Final pest risk analysis report for Drosophila suzukii April 2013

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Final pest risk analysis report for

Drosophila suzukii

April 2013

© Commonwealth of Australia

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Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Biosecurity (2013) Final pest risk analysis report for Drosophila suzukii. CC BY 3.0.

Cataloguing data

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Biosecurity (2013) Final pest risk analysis report for Drosophila suzukii, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra.


Final pest risk analysis report for Drosophila suzukii is available at

Inquiries regarding the licence and any use of this document should be sent to:


The Australian Government acting through the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry has exercised due care and skill in the preparation and compilation of the information in this publication. Notwithstanding, the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, its employees and advisers disclaim all liability, including liability for negligence, for any loss, damage, injury, expense or cost incurred by any person as a result of accessing, using or relying upon any of the information in this publication to the maximum extent permitted by law.

Cover images: Adult Drosophila suzukii, female (left) and male (right) (Hauser & Damus 2009)


Acronyms and abbreviations vii

Abbreviation of units vii

Summary 1

1Introduction 3

1.1 Australia’s biosecurity policy framework 3

1.2 This pest risk analysis 3

2Method for pest risk analysis 9

2.1 Stage 1: Initiation 9

2.2 Stage 2: Pest risk assessment 10

2.3 Stage 3: Pest risk management 16

3Pest information 19

3.1 Summary 19

3.2 Drosophila suzukii 19

3.3 Distribution of Drosophila suzukii 20

3.4 Morphology and Biology of Drosophila suzukii 23

4Pathways 35

4.1 Pathway – Fresh Fruit 35

4.2 Pathway – Fresh Flowers 38

5Risk assessments for pathways 39

5.1 Pathway 1 – Fresh fruit 39

5.2 Pathway 2 – Fresh Flowers 53

5.3 Establishment and Spread 55

5.4 Consequences 62

5.5 Unrestricted risk 65

5.6 Risk assessment conclusion 65

URE unrestricted risk estimate. This is expressed on an ascending scale from negligible to extreme 67

6Pest risk management 69

6.1 Pest risk management measures and phytosanitary procedures 69

6.2 Operational systems for the maintenance and verification of phytosanitary status 73

7Conclusion 79

Appendix A: Categorisation of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) 83

Pest 83

Distribution 83

Potential to be present on the pathway 83

Present within Australia 83

Potential for establishment and spread 83

Potential for economic consequences 83

Pest risk assessment required 83


Order DIPTERA 83

Drosophila suzukii Matsumura [Drosophilidae] 83

Asia, North America, Central and South America, Europe (see Table 3.1). 83

Yes. Drosophila suzukii is known to infest a range of fresh fruit before harvest (Kanzawa 1939) and has the potential to be imported on a number of fresh fruit pathways 83

No records found. 83

Yes. Drosophila suzukii has established and spread outside its native range (Hauser et al. 2009). 83

Yes. Drosophila suzukii is known to cause economic damage to a range of commercial fruits (Bolda et al. 2010). 83

Yes 83

Appendix B: Plant taxa associated with spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) 84

Appendix C: Australia’s Biosecurity Policy Framework 103

Glossary 109

References 113


Table 1.1: Import conditions for fresh fruits hosts for Drosophila suzukii 6

Table 1.2: Import conditions for fresh flower hosts for Drosophila suzukii 7

Table 2.1: Nomenclature for qualitative likelihoods 12

Table 2.2: Matrix of rules for combining qualitative likelihoods 13

Table 2.3: Decision rules for determining the consequence impact score based on the magnitude of consequences at four geographic scales 15

Table 2.4: Decision rules for determining the overall consequence rating for each pest 15

Table 2.5: Risk estimation matrix 16

Table 3.1: Distribution of Drosophila suzukii 21

Table 3.2: Oviposition of Drosophila suzukii on grape variety 30

Table 4.1: Fruit host groupings1 considered as pathways for Drosophila suzukii 37

Table 5.1: Summary of pathway risk assessments for Drosophila suzukii 66

Table 6.1: Phytosanitary measures proposed for Drosophila suzukii 69


Figure 3.1: Adult male (left) and female (middle) of Drosophila suzukii. The serrated ovipositor can be seen in close up (right) (Dreves et al. 2009) 23

Figure 3.2: Eggs showing breathing tubes (left), larva (middle), and larva in a cherry, of Drosophila suzukii (BCMAL 2009; WSU 2009; Bolda et al. 2009) 23

Figure 3.3: Pupae of Drosophila suzukii; removed from the fruit (left) and within the fruit (right) (Dreves et al. 2009; BCMAL 2009). Note the distinct breathing structures exposed to the atmosphere. 24

Figure 3.4: Eggs of Drosophila suzukii; removed from the fruit (left) and in blueberry fruit showing the white breathing tubes (right) (Hauser and Damus 2009; OSU 2010a). 29

Figure 3.5: Initial larval damage of Drosophila suzukii showing collapse of fruit around oviposition point (left); larvae can be seen in a severely damaged blueberry (middle); secondary attack by pathogens (right) (Hauser and Damus 2009; OSU 2010a). 29

Acronyms and abbreviations

Acronym or abbreviation



Appropriate level of protection


Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Agricultural Research Service


Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Integrated Pest Management


International Plant Protection Convention


Import Risk Analysis


International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures


National Plant Protection Organisation


Oregon Department of Agriculture


Oregon State University


Pest Risk Analysis


sanitary and phytosanitary


United States of America


United States Department of Agriculture

Abbreviation of units

Term or abbreviation



Degree Celsius

















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