Fumigation and Treatment of Imported Plant Material 136

8.14.2Seeds 137

8.4.4 Sampling methods 139

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠Grains 139

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠Horticulture 141

8.14.2Foods and Feedstuffs 141

8.14.2Biological products 142

8.4.7 Permits to Import 143



8.5 NEW TECHNOLOGIES 144

8.14.2X-ray Equipment 144

8.5.2 Information Systems 145

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠Electronic information systems 145

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠Internet and the worldwide web 147

8.5.3 Detector Dogs 147

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠Airports 147

8.5.3.2 Seaports 148

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠International mail exchanges and couriers 148

8.6 HEALTH CLEARANCE (PRATIQUE) 149

8.14.2Aircraft 149

8.14.2Vessels 149

8.14.AIRCRAFT DISINSECTION 150

8.14.VECTOR MONITORING 151

8.9 QUARANTINE CLEARANCE AT AIRPORTS AND SEAPORTS 152

8.14.2Airports 152

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠Aircraft passenger non-compliance 152

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠Awareness 153

8.14.2.3....耀￿耀￿֠֠Airport quarantine marshalling 154

8.14.2Vessels 154

8.14.2Wharf and Seaport Surveillance 155

8.14.2Travellers Statement 156



8.10 QUARANTINE CLEARANCE OF CARGO 157

8.14.2Quarantine Security and Transhipment 157

8.10.2 Containers 158

8.14.2Timber and Timber Products 159

8.14.2Dunnage and Packing 160

8.14.2Air Cargo 161

8.14.2Imported Second-hand Farm Machinery 161

8.14.2Sanctions for Non-compliance 162



8.14.INTERNATIONAL MAIL 163

8.12 WASTE DISPOSAL 164

8.14.2Aircraft 164

8.14.2Vessels 165

8.13 QUARANTINE STATIONS 165

8.14.2Animal Quarantine Stations 165

8.14.2Plant Quarantine Stations 168

8.14.2Smuggling and Community Service Obligations 169



8.14 COMPLIANCE AND AUDIT 169

8.14.2Compliance 169

8.14.2Audit 170

9. MONITORING AND SURVEILLANCE 170

9.1 INTRODUCTION 170

9.2 PRINCIPLES 170

9.3 IMPORTANCE OF MONITORING AND SURVEILLANCE 172

9.3.1 International Obligations 172

9.3.2 The Benefits of Monitoring and Surveillance Programs 172

9.4 THE CHALLENGES 173

9.5 DELIVERY 174

9.5.1 Monitoring and Surveillance Programs 174

9.5.1.1 Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy 174

9.5.1.2 Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign 175

9.5.1.3 National Arbovirus Monitoring Program 175

9.5.1.4 Recent national insect pest initiatives 175

9.5.1.5 States and industry 176

9.5.2 National Databases and Information Systems 178

9.5.2.1 National Animal Health Information System 178

9.5.2.2 Pest and Disease Information Database for Plants 178

9.5.2.3 NAQS Significant Findings Database 179

9.5.3 Databases and Information Systems as a Management Tool 179



9.6 IMBALANCE BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS 180

9.6.1 Australian Animal Health Council 181

9.6.2 An Australian Plant Health Council 182

9.6.3 The Chief Veterinary Officer 183

9.6.4 A Chief Plant Protection Officer 184

9.7 RESPONSIBILITIES FOR NATIONAL COORDINATION 185

PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE 186

10.1 INTRODUCTION 186

10.2 PRINCIPLES 188

10.3 NATIONAL COORDINATION 188

10.3.1 Industry Involvement 188

10.3.2 EXANDIS 189

10.3.3 Australian Animal Health Council 189



10.4 EARLY DETECTION 190

10.4.1 Agreed Lists of Pests and Diseases of Concern 190

10.4.2 Reporting Lines 191

10.4.3 Training and Awareness 191

10.4.4 Field Services 192

10.4.5 Diagnostic Capacity 192

10.4.5.1 Animals 192

10.4.5.2 Plants 192

10.4.6 Research Capacity 194

10.4.7 Diagnostic and Research Needs 194



10.5 CONTINGENCY PLANS 195

10.5.1 Livestock 195

10.5.2 Aquatic Animals 197

10.5.3 Plants 198

10.5.4 Humans 200

10.6 INCURSION RESPONSE 200

10.6.1 Mechanism for Decision Making 200

10.6.2 Investigation of Causes of Incursions 201

10.6.3 Managing Outbreaks and Incursions 201

10.6.4 Outbreak Exercises 203

10.6.5 Compensation 203

10.6.6 Funding Mechanism 203

11. RESOURCES AND LEGISLATION 204

11.1 RESOURCES 204

11.1.1 Sources of Funding 205

11.1.1.1 Cost-recovery 205

11.1.1.2 Community Service Obligation funding 205

11.1.1.3 Joint responsibility 207

11.1.2 Estimates of Additional Costs 209

11.1.2.1 Structural change (enabling legislation) 209

11.1.2.2 Implementation of new structure 210

11.1.2.3 Funding for the Board of Quarantine Australia 210

11.1.2.4 Public awareness 210

11.1.2.5 Risk analysis 210

11.1.2.6 New technology 210

11.1.2.7 Detector dog teams 211

11.1.2.8 Plant quarantine and diagnostic facilities 211

11.1.2.9 Additional human resources, databases and electronic systems 211

11.1.2.10 Risk Analysis Panels 212

11.1.2.11 Key Centre for quarantine risk analysis 212

11.1.2.12 Office of the Chief Plant Protection Officer 212

11.1.2.13 Onshore and offshore monitoring and surveillance 212

11.1.2.14 Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy 212

11.1.2.15 Subsidies for plant and avian quarantine facilities 213

11.1.2.16 Staff training 213

11.1.2.17 Total 213

11.1.3 Sponsorship 214



11.2 LEGISLATION 214

11.2.1 Current Powers and Scope of the Existing Act 214

11.2.2 Previous Amendments to Quarantine Legislation 215

11.2.3 Reviewing the Legislation 215

11.2.4 Revisions following this Review 216

11.2.5 Legislative Support 217



APPENDIX B: RECENT INCURSIONS OF QUARANTINE CONCERN 223

1 INTRODUCTION 223

1.1 Terms of Reference 223

1.2 Objectives 225

1.3 Interpretation of Data on Introduction and Establishment 226

1.4 Preliminary Nature of the Reports 227

2 ANIMAL PESTS AND DISEASES 228

2.1 Recent Incursions and Other Detections 228

2.1.1 Recently introduced pests and pathogens 229

2.1.2 Pests and pathogens established but not detected before 1971 229

2.1.3 Agents associated with human disease 230

2.1.4 Pests and pathogens detected in post-entry quarantine 230

2.1.5 Recently recognised endemic pests and pathogens 230

2.1.6 Incompletely defined incidents 230

2.1.7 Summary 230

2.2 Economic Effects 231



3 PATHOGENS OF PLANTS 233

3.1 Pathogens of Crop, Ornamental and Nursery Plants 233

3.2 Forest Pathogens 234

3.3 Cost of Incursions of Plant Pathogens 235



4 PESTS OF PLANTS 236

4.1 Pests and Hosts Considered 236

4.1.1 Crop, Ornamental and Nursery Plants 236

4.1.2 Forest Pests 236

4.2 Number and Rate of Incursions 237

4.3 Cost of Plant Pests 238

4.3.1 General 238

4.3.2 Forest pest costs 239



5 WEEDS 239

5.1 Number and Rate of Incursions 239

5.2 Probable Means of Introduction 240

5.3 Cost of Weed Incursions 241

5.4 Discussion and Conclusions 242

6 CONCLUSIONS 243

1 THE World Trade Organization and its Subsidiary Agreements 244

1.1 The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures 244

The SPS Agreement defines nine principles governing sanitary and phytosanitary measures that may affect international trade: 244

1.2 The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade 247



2 The Office International Des Epizooties 247

3 The International Plant Protection Convention 249

4 The Codex Alimentarius Commission 249

5 The World Health Organization 250

6 The Convention oN Biological Diversity 250

7 The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 252

8 The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 252

9 THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA 252

10 Sources of Further Information 252

1 ANIMALS 253

1.1 The OIE Animal Health Code 253

1.2 Import Risk Analysis 253

1.3 Estimation of Risk 253

1.4 Probability of Agent Entry 254

1.4.1 Country factor 254

1.4.2 Commodity factor 255

1.4.3 Animal import units 256

1.5 Probability Of Exposure in the Importing Country 256

1.6 Risk Management 257

1.7 Evaluation of Veterinary Services 257

1.8 Zoning and Regionalisation 257

1.8.1 Disease-free zone without vaccination 258

1.8.2 Surveillance zone 258

1.8.3 Disease-free zone with vaccination 258

1.8.4 Buffer zone 258

1.8.5 Infected zone 258

2 PLANTS 259

2.1 IPPC Standards for Phytosanitary Measures 259

2.2 Initiating the Pest Risk Analysis Process 259

2.3 Pest Risk Assessment 260

2.4 Geographical and Regulatory Criteria 260

2.5 Economic Importance Criteria 260

2.6 Introduction Potential 261

2.7 Pest Risk Management 262



APPENDIX E: BORDER PROGRAMS 265

1 import clearance 265

2 Live Animal Imports 266

3 Imported Food Inspection 267

4 Fresh Fruit and Vegetables AND Cut Flowers 267

5 Biologicals 267

6 Timber 267

7 Electronic Initiatives 268

8 Air Cargo Clearance 268

9 General Cargo Clearance 268

10 Airports 269

10.1 Aircraft Disinsection 269

10.2 Waste Disposal 270

10.3 Vector Monitoring 270

10.4 Quarantine Preclearance of Military Aircraft, Shipping and Cargo 270

10.5 Pratique (Aircraft) 270

10.6 Travellers Statement 270

10.7 Detector Dogs 270



11 Seaports 271

11.1 Ballast Water 271

11.2 Pratique 271

11.3 Waste Disposal 272

11.4 Animals on Board Vessels 272

11.5 Vector Monitoring 272



12 Mail Exchanges 272

12.1 Screening of International Mail 273

12.2 Private Courier Operations 273

12.3 Detector Dog Program (Mail Exchanges) 273



13 Quarantine Stations 273

13.1 Plant Quarantine Stations 273

13.2 Animal Quarantine Stations 273

14 Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy 274

15 Compliance 274

16 Program Evaluation 275

REFERENCES 275

FURTHER READING 280





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